Glass bottle

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This article is about the type of container. For the musical group, see Glass Bottle (band).
Various vintage Coca Cola bottles.
Various beer bottles
Pharmaceutical bottle

A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass. Glass bottles can vary in size considerably, but are most commonly found in sizes ranging between about 10ml and 5 litres.

History[edit]

The history of glass can be traced back to at least 1,200 BC where glass coated objects have been found.[1]

Manufacture and reuse[edit]

Millions of glass bottles are created worldwide every day. It is a highly mechanized process, and bottles in use today are no longer hand blown as they were in the past.[citation needed]

A glass bottle is 100% recyclable with many new bottles containing glass which was created over 20 years ago. Less energy is used in recycling a glass bottle than creating the glass from raw materials, helping the environment.[2] In 2012, 96% of the glass bottles sold in Switzerland were recycled.[3]

Glass bottle manufacturing takes place over several stages. To briefly outline the processes from beginning to end: raw material, melting, forming, annealing, physical inspection, machine & laser inspection, secondary physical inspection, quality control, and finally packing.[4]

Glass bottles are sometimes reinforced through lamination. Laminated safety glass is made by coating a glass surface with a layer of plastic. When a standard glass bottle is dropped, the glass breaks and scatters. When a laminated bottle is dropped, the glass still breaks but the layer of plastic remains intact, keeping the glass pieces together.[1]

Once made, bottles may suffer from internal stresses as a result of unequal, or too rapid cooling. An annealing oven, or 'lehr' is used to cool glass containers slowly to prevent stress and make the bottle stronger.[5] When a glass bottle filled with liquid is dropped or subjected to shock, the water hammer effect may cause hydrodynamic stress, breaking the bottle.[6][7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Glass Information". Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  2. ^ "Glass Facts". 
  3. ^ http://www.bafu.admin.ch/dokumentation/medieninformation/00962/index.html?lang=fr&msg-id=50084 (page visited on 4 November 2013).
  4. ^ "Glass Manufacturing". Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  5. ^ "How Glass Bottles are Made". Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  6. ^ Saitoh, S (1999). "Water hammer breakage of a glass container". International glass journal (Faenza Editrice,). ISSN 1123-5063. 
  7. ^ Brandt RC; Tressler RE (1994). Fractography of Glass. Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-44880-7. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]