Gliwice

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Gliwice
Left to right: Town Hall, Radio station Gliwice wooden tower, Post Office, General view
Left to right: Town Hall, Radio station Gliwice wooden tower, Post Office, General view
Flag of Gliwice
Flag
Coat of arms of Gliwice
Coat of arms
Gliwice is located in Poland
Gliwice
Gliwice
Coordinates: 50°17′N 18°40′E / 50.283°N 18.667°E / 50.283; 18.667
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo śląskie flag.svg Silesian
County city county
Established 13th century
Town rights 1250
Government
 • Mayor Zygmunt Frankiewicz
Area
 • City 133.88 km2 (51.69 sq mi)
Highest elevation 278 m (912 ft)
Lowest elevation 200 m (700 ft)
Population (2013)
 • City 186,347
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,746,000
 • Metro 4,620,624
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 44-100 to 44-164
Area code(s) +48 32
Car plates SG
Website http://www.gliwice.eu/

Gliwice [ɡlʲiˈvʲit͡sɛ] ( ) (German: Gleiwitz) is a city in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, near Katowice. Gliwice is the west district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union – a metropolis with a population of 2 million. The city is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Kłodnica river (a tributary of the Oder).

Situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999, Gliwice was previously in Katowice Voivodeship. Gliwice is one of the cities of a 2.7 million conurbation known as the Katowice urban area and is within the larger Silesian metropolitan area, which has a population of about 5,294,000 people.[1] The population of the city is 185,196 (March 2014).[2]

History[edit]

Late Middle Ages[edit]

In Slavic languages, the root gliw or gliv suggests terrain characterized by loam or wetland. In South Slavic languages, glive or gljive refers to mushrooms, with gljivice meaning little mushrooms.

Gliwice was first mentioned as a town in 1276 and was ruled during the Middle Ages by the Silesian Piast dukes.[3] During the reign of Mieszko I Tanglefoot, the town was part of a duchy centered on Opole-Racibórz, and became a separate duchy in 1289.[3] According to 14th-century writers, the town seemed defensive in character and was ruled by Siemowit of Bytom.[3] The town became a possession of the Bohemia crown in 1335, passing with that crown to the Austrian Habsburgs as Gleiwitz in 1526.

Early Modern Age[edit]

Because of the vast expenses incurred by the Habsburg Monarchy during their 16th century wars against the Ottoman Empire, Gleiwitz was leased to Friedrich Zettritz for the meager amount of 14,000 thalers. Although the original lease was for a duration of 18 years, it was renewed in 1580 for 10 years and in 1589 for an additional 18 years.

During the mid 18th century Silesian Wars, Gleiwitz was taken from the Habsburg Monarchy by the Kingdom of Prussia along with the majority of Silesia. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Gleiwitz was administered in the Prussian district of Tost-Gleiwitz within the Province of Silesia in 1816. The city was incorporated with Prussia into the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. In 1897 Gleiwitz became its own Stadtkreis, or urban district.

Industrialization[edit]

The first coke-fired blast furnace on the European continent was constructed in Gleiwitz in 1796 under the direction of John Baildon. Gleiwitz began to develop into a major city through industrialization during the 19th century. The town's ironworks fostered the growth of other industrial fields in the area. The city's population in 1875 was 14,156. However, during the late 19th century Gleiwitz had: 14 distilleries, 2 breweries, 5 mills, 7 brick factories, 3 sawmills, a shingle factory, 8 chalk factories and 2 glassworks.

Other features of the 19th century industrialized Gleiwitz were a gasworks, a furnace factory, a beer bottling company, and a plant for asphalt and paste. Economically, Gleiwitz opened several banks, Savings and loan associations, and bond centers. Its tram system was completed in 1892, while its theater was opened in 1899; until World War II, Gleiwitz' theatre featured actors from through Europe and was one of the most famous theatres of entire Germany.

20th century[edit]

Main street – Zwycięstwa
Gliwice – Wszystkich Świętych Church.

According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Gleiwitz's population in 1905 was 61,324. By 1911 it had two Protestant and four Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue, a mining school, a convent, a hospital, two orphanages, and a barracks. Gleiwitz was the center of the mining industry of Upper Silesia. It possessed a royal foundry, with which were connected machine factories and boilerworks. Other industrialized areas of the city had other foundries, meal mills, and factories producing wire, gas pipes, cement, and paper.[citation needed]

After the end of World War I, clashes between Poles and Germans occurred during the Silesian Uprisings. Ethnically Polish inhabitants of Upper Silesia wanted to incorporate the city into the Second Polish Republic. The differences between Germans and Poles led to the First & Second Silesian Uprisings, and German resistance against them. Seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict, the League of Nations held a plebiscite on 20 March 1921 to determine which country the city should belong to. In Gleiwitz, 32,029 votes (78.7% of given votes) were for remaining in Germany, Poland received 8,558 (21.0%) votes, and 113 (0.3%) votes were declared invalid. The total voter turnout was listed as 97.0%. This prompted the Third Silesian Uprising, which then forced the League to arbitrate. It determined that three Silesian towns: Gleiwitz, Hindenburg and Beuthen would remain in Germany, and the eastern part of Upper Silesia with its main town of Katowice (Kattowitz) would join restored Poland.

GLEIWITZ after the plebiscite, under International Commission ruling, August 1921

An attack on a radio station in Gleiwitz on 31 August 1939, staged by the German secret police, served as a pretext, devised by Reinhard Heydrich under orders from Hitler, for Nazi Germany to invade Poland, which marked the start of the Second World War. From July 1944 to January 1945, Gliwice was the location for one of the many sub-camps of the Auschwitz concentration camp.[4]

On 24 January 1945, Gleiwitz was occupied by Red Army The city was placed under Polish administration according to the 1945 Potsdam Conference and thus part of the Silesian-Dabrowa Voivodeship. Most of the German population was forcibly expelled as stated by the Potsdam Conference and replaced with Poles expelled from eastern previously Polish lands annexed post war to the Soviet Union. It was renamed in 18 March 1945 as Gliwice and was incorporated in Silesian Voivodeship.[citation needed]

Higher education and science[edit]

Gliwice is a major applied science hub for the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union. Gliwice is a seat of:

Water transport[edit]

In Gliwice operates Gliwice Canal (pl:Kanal Gliwicki) which links Gliwice Harbour to the Oder River and thus to the waterway network across much of Germany and to the Baltic Sea.

Kłodnica Canal (pl: Kanal Klodnicki) is no longer used to transport goods, but it is popular with leisure cruisers.

Sports[edit]

Politics[edit]

Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency[edit]

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency

  • Brzeziński Jacek, PO
  • Chłopek Aleksander, PiS
  • Gałażewski Andrzej, PO
  • Głogowski Tomasz, PO
  • Kaźmierczak Jan, PO
  • Martyniuk Wacław, LiD
  • Religa Zbigniew, PiS
  • Sekuła Mirosław, PO
  • Szarama Wojciech, PiS
  • Szumilas Krystyna, PO

Municipal politics[edit]

President of city (Mayor) – Zygmunt Frankiewicz

Buildings[edit]

Castle in Gliwice.
  • The Gliwice Radio Tower of Radiostacja Gliwicka ("Radio Station Gliwice") in Szobiszowice is the only remaining radio tower of wood construction in the world, and with a height of 118 meters, is perhaps the tallest remaining construction made out of wood in the world.
  • Gliwice Trynek narrow-gauge station is a protected monument. The narrow-gauge line to Racibórz via Rudy closed in 1991 although a short section still remains as a museum line.
  • Castle in Gliwice dates back to the Middle Ages and hosts a museum.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

Gliwice is twinned with the following cities:

Famous people[edit]

Gliwice
Poczta Polska Gliwice

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Max Lamla: Merkwürdiges aus meinem Leben (1917–1999), Saarbrücken 2006, ISBN 3-00-018964-5
  • Boleslaw Domanski (2000) "The Impact of Spatial and Social Qualities on the Reproduction of Local Economic Success: The Case of the Path Dependent Development of Gliwice", in: Prace Geograficne, zesyt 106, Cracow, pp 35–54.
  • B. Nietsche, Geschichte der Stadt Gleiwitz (1886)
  • Seidel, Die königliche Eisengiesserei zu Gleiwitz (Berlin, 1896)

References[edit]

Coordinates: 50°17′N 18°40′E / 50.283°N 18.667°E / 50.283; 18.667