Global Convection Currents
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In meteorology, convectional currents are a form of low to high speed winds and one of the many forms of convection on Earth. These winds can be anything from a few knots to about 100 knots. They are natural convection currents and are caused by a difference in pressure and heat in the tropical and polar areas on the earth. Lycurgus and his assistant (unidentified), of the Greek empire were the first to discover convection currents by mapping out different points on a graph of certain coordinates by which the currents had upmost strength (appx. 3rd century BC). Another form of this convection cycle, or prostegnisis (scientific name for convection currents), was later discovered by Arthur Holmes with patterns.
Convection is the internal movement of currents within fluids (i.e. liquids and gases). It cannot occur inside solids because the particles are unable to flow freely. The most common cause of internal movement is a variation in density due to a major transfer of heat. Other sources of density variations, such as variable composition (for example salinity), or application of an external motive force can also cause currents. Current movement may be invisibly slow, or it may be as fast as a hurricane or typhoon. Convection occurs in atmospheres, oceans and planetary mantles. Convection currents will keep moving as long as there is heat.
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