Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a global study conducted by a consortium of universities. Started in 1999, it aims to analyze the level of entrepreneurship occurring in a wide basket of countries (there were 70 in 2013's Report).
It measures entrepreneurship through both surveys and interviews to field experts, conducted by the teams of each country. This report has achieved a significant role in the scientific research about Entrepreneurship, for it is a wide and diachronic source of data.
The main indicator used is called TEA (Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity), which assess the percent of working age population both about to start an entrepreneurial activity, and that have started one from a maximum of 3 years and half.
A later part regards the link between cultural bounds and entrepreneurship.
The data used for the GEM is collecting from two large surveys, the Adult Population Survey (APS) and the National Expert Survey (NES). The APS surveys at least 2000 adults in each country covered by the GEM and covers the entrepreneurial aspirations of the country's population. The NES surveys a group of business and academic experts in each country with a broad range of specialties for concrete measures of country's institutional factors.
The GEM data is used to produce a larger model connecting a series of Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFC) to the TEA, entrepreneurial aspirations, technical progress, GDP growth, and other macro economics variables. The EFCs reflect institutional factors with theoretic connections to entrepreneurship and are produced using data from the NES.
The original GEM model was revised to reflect stages of development to generalize the model's explanation to all countries. The methodology in doing so was based on a paper by Michael E. Porter, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and John W. MacArthur to reflect the differences in needed institutions at different points in a country's economic development.
- #3.1.2 of Wong, Ho, Autio: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data, in Small Business Economics 2005, 24