Glarus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Glarus
Glarus -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of Glarus
Canton Glarus
District n.a.
47°02′N 9°04′E / 47.033°N 9.067°E / 47.033; 9.067Coordinates: 47°02′N 9°04′E / 47.033°N 9.067°E / 47.033; 9.067
Population 12,312 (Dec 2012)[1]
- Density 119 /km2 (308 /sq mi)
Area 103.7 km2 (40.0 sq mi)[2]
Elevation 472 m (1,549 ft)
Postal code 8750, 8754, 8755
SFOS number 1632
Surrounded by Glarus Nord, Glarus Süd, Innerthal (SZ), Muotathal (SZ)
Twin towns New Glarus (USA), Kobryn (Belarus), Rožňava (Slovakia), Wiesbaden-Biebrich (Germany)
Website www.gemeinde.glarus.ch
SFSO statistics
Glarus is located in Switzerland
Glarus
Glarus

Glarus (German: [ˈɡlaːrʊs] ( ); French: Glaris; Italian: Glarona; Romansh: Glaruna) is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Glarus municipality since 1 January 2011 incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern.[3]

Glarus lies on the Linth River at the foot of the Glärnisch foothills in the Glarus Alps. Very few buildings built before the fire of 1861 remain. Wood, textile, and plastics, as well as printing, are the dominant industries. The symbol of the city is the neo-romanesque city church.

History[edit]

Church of Glarus, built in 1861 after a fire destroyed the old church and much of the town of Glarus
The aisle of the church

Glarus is first mentioned in the early 9th Century in Latin as Clarona. In 1178 it was first mentioned in German as Glarus.[4]

On 10 February 878, the Emperor Charles the Fat gave his wife Richgard or Richardis the monasteries of Säckingen, of St. Felix and of Regula in Zürich as a royal estate. This land grant included extensive political rights and a large estate. This estate covered land in the Rhine and Frick valleys, the southern Hotzenwald, land in Zürich, along Lake Walen and the valley of Glarus. Glarus remained under the authority of the Abbey until 1395, when the Glarus valley broke away from the Abbey and became independent.[5]

It became the capital of the Linth valley in 1419. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the valley began to be industrialized. Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland served in his first, Roman Catholic, ecclesiastical post in Glarus, starting around 1506. He served there for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, that Zwingli became involved in politics. The Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours: the French, the Habsburgs, and the Papal States. Zwingli placed himself solidly on the side of the Roman See. In return, Pope Julius II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension. He took the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, including the Battle of Novara in 1513. However, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in the Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in Glarus in favour of the French rather than the pope. Zwingli, the papal partisan, found himself in a difficult position and he decided to retreat to Einsiedeln in the canton of Schwyz. While he was not a reformer at Glarus, there he began to develop the ideas that would lead to the break with the Catholic Church in Zürich

In 1528 the Reformation gained a foothold in Glarus, directed by Zwingli in Zürich. Even though he had preached in Glarus for 10 years, the town remained strongly Catholic. However, following the Second war of Kappel in 1531 both the Catholic and Protestant residents were given the right to worship in town. This led to both religious groups using the town church simultaneously, an arrangement that caused numerous problems. By the 18th Century both the groups shared the church but had separate organs. In 1697 there were two financially and theologically independent parishes meeting in the city church.[6]

Following the French invasion in 1798, Glarus became the capital of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic. The administration of the Canton moved into Glarus. However, the new administrators had difficulties in establishing and enforcing any new regulations. In August 1802 the administrators of the new Canton left Glarus for Rapperswil due to the difficulties they had faced in Glarus. In 1803, with the Act of Mediation, the Canton of Linth was dissolved and Glarus became the capital of the smaller Canton of Glarus.[7]

In 1859, the railway reached Glarus from Weesen. The extension to Schwanden and Linthal opened in 1879.[8]

On the 10/11 May 1861, the town was devastated by a fire that was fanned by a violent Föhn or south wind, rushing down from the high mountains through the natural funnel formed by the Linth valley. The total loss is estimated at about half a million sterling, of which about £100,000 were made up by subscriptions that poured in from every side. About two-thirds of Glarus (593 buildings) were destroyed in the big fire. After this incident, Glarus was rebuilt in block fashion according to construction plans by Bernhard Simon and Johann Caspar Wolff.[9]

In 1864, the first European labor law to protect workers was introduced in Glarus, prohibiting workers from working more than 12 hours a day.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Panorama of the City of Glarus

The town is located in the Glarner Mittelland on a broad valley floor between the Glärnisch mountain and the Linth river.

Glarus municipality before 2011 had an area of 69.2 km2 (26.7 sq mi). Of this area, 23% was used for agricultural purposes, while 31.4% was forested; of the rest of the land, 2.7% was settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (42.9%) was non-productive (2006 figures).[10]

With the incorporation of Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern in 2011, Glarus municipality now has an area of 103.6 km2 (40.0 sq mi).

Demographics[edit]

Glarus had a population (as of 31 December 2012) of 12,312, including Ennenda, Netstal and Riedern.[1] As of 2007, 23.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.[11]

Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7.4%. Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (86.0%), with Italian being second most common ( 4.8%) and Albanian being third ( 2.6%).[10]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SPS which received 68.9% of the vote. Most of the rest of the votes went to the SVP with 23% of the vote.[10]

The entire Swiss population is generally well educated. In Glarus about 71.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).[10]

Glarus has an unemployment rate of 2.01%. As of 2005, there were 49 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 17 businesses involved in this sector. 552 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 78 businesses in this sector. 3,232 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 410 businesses in this sector.[10]

The historical population is given in the following table:[4]

year population Swiss Citizens  % German Speaking  % Protestant  % Roman Catholic
1554 ca. 1,550
1682 ca. 1,200
1777 ca. 2,400
1837 4,094
1850 4,082 3,960 86.0% 14.0%
1870 5,485 5,204 77.7% 22.6%
1888 5,357 4,968 98.1% 71.6% 28.0%
1900 4,877 4,424 97.5% 74.2% 25.6%
1910 5,123 4,471 94.8% 70.8% 28.7%
1930 5,269 4,858 97.7% 70.5% 29.2%
1950 5,724 5,376 96.2% 68.0% 31.4%
1970 6,189 5,215 86.9% 60.5% 38.9%
1990 5,728 4,723 86.1% 51.9% 42.4%
2000 5,556 4,379 86.0% 45.4% 37.7%

Transport[edit]

Glarus railway station is on the Ziegelbrücke to Linthal railway line. It is served by the Zürich S-Bahn service S25 between Zürich and Linthal, and by the St. Gallen S-Bahn service S6 between Rapperswil and Schwanden. Both services operate once per hour, combining to provide two trains per hour between Ziegelbrücke and Schwanden. The stations of Ennenda and Netstal are also in the municipality, and served by the same trains.[12][13][14]

Climate[edit]

Between 1961 and 1990 Glarus had an average of 148.2 days of rain per year and on average received 1,416 mm (55.7 in) of precipitation. The wettest month was August during which time Glarus received an average of 177 mm (7.0 in) of precipitation. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 14.7 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was June, with an average of 15.1, but with only 164 mm (6.5 in) of precipitation. The driest month of the year was January with an average of 86 mm (3.4 in) of precipitation over 14.7 days.[15]

Climate data for Glarus (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.1
(39.4)
9.0
(48.2)
13.9
(57)
18.8
(65.8)
21.3
(70.3)
23.4
(74.1)
22.5
(72.5)
18.4
(65.1)
14.0
(57.2)
7.6
(45.7)
3.7
(38.7)
13.3
(55.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
0.4
(32.7)
4.5
(40.1)
8.7
(47.7)
13.2
(55.8)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
17.3
(63.1)
13.8
(56.8)
9.7
(49.5)
4.0
(39.2)
0.6
(33.1)
8.8
(47.8)
Average low °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
0.5
(32.9)
3.8
(38.8)
8.1
(46.6)
11.1
(52)
13.2
(55.8)
13.0
(55.4)
9.8
(49.6)
6.0
(42.8)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.2
(28)
4.8
(40.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 86
(3.39)
85
(3.35)
105
(4.13)
97
(3.82)
130
(5.12)
168
(6.61)
198
(7.8)
191
(7.52)
138
(5.43)
96
(3.78)
108
(4.25)
104
(4.09)
1,507
(59.33)
Snowfall cm (inches) 32.7
(12.87)
29.9
(11.77)
14.4
(5.67)
0.5
(0.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.7
(0.28)
10.9
(4.29)
31.5
(12.4)
120.6
(47.48)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.6 9.4 12.3 11.9 13.8 14.2 14.6 14.6 11.7 9.7 10.9 10.5 144.2
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 5.7 4.9 3.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.8 5.1 21.6
 % humidity 84.9 80.6 76.6 72.8 73.1 75.0 76.0 79.6 81.5 82.6 83.2 86.1 79.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 68 88 124 152 153 171 155 106 86 59 51 1,274
Source: MeteoSwiss [16]

Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit]

Map[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Glarus is twinned with:

External links[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 29 August 2013
  2. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  3. ^ Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (German) accessed 18 February 2011
  4. ^ a b Glarus in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  5. ^ Säckingen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  6. ^ Glarus from the High Middle Ages until the 18th Century-Churches in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  7. ^ Glarus in the 19. and 20. Centuries-Political and administrative development in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  8. ^ "Güterschuppen 8750 Glarus" (in German). Schweizer Heimatschutz.ch. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  9. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Glarus (capital)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 10-Sep-2009
  11. ^ Canton Glarus population growth (German) accessed 9 September 2009
  12. ^ "S-Bahn trains, buses and boats". ZVV. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  13. ^ "S-Bahn St.Gallen Map". S-Bahn. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  14. ^ "Ziegelbrücke–Linthal". Bundesamt für Verkehr. Retrieved 2014-08-08. 
  15. ^ "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009. , the weather station elevation is 516 metres (1,693 feet) above sea level.
  16. ^ "Climate Norm Value Tables". Climate diagrams and normals from Swiss measuring stations. Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Retrieved 23 January 2013.  The weather station elevation is 516 metres (1,693 feet) above sea level.
  17. ^ "Wiesbaden's international city relations". Retrieved 24 December 2012.