14 March 1939|
Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil
|Died||22 August 1981
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Years active||1959 – 1981|
Glauber de Andrade Rocha (March 14, 1939 – August 22, 1981) was an influential Brazilian film director, actor and writer. He is best known for his movie Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (aka Black God, White Devil) from 1964.
During his adolescence, he developed great interest in arts, especially theatre and cinema, and even joined a drama group. He was also very active in politics, a trait that would be strongly influential in his works. A member of the Brazilian radical left, he helped start a political party in the late 1950s that called for an anti-capitalist people's revolution and, among other things, advocated the abolition of money.
By the age of 16 he started freelancing for a local newspaper and debuted as a movie reviewer. Later, he attended Law School for about two years and in 1959, after taking part in some projects as assistant, he finally directed his first short, "Pátio". After gaining some recognition in Bahia for his critical and artistic work, Rocha decided to quit college and pursue a journalistic career, as well as being a film-maker.
He is famous for his film trilogy, made up of Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964) - perhaps his most acclaimed movie, nominated for the Golden Palm - Terra em Transe (1967) and O Dragão da Maldade Contra o Santo Guerreiro (1969), award-winning for Best Director at Cannes. His films were renowned for their strongly-expressed political themes, often combined with mysticism and folklore, but also for their particular style and photography. Rocha is regarded as one of the best Brazilian directors of all time and leader of the Cinema Novo movement, as well as a full-time polemicist. He once said "I am the Cinema Novo", paraphrasing Louis XIV's famous quote. In an interview with Le Monde, Rocha said "My Brazilian films belong to a whole period when my generation was full of wild dreams and hopes. They are full of enthusiasm, faith and militancy and were inspired by my great love of Brazil."
In 1971, during the Brazilian military dictatorial regime, he left the country to a voluntary exile, dwelling in many places, such as Spain, Chile and Portugal. He never completely returned home until his last days, when he was transferred from Lisbon, where he had been receiving medical treatment for a lung infection, to Rio de Janeiro. Rocha resisted in hospital for few days, but ultimately died on August 22, 1981, at the age of 42. He had been married three times and had five children.
- 1959 - Pátio, short, B&W
- 1959 - Cruz na Praça, short, B&W
- 1961 - Barravento, feature film, B&W
- 1964 - Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol, feature film, B&W
- 1965 - Amazonas, Amazonas, documentary, color
- 1966 - Maranhão 66, documentary, B&W
- 1967 - Terra em Transe, feature film, B&W
- 1968 - 1968, short, B&W
- 1969 - O Dragão da Maldade Contra o Santo Guerreiro (aka Antonio das Mortes), feature film, color
- 1970 - Cabeças Cortadas, feature film, color
- 1970 - O Leão de Sete Cabeças, feature film, color
- 1972 - Câncer, feature film, B&W
- 1974 - História do Brasil, documentary, B&W
- 1975 - As Armas e o Povo, documentary, B&W (collaborative work)
- 1975 - Claro, feature film, color
- 1977 - Di (aka Di-Glauber and Di Cavalcanti), short, color
- 1977 - Jorge Amado no Cinema, documentary, color
- 1980 - A Idade da Terra, feature film, color
- "Art is not only talent, but mainly courage"
- "Art is as hard as love"
- "Every artist should be crazy and ambitious"
- "The artist's goal is to outrage"
- "The camera is an object that lies"
- "Cinema Novo is the creative synthesis of Brazilian international popular cinema."
- "Cinema Novo stood with the Brazilian utopia. Whether it is ugly, irregular, dirty, confusing and chaotic, it is, on the other hand, beautiful, shining and revolutionary."
- "The revolutionary truth lies within the minorities"
- "Dreaming is the only right one cannot forbid"
- "The State is stronger than the poet"
- "Stronger than anything is the people's power"
- "This country needs poets"
- "I'm a single peasant from Vitória da Conquista"
- "I'm very famous and pretty poor"
- "You're all misunderstanding my madness!"
- Cinema of Brazil
- List of awards and nominations for Brazilian films
- List of Brazilian films
- List of Brazilians
- Tempo Glauber (Portuguese, Spanish and English)
- Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database
- Glauber Rocha at the Internet Movie Database
- Glauber Rocha theater
- Literary, Artistic and Political: The Films of Glauber Rocha