The area was settled in the early 1700s by the Ridgley and Warfield families forming large tobacco plantations "Bushy Park", "Longwood", "Ellerslie" and others. In 1822 James Matthews opened a post office, giving the area the name "Matthews". The Union Chapel was built in 1833. The Anne Arundel community became part of the newly formed Howard County. Despite southern sympathies, the Civil war ended slave labor on the local farms, slavery was replaced with Jim Crow laws. The Phrenakosmian Hall was opened, renamed to the Howard Institute. On January 13, 1874 the Glenwood postal stop opened. In 1877 Lycurgus Matthews officially named it "Glenwood".