Global Earth Observation System of Systems
The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is being built by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan running from 2005 to 2015. GEOSS seeks to connect the producers of environmental data and decision-support tools with the end users of these products, with the aim of enhancing the relevance of Earth observations to global issues. The result is to be a global public infrastructure that generates comprehensive, near-real-time environmental data, information and analyses for a wide range of users. The Secretariat Director of Geoss is José Achache.
Earth observation systems 
Earth observation systems consist of instruments and models designed to measure, monitor and predict the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the Earth system. Buoys floating in the oceans monitor temperature and salinity; meteorological stations and balloons record air quality and rainwater trends; sonar and radar systems estimate fish and bird populations; seismic and Global Positioning System (GPS) stations record movements in the Earth’s crust and interior; some 60-plus high-tech environmental satellites scan the planet from space; powerful computerized models generate simulations and forecasts; and early warning systems issue alerts to vulnerable populations.
These various systems have typically operated in isolation from one another. In recent years, however, sophisticated new technologies for gathering vast quantities of near-real-time and high-resolution Earth observation data have become operational. At the same time, improved forecasting models and decision-support tools are increasingly allowing decision makers and other users of Earth observations to fully exploit this widening stream of information.
With investments in Earth observations now reaching a critical mass, it has become possible to link diverse observing systems together to paint a full picture of the Earth’s condition. Because the costs and logistics of expanding Earth observations are daunting for any single nation, linking systems together through international cooperation also offers cost savings.
As a networked system, GEOSS is owned by all of the GEO Members and Participating Organizations. Partners maintain full control of the components and activities that they contribute to the system of systems. Implementation is being pursued through a Work Plan consisting of over 70 tasks. Each task supports one of the nine societal-benefit or four transverse areas and is carried out by interested Members and Participating Organizations. Governments and organizations have also advanced GEOSS by contributing a variety of “Early Achievements”; these “First 100 Steps to GEOSS” were presented to the 2007 Cape Town Ministerial Summit.
Interlinking observation systems requires common standards for architecture and data sharing. The architecture of an Earth observation system refers to the way in which its components are designed so that they function as a whole. Each GEOSS component must be included in the GEOSS registry and configured so that it can communicate with the other participating systems. In addition, each contributor to GEOSS must subscribe to the GEO data-sharing principles, which aim to ensure the full and open exchange of data, metadata and products. These issues are fundamental to the successful operation of GEOSS.
GEOSS will disseminate information and analyses directly to users. GEO is developing the GEOPortal as a single Internet gateway to the data produced by GEOSS. The purpose of GEOPortal is to make it easier to integrate diverse data sets, identify relevant data and portals of contributing systems, and access models and other decision-support tools. For users without good access to high-speed internet, GEO has established GEONETCast, a system of four communications satellites that transmit data to low-cost receiving stations maintained by the users.
At present, GEONETCast seems still in its infancy, yet some tools have already been worked out. The GEONETCast toolbox has been made available and contains tools to access some radar altimetry, vegetation, satellite prediction and maritime information. Other useful information available trough GEONETCast is vegetation and desert locust information provided under the DevCoCast project, which is a subproject of GEONETCast.
User groups 
The growing demand for Earth observation data and information is the driving force behind GEOSS. The GEOSS Implementation Plan identifies nine distinct groups of users and uses, which it calls “Societal Benefit Areas”. The nine areas are disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture and biodiversity. Current and potential users include decision makers in the public and private sectors, resource managers, planners, emergency responders and scientists.
Related initiatives 
GEOSS can be characterized as a contribution towards the establishment of a spatial data infrastructure. It is one of three related initiatives that are the subject of the GIGAS (GEOSS, INSPIRE and GMES an Action in Support) harmonization project under the auspices of the EU 7th Framework Programme.
GEO members (75) 
GEO participating organizations (51) 
- US Environmental Protection Agency
- Group on Earth Observations — The GEO Secretariat Director
- European Commission
- Directions Magazine
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
- GEOSS Registries
- Associated Press
- Information available trough GEONETCast
- Useful data from DevCoCast project
- ENDELEO, a useful vegetation map allowing comparison of vegetation over time, part of "Kenyan Forests" DevCoCast project
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility
- GEO Energy Community of Practice
- The Christian Science Monitor
- The GIGAS Forum
- Group on Earth Observations
- List of web sites of GEO Participating Organizations
- GEOSS Best Practices Wiki, Entries by the GMES Network of Users
- Canadian Group on Earth Observations
- German GEO
- Austrian GEO
- European Commission
- Europe GMES
- The Netherlands and GEO
- US GEO
- US NOAA
- US EPA
- The GIGAS Forum
- South African Environmental Observation Network