A star chart of the constellation of Scorpius showing the position of Gliese 667
Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||17h 18m 57.16483s|
|Declination||−34° 59′ 23.1416″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||5.91/7.20/10.20|
|Spectral type||K3V + K5V + M1.5V|
|U−B color index||0.83/???/1.17|
|B−V color index||1.03/???/1.57|
|Variable type||A: suspected
C: flare star
|Radial velocity (Rv)||6.5 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: 1129.76 mas/yr
Dec.: −77.02 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||146.29 ± 9.03 mas|
|Distance||22 ± 1 ly
(6.8 ± 0.4 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||7.07/8.02/11.03|
|GJ 667 AB|
|Mass||0.73 / 0.69 M☉|
|Radius||0.76 / 0.70 R☉|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||–0.59 dex|
|GJ 667 C|
|Temperature||3,700 ± 100 K|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||–0.59 ± 0.10 dex|
|Rotation||105 days |
|Companion||Gliese 667 B|
|Period (P)||42.15 yr|
|Semi-major axis (a)||1.81"|
|Longitude of the node (Ω)||313°|
|Periastron epoch (T)||1975.9|
|Argument of periastron (ω)
Gliese 667 (142 G. Scorpii) is a triple-star system in the constellation of Scorpius, all of whose components have masses smaller than the Sun. The system lies at a distance of about 6.8 pc (22.1 ly) from Earth. There is a 12th magnitude star close to the other three, but it is not gravitationally bound to the system. To the naked eye, the system appears to be a single faint star of magnitude 5.89.
The system has a relatively high proper motion, exceeding 1 second of arc per year.
The two brightest components of this system, GJ 667 A and GJ 667 B, are orbiting each other at an average angular separation of 1.81 arcseconds with a high eccentricity of 0.58. At the estimated distance of this system, this is equivalent to a physical separation of about 12.6 AU, or nearly 13 times the separation of the Earth from the Sun. Their eccentric orbit brings the pair as close as about 5 AU to each other, or as distant as 20 AU, corresponding to an eccentricity of 0.6.[note 1] This orbit takes approximately 42.15 years to complete and the orbital plane is inclined at an angle of 128° to the line of sight from the Earth. The third component, GJ 667 C, orbits the GJ 667 AB pair at an angular separation of about 30", which equates to a minimum separation of 230 AU.
Gliese 667 A
The largest component of this system, Gliese 667 A (GJ 667 A), is a K-type main-sequence star of stellar classification K3V. It has about 73% of the mass of the Sun and 76% of the Sun's radius, but is radiating only around 12-13% of the luminosity of the Sun. The concentration of elements other than hydrogen and helium, what astronomers term the star's metallicity, is much lower than in the Sun with a relative abundance of around 26% solar. The apparent visual magnitude of this star is 6.29, which, at the star's estimated distance, gives an absolute magnitude of around 7.07 (assuming negligible extinction from interstellar matter).
Gliese 667 B
Like the primary, the secondary component Gliese 667 B (GJ 667 B) is a K-type main-sequence star, although it has a slightly later stellar classification of K5V. This component has a mass of about 69% of the Sun, or 95% of the primary's mass, and it is radiating about 5% of the Sun's visual luminosity. The secondary's apparent magnitude is 7.24, giving it an absolute magnitude of around 8.02.
Gliese 667 C
Gliese 667 C is the smallest stellar component of this system, with only around 31% of the mass of the Sun and 42% of the Sun's radius. It is a red dwarf with a stellar classification of M1.5. This star is radiating only 1.4% of the Sun's luminosity from its outer atmosphere at a relatively cool effective temperature of 3,700 K. This temperature is what gives it the red-hued glow that is a characteristic of M-type stars. The apparent magnitude of this component is 10.25, giving it an absolute magnitude of about 11.03. It is known to have a planetary system of five planets, with a possible seven.
From the surface of Gliese 667 Cc, the second confirmed planet out that orbits along the middle of the habitable zone, Gliese 667 C would have an angular diameter of 1.24 degrees and would appear to be 2.3 times[note 2] the visual diameter of our Sun, as it appears from the surface of the Earth. Gliese 667 C would have a visual area 5.4 times greater than that of the Sun but would still only occupy 0.003 percent of Gliese 667 Cc's sky sphere or 0.006 percent of the visible sky when directly overhead.
Five extrasolar planets, Gliese 667 Cb (GJ 667 Cb), Gliese 667 Cc (GJ 667 Cc), Gliese 667 Ce (GJ 667 Ce). Gliese 667 Cf (GJ 667 Cf) and Gliese 667 Cd (GJ 667 Cd) have been confirmed orbiting Gliese 667 C by radial velocity measurements of GJ 667, with two unconfirmed signals (Gliese 667 Cg is considered a likely signal while Gliese 667 Ch is more tentative). Preliminary analysis indicates that the planets cannot have more than twice their minimum mass in order for the system's orbits to be stable, allowing orbital inclinations from Earth's viewpoint to be slightly constrained.
Planet Cb was first announced by the European Southern Observatory's HARPS group on 19 October 2009. The announcement was made together with 29 other planets, while Cc was first mentioned by the same group in a pre-print made public on 21 November 2011. Announcement of a refereed journal report came on 2 February 2012 by researchers at the University of Göttingen/Carnegie Institution for Science. In this announcement, GJ 667 Cc was described as one of the best candidates yet found to harbor liquid water, and thus, potentially, support life on its surface. A detailed orbital analysis and refined orbital parameters for Gliese 667 Cc were presented. Based on GJ 667 C's bolometric luminosity, GJ 667 Cc would receive 90% of the light Earth does, however much of that electromagnetic radiation would be in the invisible infrared light part of the spectrum. Based on black body temperature calculation, GJ 667 Cc should absorb more overall electromagnetic radiation, making it warmer (277.4 K) and placing it slightly closer to the "hot" edge of the habitable zone than Earth (254.3 K).
(in order from star)
|b||5.94 - 12 M⊕||0.050 432 ± 0.000 001||7.2006||0.112||>30°||—|
|h (unconfirmed)||≥1.3 - 2.6 M⊕||0.085||~17||—||>30°||—|
|c||≥3.86 - 7.8 M⊕||0.125 07 ± 0.000 06||28.1231||0.001||>30°||—|
|f||≥1.94 - 4 M⊕||0.155 75 ± 0.000 17||39.0819||0.001||>30°||—|
|e||≥2.68 - 5.4 M⊕||0.212 57 ± 0.000 35||62.2657||0.001||>30°||—|
|d||≥5.21 - 10.4 M⊕||0.275 8 ± 0.000 3||92.0926||0.019||>30°||—|
|g||≥4.41 - 8.8 M⊕||0.538 9 ± 0.000 5||251.519||0.107||>30°||—|
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- Chow, Denise (February 2, 2012). "Newfound Alien Planet is Best Candidate Yet to Support Life, Scientists Say". Space.com. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- Based on a calculated eccentricity value of .
- . where is the apparent visual diameter[clarification needed] of the star from the surface of the planet in orbit (GJ667Cc in this case), is the apparent visual diameter of the Sun (sol) from the surface of Earth, is the effective temperature of the Sun (sol), the effective temperature of the star, is the luminosity of the star as a fraction of the sun's luminosity and is the distance of the planet from the star in AU.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gliese 667.|
- "MLO 4". SolStation. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
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