Kłodzko Land

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Kłodzko Land in modern Poland
Kłodzko Land

Kłodzko Land (Czech: Kladsko; German: Glatzer Land; Polish: ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region (ziemia) in southwestern Poland. Geographically speaking Kłodzko Land consists of the Kłodzko Valley and the surrounding Sudetes mountains. It is named after its capital city, Kłodzko.

Historically, the area may have been part of Great Moravia under King Svatopluk I by the late 9th century, though the extension of his realm is disputed. According to the 1191 Chronica Boëmorum by Cosmas of Prague, the castle of Kłodzko at the road from Prague to Wrocław in 981 was a possession of the Bohemian nobleman Slavník.

During the rivalry between the Přemyslid dukes Boleslaus III and Jaromir in 1003, the Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry invaded Bohemia, but had to pull back the next year, facing the forces of King Henry II of Germany. In turn the Bohemian duke Bretislaus I campaigned the adjacent northern territory of Silesia after Bolesław's death in 1025. An armistice mediated by Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor since 1014, demarcated the spheres of influence, leaving Kłodzko with Bohemia.

When about 1080 the Polish Piast duke Władysław I Herman married Judith Přemyslovna, daughter of Duke Vratislaus II of Bohemia, he received Kłodzko as a Bohemian fief, which upon his death in 1102 was claimed by his son Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland. However as Bolesław became entangled in a fierce inheritance conflict with Duke Svatopluk of Bohemia and his cousin Borivoj II and campaigned in the Bohemian lands several times, he finally had to renounce Kłodzko in favour of Duke Soběslav I of Bohemia in a peace treaty signed in 1137 under pressure from Emperor Lothair III.

Under Bohemian rule Kłodzko, in 1458, became a county. In 1742 it was conquered by Prussia. In 1816 the county was abolished, and the territory was reformed into the Landkreis Glatz of Prussian Silesia, which fell to Poland in 1945. The area today forms the Kłodzko County of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship.

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