War on Terror

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Global War on Terrorism)
Jump to: navigation, search
War on Terror
Clockwise from top left: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; American infantry in Afghanistan; an American soldier and Afghan interpreter in Zabul Province, Afghanistan; explosion of an Iraqi car bomb in Baghdad
Clockwise from top left: Aftermath of the 11 September attacks; American infantry in Afghanistan; an American soldier and Afghan interpreter in Zabul Province, Afghanistan; explosion of an Iraqi car bomb in Baghdad
Date 7 October 2001 – present
(12 years, 6 months, 1 week and 5 days)[note 1]
Location Global (esp. Middle East, parts of Asia and Africa, Europe and North America)
Status War in Afghanistan (2001–present):

Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen

  • Ongoing insurgency
  • Drone strikes being conducted by CIA

Iraq War (2003–2011):

War in North-West Pakistan (2004–present):

  • Ongoing insurgency
  • Large part of FATA under Taliban control
  • Shifting public support for the Pakistani government
  • Drone strikes being conducted by CIA

Other:

Belligerents
NATO participants:

 NATO

Non-NATO participants:


International missions *:

(* note: most contributing nations are included in the international operations)

Main targets:
Commanders and leaders
Gen. Tommy Franks (CENTCOM commander 2001–2003)
Gen. John Abizaid (CENTCOM commander 2003–2007)
Adm. William J. Fallon (CENTCOM commander 2007–2008)
Gen. David Petraeus (CENTCOM commander 2008–2010, ISAF commander 2010–2011)
Gen. James Mattis (CENTCOM commander 2010–present)
Gen. Dan K. McNeill (ISAF commander 2007–2008)
Gen. David D. McKiernan (ISAF commander 2008–2009)
Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal (ISAF commander 2009–2010)
Gen. John R. Allen (ISAF commander 2011–present)
Gen. Pervez Musharraf[note 2]
Lt Gen. Ahmad Shuja Pasha (former DG ISI)
Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (current army chief)
Lt Gen. Zaheerul Islam (DG ISI)
Mohammed Omar
Baitullah Mehsud 
Mullah Dadullah 
Osama bin Laden 
Ayman al-Zawahiri
Hakimullah Mehsud 
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 
Abu Ayyub al-Masri 
Anwar al-Awlaki 
Moktar Ali Zubeyr
Nasir al-Wuhayshi
Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is a term which has been applied to an international military campaign that started after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This resulted in an international military campaign to eliminate al-Qaeda and other militant organizations. The United States and many other NATO and non-NATO nations such as Pakistan participate in the conflict.[1]

The phrase "War on Terror" was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush on 20 September 2001. The Bush administration and the western media have since used the term to argue a global military, political, lawful, and conceptual struggle against both organizations designated as terrorist in nature and regimes accused of supporting them. It was originally used with a particular focus on Muslim countries associated with Islamic terrorism organizations, like al-Qaeda or like-minded organizations.

Although the term is no longer officially used by the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama (which prefers the term Overseas Contingency Operation), it is still commonly used by politicians, in the media and in some official governmental aspects, as evident in the U.S. military's Global War on Terrorism Service Medal.

Etymology[edit]

Letter from Barack Obama indicating appropriation of Congressional funds for "Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terrorism"

The phrase "War on Terror" has been used to specifically refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the US, UK and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, and excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India. The conflict has also been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has also been known as:

History of the name[edit]

In 1984, the Reagan Administration used the term "war against terrorism" as part of an effort to pass legislation that was designed to freeze assets of terrorist groups and marshal the forces of government against them. Author Shane Harris asserts this was a reaction to the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.[18]

The concept of America at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on [America]."[19]

On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, President George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an unscripted and controversial comment when he said, "This crusade – this war on terrorism – is going to take a while, ... "[20] Bush later apologized for this remark due to the negative connotations the term crusade has to people, e.g. of Muslim faith. The word crusade was not used again.[21] On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of congress, Bush stated that, "(o)ur 'war on terror' begins with al-Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated."[22] Bush did not say when he expected this would be achieved.

In April 2007 the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful.[23] This was explained more recently by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war." "So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."[24]

US President Barack Obama has rarely used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred."[25] In March 2009 the Defense Department officially changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation" (OCO).[26] In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid use of the term, instead using "Overseas Contingency Operation".[26] Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place.[27][28] In December 2012, Jeh Johnson, the General Counsel of the Department of Defense, stated that the military fight will be replaced by a law enforcement operation when speaking at Oxford University,[29] predicting that al Qaeda will be so weakened to be ineffective, and has been "effectively destroyed", and thus the conflict will not be an armed conflict under international law.[30] In May 2013, Obama stated that the goal is "to dismantle specific networks of violent extremists that threaten America,";[31] this coincides with the United States Office of Management and Budget changing the wording from "Overseas Contingency Operations" to "Countering Violent Extremism" (CVE).[32]

The rhetorical war on terror[edit]

Because the actions involved in the "war on terrorism" are diffuse, and the criteria for inclusion are unclear, political theorist Richard Jackson has argued that "the 'war on terrorism' therefore, is simultaneously a set of actual practices—wars, covert operations, agencies, and institutions—and an accompanying series of assumptions, beliefs, justifications, and narratives—it is an entire language or discourse."[33] Jackson cites among many examples a statement by John Ashcroft that "the attacks of September 11 drew a bright line of demarcation between the civil and the savage".[34] Administration officials also described "terrorists" as hateful, treacherous, barbarous, mad, twisted, perverted, without faith, parasitical, inhuman, and, most commonly, evil.[35] Americans, in contrast, were described as brave, loving, generous, strong, resourceful, heroic, and respectful of human rights.[36]

Both the term and the policies it denotes have been a source of ongoing controversy, as critics argue it has been used to justify unilateral preventive war, human rights abuses and other violations of international law.[37][38]

Precursor to the 9/11 attacks[edit]

The origins of al-Qaeda as a network inspiring terrorism around the world and training operatives can be traced to the Soviet war in Afghanistan (December 1979 – February 1989). The United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China supported the Islamist mujahadeen guerillas against the military forces of the Soviet Union and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.[39] In May 1996 the group World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders (WIFJAJC), sponsored by Osama bin Laden and later reformed as al-Qaeda, started forming a large base of operations in Afghanistan, where the Islamist extremist regime of the Taliban had seized power that same year.[40] In February 1998, Osama bin Laden signed a fatwā, as the head of al-Qaeda, declaring war on the West and Israel,[41][42] later in May of that same year al-Qaeda released a video declaring war on the US and the West.[43][44]

Following the bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania,[45] US President Bill Clinton launched Operation Infinite Reach, a bombing campaign in Sudan and Afghanistan against targets the US asserted were associated with WIFJAJC,[46][47] although others have questioned whether a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan was used as a chemical warfare plant. The plant produced much of the region's antimalarial drugs[48] and around 50% of Sudan's pharmaceutical needs.[49] The strikes failed to kill any leaders of WIFJAJC or the Taliban.[48]

Next came the 2000 millennium attack plots, which included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles International Airport. In October 2000 the USS Cole bombing occurred, followed in 2001 by the 11 September 2001 attacks.[50]

U.S. objectives[edit]

  NATO
  Major military operations (AfghanistanPakistanIraqSomaliaYemen)
  Other allies involved in major operations
Circle Burgundy Solid.svg Major terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda and affiliated groups: 1. 1998 United States embassy bombings • 2. 11 September attacks 2001 • 3. Bali bombings 2002• 4. Madrid bombings 2004 • 5. London bombings 2005 • 6. Mumbai attacks 2008

The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists or "AUMF" was made law on September 14, 2001, to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001. It authorized the President to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons. Congress declares this is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution of 1973.

The George W. Bush administration defined the following objectives in the War on Terror:[51]

  1. Defeat terrorists such as Osama bin Laden, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and demolish their organizations
  2. Identify, locate and demolish terrorists along with their organizations
  3. Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists
    1. End the state sponsorship of terrorism
    2. Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with regard to combating terrorism
    3. Strengthen and sustain the international effort to combat terrorism
    4. Work with willing and able states
    5. Enable weak states
    6. Persuade reluctant states
    7. Compel unwilling states
    8. Interdict and disorder material support for terrorists
    9. Abolish terrorist sanctuaries and havens
  4. Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit
    1. Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism
    2. Win the war of ideals
  5. Defend US citizens and interests at home and abroad
    1. Integrate the National Strategy for Homeland Security
    2. Attain domain awareness
    3. Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical, physical, and information-based infrastructures at home and abroad
    4. Implement measures to protect US citizens abroad
    5. Ensure an integrated incident management capability

U.S. and NATO-led military operations[edit]

US Army soldier of the 10th Mountain Division in Nuristan Province, June 2007

Operation Active Endeavour[edit]

Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of NATO started in October 2001 in response to the September 11 attacks. It operates in the Mediterranean and is designed to prevent the movement of militants or weapons of mass destruction and to enhance the security of shipping in general.[52] The operation has also assisted Greece with its prevention of illegal immigration.

Operation Enduring Freedom[edit]

Campaign streamer awarded to units who have participated in Operation Enduring Freedom.

Operation Enduring Freedom is the official name used by the Bush administration for the War in Afghanistan, together with three smaller military actions, under the umbrella of the Global War on Terror. These global operations are intended to seek out and destroy any al-Qaeda fighters or affiliates.

Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan[edit]

Campaign streamer awarded to units who have participated in OEF-A.
US Army Chinook helicopter in Afghanistan
Soldiers beside a mud wall
US Marines return fire on enemy forces in Marjeh, February 2010

On 20 September 2001, in the wake of the 11 September attacks, George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban government of Afghanistan to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country or face attack.[22] The Taliban demanded evidence of bin Laden's link to the 11 September attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court.[53] The US refused to provide any evidence.

Subsequently, in October 2001, US forces (with UK and coalition allies) invaded Afghanistan to oust the Taliban regime. On 7 October 2001, the official invasion began with British and US forces conducting airstrike campaigns over enemy targets. Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, fell by mid-November. The remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants fell back to the rugged mountains of eastern Afghanistan, mainly Tora Bora. In December, Coalition forces (the US and its allies) fought within that region. It is believed that Osama bin Laden escaped into Pakistan during the battle.[54][55]

In March 2002, the US and other NATO and non-NATO forces launched Operation Anaconda with the goal of destroying any remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the Shah-i-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains of Afghanistan. The Taliban suffered heavy casualties and evacuated the region.[56]

The Taliban regrouped in western Pakistan and began to unleash an insurgent-style offensive against Coalition forces in late 2002.[57] Throughout southern and eastern Afghanistan, firefights broke out between the surging Taliban and Coalition forces. Coalition forces responded with a series of military offensives and an increase in the amount of troops in Afghanistan. In February 2010, Coalition forces launched Operation Moshtarak in southern Afghanistan along with other military offensives in the hopes that they would destroy the Taliban insurgency once and for all.[58] Peace talks are also underway between Taliban affiliated fighters and Coalition forces. The United States and other NATO and non-NATO forces are planning to withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of 2014.

Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines[edit]

US Special Forces soldier and infantrymen of the Philippine Army

In January 2002, the United States Special Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the Philippines to advise and assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in combating Filipino Islamist groups.[59] The operations were mainly focused on removing the Abu Sayyaf group and Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) from their stronghold on the island of Basilan.[60] The second portion of the operation was conducted as a humanitarian program called "Operation Smiles." The goal of the program was to provide medical care and services to the region of Basilan as part of a "Hearts and Minds" program.[61][62]

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa[edit]

The Fall of Mogadishu in December 2006 and the withdrawal of the ICU

This extension of Operation Enduring Freedom was titled OEF-HOA. Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect militant activities in the region and to work with willing governments to prevent the reemergence of militant cells and activities.[63]

In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier.[64] It contains approximately 2,000 personnel including US military and special operations forces (SOF) and coalition force members, Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150).

Task Force 150 consists of ships from a shifting group of nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and affecting the US' Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Included in the operation is the training of selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics and providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained.

The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the armed forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania and Mali. However, the War on Terror does not include Sudan, where over 400,000 have died in an ongoing civil war.

On 1 July 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western governments that the al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there.[65]

Somalia has been considered a "failed state" because its official central government was weak, dominated by warlords and unable to exert effective control over the country. Beginning in mid-2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist faction campaigning on a restoration of "law and order" through Sharia law, had rapidly taken control of much of southern Somalia.

On 14 December 2006, the US Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer claimed al-Qaeda cell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, a claim denied by the ICU.[66]

By late 2006, the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia had seen its power effectively limited to Baidoa, while the Islamic Courts Union controlled the majority of southern Somalia, including the capital of Mogadishu. On 20 December 2006, the Islamic Courts Union launched an offensive on the government stronghold of Baidoa, and saw early gains before Ethiopia intervened in favor of the government.

By 26 December, the Islamic Courts Union retreated towards Mogadishu, before again retreating as TFG/Ethiopian troops neared, leaving them to take Mogadishu with no resistance. The ICU then fled to Kismayo, where they fought Ethiopian/TFG forces in the Battle of Jilib.

The Prime Minister of Somalia claimed that three "terror suspects" from the 1998 United States embassy bombings are being sheltered in Kismayo.[67] On 30 December 2006, al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri called upon Muslims worldwide to fight against Ethiopia and the TFG in Somalia.[68]

On 8 January 2007, the US launched the Battle of Ras Kamboni by bombing Ras Kamboni using AC-130 gunships.[69]

On 14 September 2009, US Special Forces killed two men and wounded and captured two others near the Somali village of Baarawe. Witnesses claim that helicopters used for the operation launched from French-flagged warships, but that could not be confirmed. A Somali based al-Qaida affiliated group, the Al-Shabaab, has confirmed the death of "sheik commander" Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan along with an unspecified number of militants.[70] Nabhan, a Kenyan, was wanted in connection with the 2002 Mombasa attacks.[71]

Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara[edit]

Northern Mali conflict.svg

Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS) is the name of the military operation conducted by the US and partner nations in the Sahara/Sahel region of Africa, consisting of counter-terrorism efforts and policing of arms and drug trafficking across central Africa.

The conflict in northern Mali began in January 2012 with radical Islamists (affiliated to al-Qaeda) advancing into northern Mali. The Malian government had a hard time maintaining full control over their country. The fledgling government requested support from the international community on combating the Islamic militants. In January 2013, France intervened on behalf of the Malian government's request and deployed troops into the region. They launched Operation Serval on 11 January 2013, with the hopes of dislodging the al-Qaeda affiliated groups from northern Mali.[72]

Iraq[edit]

A British C-130J Hercules aircraft launches flare countermeasures prior to being the first coalition aircraft to land on the newly reopened military runway at Baghdad International Airport.
This image of a prisoner being tortured and abused by U.S. military personnel in the Abu Ghraib prison has become internationally famous, eventually making it onto the cover of The Economist.

Iraq had been listed as a State sponsor of terrorism by the US since 1990,[73] when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Iraq had also been on the list from 1979 to 1982; it was removed so that the US could provide material support to Iraq in its war with Iran. Hussein's regime had proven to be a problem for the UN and Iraq's neighbors due to its use of chemical weapons against Iranians and Kurds in the 1980s.

Iraqi no-fly zones[edit]

After the 1991 Gulf War, the US and its allies instituted and began patrolling Iraqi no-fly zones, to protect Iraq's Kurdish minority and Shi'a Arab population—both of which suffered attacks from the Hussein regime before and after the Gulf War—in Iraq's northern and southern regions, respectively. US forces continued in combat zone deployments through November 1995 and launched Operation Desert Fox against Iraq in 1998 after it failed to meet US demands of "unconditional cooperation" in weapons inspections.[74]

In the aftermath of Operation Desert Fox, during December 1998, Iraq announced that it would no longer respect the no-fly zones and resumed its attempts to shoot down US aircraft.

The weapons of mass destruction intelligence failure[edit]

Prior to Operation Desert Fox, US president Bill Clinton predicted "And mark my words, he will develop weapons of mass destruction. He will deploy them, and he will use them." Clinton also declared a desire to remove Hussein from power and in the same speech said, "The hard fact is that so long as Saddam remains in power, he threatens the well-being of his people, the peace of his region, the security of the world." Bush later said that the biggest regret of his presidency was "the intelligence failure" in Iraq,[75] while the Senate Intelligence Committee found in 2008 that his administration "misrepresented the intelligence and the threat from Iraq".[76] A key CIA informant in Iraq admitted that he lied about his allegations, "then watched in shock as it was used to justify the war".[77]

Air strikes by the British and US against Iraqi anti-aircraft and military targets continued over the next few years. Also in 1998, Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act, which called for regime change in Iraq on the basis of its alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction, oppression of Iraqi citizens, and attacks on other Middle Eastern countries.

The George W. Bush administration called for the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to again send weapons inspectors to Iraq to find and destroy the alleged weapons of mass destruction and called for a UNSC resolution.[78] UNSC Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously, which offered Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" or face "serious consequences."

Resolution 1441 did not authorize the use of force by member states. The Iraqi government subsequently allowed UN inspectors some access to Iraqi sites, while the US government continued to assert that Iraq was being obstructionist.[79]

In October 2002, a large bipartisan majority in the United States Congress authorized the president to use force if necessary to disarm Iraq in order to "prosecute the war on terrorism."[80] After failing to overcome opposition from France, Russia, and China against a UNSC resolution that would sanction the use of force against Iraq, and before the UN weapons inspectors had completed their inspections (which were claimed to be fruitless by the US because of Iraq's alleged deception), the US assembled a "Coalition of the Willing" composed of nations who pledged support for its policy of regime change in Iraq.

However, during the lead-up to war in March 2003, United Nations weapons inspector Hans Blix had found no stockpiles of WMD and had made significant progress toward resolving open issues of disarmament noting the "proactive" but not always "immediate" Iraqi cooperation as called for by UN Security Council Resolution 1441. He concluded that it would take “but months” to resolve the key remaining disarmament tasks.[81] The United States asserted this was a breach of Resolution 1441 but failed to convince the UN Security Council to pass a new resolution authorizing the use of force due to lack of evidence.[82][83][84]

Operation Iraqi Freedom[edit]

Campaign streamer awarded to units who have participated in the Iraq War.
American soldiers take cover during a firefight with guerrilla forces in the Al Doura section of Baghdad.
Map of the invasion routes and major operations/battles of the Iraq War as of 2007.

The Iraq War began in March 2003 with an air campaign, which was immediately followed by a U.S.-led ground invasion. The Bush administration stated the invasion was the "serious consequences" spoken of in the UNSC Resolution 1441. The Bush administration also stated the Iraq war was part of the War on Terror, something later questioned or contested.

Baghdad, Iraq's capital city, fell in April 2003 and Saddam Hussein's government quickly dissolved. On 1 May 2003, Bush announced that major combat operations in Iraq had ended.[85] However, an insurgency arose against the U.S.-led coalition and the newly developing Iraqi military and post-Saddam government. The insurgency, which included al-Qaeda affiliated groups, led to far more coalition casualties than the invasion. Other elements of the insurgency were led by fugitive members of President Hussein's Ba'ath regime, which included Iraqi nationalists and pan-Arabists. Many insurgency leaders are Islamists and claim to be fighting a religious war to reestablish the Islamic Caliphate of centuries past.[86] Iraq's former president, Saddam Hussein was captured by U.S. forces in December 2003. He was executed in 2006.

In 2004, the insurgent forces grew stronger. The US conducted attacks on insurgent strongholds in cities like Najaf and Fallujah.

In January 2007, President Bush presented a new strategy for Operation Iraqi Freedom based upon counter-insurgency theories and tactics developed by General David Petraeus. The Iraq War troop surge of 2007 was part of this "new way forward" and, along with US backing of Sunni groups it had previously sought to defeat, has been credited with a widely recognized dramatic decrease in violence by up to 80%.

Operation New Dawn[edit]

The war entered a new phase on 1 September 2010,[87] with the official end of US combat operations. The last U.S. troops exited Iraq on 18 December 2011.[88]

Other military operations[edit]

Fighting in Pakistan[edit]

Map detailing the spread of the Neo-Taliban Insurgency into Afghanistan from safe havens within Pakistan (2002–2006)
Former President Musharraf with former President Bush
Diagram of Osama bin Laden's hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan. He was killed there on 2 May 2011.

Following the 11 September 2001 attacks, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf sided with the US against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by former US President George W. Bush. Musharraf agreed to give the US the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. United States Secretary of State Colin Powell and other US administration officials met with Musharraf. On 19 September 2001, Musharraf addressed the people of Pakistan and stated that, while he opposed military tactics against the Taliban, Pakistan risked being endangered by an alliance of India and the US if it did not cooperate. In 2006, Musharraf testified that this stance was pressured by threats from the US, and revealed in his memoirs that he had "war-gamed" the United States as an adversary and decided that it would end in a loss for Pakistan.[89]

On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a speech against Islamic extremism. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan itself. He stated that his government was committed to rooting out extremism and made it clear that the banned militant organizations would not be allowed to resurface under any new name. He said, "the recent decision to ban extremist groups promoting militancy was taken in the national interest after thorough consultations. It was not taken under any foreign influence".[90]

In 2002, the Musharraf-led government took a firm stand against the jihadi organizations and groups promoting extremism, and arrested Maulana Masood Azhar, head of the Jaish-e-Mohammed, and Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, chief of the Lashkar-e-Taiba, and took dozens of activists into custody. An official ban was imposed on the groups on 12 January.[91] Later that year, the Saudi born Zayn al-Abidn Muhammed Hasayn Abu Zubaydah was arrested by Pakistani officials during a series of joint US-Pakistan raids. Zubaydah is said to have been a high-ranking al-Qaeda official with the title of operations chief and in charge of running al-Qaeda training camps.[92] Other prominent al-Qaeda members were arrested in the following two years, namely Ramzi bin al-Shibh, who is known to have been a financial backer of al-Qaeda operations, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who at the time of his capture was the third highest-ranking official in al-Qaeda and had been directly in charge of the planning for the 11 September attacks.

In 2004, the Pakistan Army launched a campaign in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan's Waziristan region, sending in 80,000 troops. The goal of the conflict was to remove the al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the region.

After the fall of the Taliban regime many members of the Taliban resistance fled to the Northern border region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where the Pakistani army had previously little control. With the logistics and air support of the United States, the Pakistani Army captured or killed numerous al-Qaeda operatives such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, wanted for his involvement in the USS Cole bombing, the Bojinka plot, and the killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

The United States has carried out a campaign of Drone attacks on targets all over the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. However, the Pakistani Taliban still operates there. To this day it's estimated that 15 US soldiers were killed while fighting al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants in Pakistan since the War on Terror began.[93]

Osama bin Laden, the founder of al-Qaeda, was killed on 2 May 2011, during a raid conducted by the United States special operations forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.[94]

Fighting in Yemen[edit]

The United States has also conducted a series of military strikes on al-Qaeda militants in Yemen since the War on Terror began.[95] Yemen has a weak central government and a powerful tribal system that leaves large lawless areas open for militant training and operations. Al-Qaida has a strong presence in the country.[96]

The US, in an effort to support Yemeni counter-terrorism efforts, has increased their military aid package to Yemen from less than $11 million in 2006 to more than $70 million in 2009, as well as providing up to $121 million for development over the next three years.[97]

Fighting in Kashmir[edit]

Political Map: the Kashmir region districts

In a 'Letter to American People' written by Osama bin Laden in 2002, he stated that one of the reasons he was fighting America is because of its support of India on the Kashmir issue.[98][99] While on a trip to Delhi in 2002, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld suggested that Al-Qaeda was active in Kashmir, though he did not have any hard evidence.[100][101] An investigation in 2002 unearthed evidence that Al-Qaeda and its affiliates were prospering in Pakistan-administered Kashmir with tacit approval of Pakistan's National Intelligence agency Inter-Services Intelligence.[102] A team of Special Air Service and Delta Force was sent into Indian-administered Kashmir in 2002 to hunt for Osama bin Laden after reports that he was being sheltered by the Kashmiri militant group Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.[103] U.S. officials believed that Al-Qaeda was helping organize a campaign of terror in Kashmir in order to provoke conflict between India and Pakistan. Fazlur Rehman Khalil, the leader of the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, signed al-Qaeda's 1998 declaration of holy war, which called on Muslims to attack all Americans and their allies.[104] In 2006, Al-Qaeda claimed they had established a wing in Kashmir; this worried the Indian government.[105] Al-Qaeda has strong ties with the Kashmir militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed in Pakistan.[106] While on a visit to Pakistan in January 2010, U.S. Defense secretary Robert Gates stated that Al-Qaeda was seeking to destabilize the region and planning to provoke a nuclear war between India and Pakistan.[107]

In September 2009, a U.S. Drone strike reportedly killed Ilyas Kashmiri, who was the chief of Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, a Kashmiri militant group associated with Al-Qaeda.[108][109] Kashmiri was described by Bruce Riedel as a 'prominent' Al-Qaeda member,[110] while others described him as the head of military operations for Al-Qaeda.[111] Waziristan had now become the new battlefield for Kashmiri militants, who were now fighting NATO in support of Al-Qaeda.[112] On 8 July 2012, Al-Badar Mujahideen, a breakaway faction of Kashmir centric terror group Hizbul Mujahideen, on conclusion of their two-day Shuhada Conference called for mobilisation of resources for continuation of jihad in Kashmir.[113]

International military support[edit]

The United Kingdom is the second largest contributor of troops in Afghanistan.

The invasion of Afghanistan is seen to have been the first action of this war, and initially involved forces from the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Afghan Northern Alliance. Since the initial invasion period, these forces were augmented by troops and aircraft from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Norway amongst others. In 2006, there were about 33,000 troops in Afghanistan.

On 12 September 2001, less than 24 hours after the 11 September attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., NATO invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty and declared the attacks to be an attack against all 19 NATO member countries. Australian Prime Minister John Howard also declared that Australia would invoke the ANZUS Treaty along similar lines.[114]

In the following months, NATO took a wide range of measures to respond to the threat of terrorism. On 22 November 2002, the member states of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) decided on a Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism, which explicitly states, "EAPC States are committed to the protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and human rights, as well as the rule of law, in combating terrorism."[115] NATO started naval operations in the Mediterranean Sea designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general called Operation Active Endeavour.

Support for the US cooled when America made clear its determination to invade Iraq in late 2002. Even so, many of the "coalition of the willing" countries that unconditionally supported the US-led military action have sent troops to Afghanistan, particular neighboring Pakistan, which has disowned its earlier support for the Taliban and contributed tens of thousands of soldiers to the conflict. Pakistan was also engaged in the War in North-West Pakistan (Waziristan War). Supported by US intelligence, Pakistan was attempting to remove the Taliban insurgency and al-Qaeda element from the northern tribal areas.[116]

International Security Assistance Force[edit]

Map of countries currently contributing troops to ISAF as of 5 March 2010. Major contributors (over 1000 troops) in dark green, other contributors in light green, and former contributors in magenta.

December 2001 saw the creation of the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the Afghan Transitional Administration and the first post-Taliban elected government. With a renewed Taliban insurgency, it was announced in 2006 that ISAF would replace the US troops in the province as part of Operation Enduring Freedom.

The British 16th Air Assault Brigade (later reinforced by Royal Marines) formed the core of the force in southern Afghanistan, along with troops and helicopters from Australia, Canada and the Netherlands. The initial force consisted of roughly 3,300 British, 2,000 Canadian, 1,400 from the Netherlands and 240 from Australia, along with special forces from Denmark and Estonia and small contingents from other nations. The monthly supply of cargo containers through Pakistani route to ISAF in Afghanistan is over 4,000 costing around 12 billion in Pakistani Rupees.[117][118][119][120][121]

Al-Qaeda attacks and failed plots since 9/11[edit]

Since 9/11, Al-Qaeda and other affiliated radical Islamist groups have executed attacks in several parts of the world where the conflict is not taking place. Whereas countries like Pakistan have suffered hundreds of attacks killing tens of thousands and displacing many more.

There may also have been several additional planned attacks that were not successful.

U.S. military aid to other countries[edit]

Pakistan

In the three years before the attacks of 11 September, Pakistan received approximately US$9 million in American military aid. In the three years after, the number increased to US$4.2 billion, making it the country with the maximum funding post 9/11.

Such a huge inflow of funds has raised concerns in the Indian press that these funds were given without any accountability, as the end uses not being documented, and that large portions were used to suppress civilians' human rights and to purchase weapons to contain domestic problems like the Balochistan unrest. Pakistan has stated that India has been supporting terror groups within the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan with the aim of creating unrest within the country.[122]

Post 9/11 events inside the United States[edit]

A US Immigration and Customs Enforcement helicopter patrols the airspace over New York City.

In addition to military efforts abroad, in the aftermath of 9/11 the Bush Administration increased domestic efforts to prevent future attacks. Various government bureaucracies that handled security and military functions were reorganized. A new cabinet level agency called the United States Department of Homeland Security was created in November 2002 to lead and coordinate the largest reorganization of the US federal government since the consolidation of the armed forces into the Department of Defense.[citation needed]

The Justice Department launched the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System for certain male non-citizens in the US, requiring them to register in person at offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

The USA PATRIOT Act of October 2001 dramatically reduces restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eases restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States; expands the Secretary of the Treasury's authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities; and broadens the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The act also expanded the definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT Act's expanded law enforcement powers could be applied. A new Terrorist Finance Tracking Program monitored the movements of terrorists' financial resources (discontinued after being revealed by The New York Times). Global telecommunication usage, including those with no links to terrorism,[123] is being collected and monitored through the NSA electronic surveillance program. The Patriot Act is still in effect.

Political interest groups have stated that these laws remove important restrictions on governmental authority, and are a dangerous encroachment on civil liberties, possible unconstitutional violations of the Fourth Amendment. On 30 July 2003, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed the first legal challenge against Section 215 of the Patriot Act, claiming that it allows the FBI to violate a citizen's First Amendment rights, Fourth Amendment rights, and right to due process, by granting the government the right to search a person's business, bookstore, and library records in a terrorist investigation, without disclosing to the individual that records were being searched.[124] Also, governing bodies in a number of communities have passed symbolic resolutions against the act.

John Walker Lindh was captured as an enemy combatant during the United States' 2001 invasion of Afghanistan.

In a speech on 9 June 2005, Bush said that the USA PATRIOT Act had been used to bring charges against more than 400 suspects, more than half of whom had been convicted. Meanwhile the ACLU quoted Justice Department figures showing that 7,000 people have complained of abuse of the Act.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began an initiative in early 2002 with the creation of the Total Information Awareness program, designed to promote information technologies that could be used in counter-terrorism. This program, facing criticism, has since been defunded by Congress.

By 2003, 12 major conventions and protocols were designed to combat terrorism. These were adopted and ratified by a number of states. These conventions require states to co-operate on principal issues regarding unlawful seizure of aircraft, the physical protection of nuclear materials, and the freezing of assets of militant networks.[125]

In 2005, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1624 concerning incitement to commit acts of terrorism and the obligations of countries to comply with international human rights laws.[126] Although both resolutions require mandatory annual reports on counter-terrorism activities by adopting nations, the United States and Israel have both declined to submit reports. In the same year, the United States Department of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a planning document, by the name "National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism", which stated that it constituted the "comprehensive military plan to prosecute the Global War on Terror for the Armed Forces of the United States...including the findings and recommendations of the 9/11 Commission and a rigorous examination with the Department of Defense".

On 9 January 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill, by a vote of 299–128, enacting many of the recommendations of the 9/11 Commission The bill passed in the US Senate,[127] by a vote of 60–38, on 13 March 2007 and it was signed into law on 3 August 2007 by President Bush. It became Public Law 110-53. In July 2012, US Senate passed a resolution urging that the Haqqani Network be designated a foreign terrorist organisation.[128]

The Office of Strategic Influence was secretly created after 9/11 for the purpose of coordinating propaganda efforts, but was closed soon after being discovered. The Bush administration implemented the Continuity of Operations Plan (or Continuity of Government) to ensure that US government would be able to continue in catastrophic circumstances.

Since 9/11, extremists made various attempts to attack the US homeland, with varying levels of organization and skill. For example, vigilant passengers aboard a transatlantic flight prevented Richard Reid, in 2001, and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, in 2009, from detonating an explosive device.

Other terrorist plots have been stopped by federal agencies using new legal powers and investigative tools, sometimes in cooperation with foreign governments.

Such thwarted attacks include:

The Obama administration has promised the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, increased the number of troops in Afghanistan, and promised the withdrawal of its troops from Iraq.

Casualties[edit]

According to Joshua Goldstein, an international relations professor from the American University, The Global War on Terror has seen fewer war deaths than any other decade in the past century.[129]

There is no widely agreed on figure for the number of people that have been killed so far in the War on Terror as it has been defined by the Bush Administration to include the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, and operations elsewhere. Some estimates include the following:

Child killed by a car bomb in Kirkuk, July 2011
Footage of leaked Apache gunship strike in Baghdad, July 2007.
  • Iraq: 62,570 to 1,124,000
  • Iraq Body Count project documented 110,937–121,227 civilian deaths from violence from March 2003 to December 2012.[130][131][132]
  • 110,600 deaths in total according to the Associated Press from March 2003 to April 2009.[133]
  • 151,000 deaths in total according to the Iraq Family Health Survey.[134]
  • Opinion Research Business (ORB) poll conducted 12–19 August 2007 estimated 1,033,000 violent deaths due to the Iraq War. The range given was 946,000 to 1,120,000 deaths. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2,000 Iraqi adults answered whether any members of their household (living under their roof) were killed due to the Iraq War. 22% of the respondents had lost one or more household members. ORB reported that "48% died from a gunshot wound, 20% from the impact of a car bomb, 9% from aerial bombardment, 6% as a result of an accident and 6% from another blast/ordnance."[135][136][137]
  • Between 392,979 and 942,636 estimated Iraqi (655,000 with a confidence interval of 95%), civilian and combatant, according to the second Lancet survey of mortality.
  • A minimum of 62,570 civilian deaths reported in the mass media up to 28 April 2007 according to Iraq Body Count project.[138]
  • 4,409 US military dead (929 non-hostile deaths), and 31,926 wounded in action during Operation Iraqi Freedom.[139] 66 US Military dead (28 non-hostile deaths), and 295 wounded in action during Operation New Dawn.[139]
  • Afghanistan: between 10,960 and 49,600
  • According to Marc W. Herold's extensive database,[141] between 3,100 and 3,600 civilians were directly killed by US Operation Enduring Freedom bombing and Special Forces attacks between 7 October 2001 and 3 June 2003. This estimate counts only "impact deaths"—deaths that occurred in the immediate aftermath of an explosion or shooting—and does not count deaths that occurred later as a result of injuries sustained, or deaths that occurred as an indirect consequence of the US airstrikes and invasion.
  • In a pair of January 2002 studies, Carl Conetta of the Project on Defense Alternatives estimates that "at least" 4,200–4,500 civilians were killed by mid-January 2002 as a result of the war and Coalition airstrikes, both directly as casualties of the aerial bombing campaign, and indirectly in the resulting humanitarian crisis.
  • His first study, "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties?",[144] released 18 January 2002, estimates that, at the low end, "at least" 1,000–1,300 civilians were directly killed in the aerial bombing campaign in just the 3 months between 7 October 2001 to 1 January 2002. The author found it impossible to provide an upper-end estimate to direct civilian casualties from the Operation Enduring Freedom bombing campaign that he noted as having an increased use of cluster bombs.[145] In this lower-end estimate, only Western press sources were used for hard numbers, while heavy "reduction factors" were applied to Afghan government reports so that their estimates were reduced by as much as 75%.[146]
  • In his companion study, "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war",[147] released 30 January 2002, Conetta estimates that "at least" 3,200 more Afghans died by mid-January 2002, of "starvation, exposure, associated illnesses, or injury sustained while in flight from war zones", as a result of the war and Coalition airstrikes.
  • In similar numbers, a Los Angeles Times review of US, British, and Pakistani newspapers and international wire services found that between 1,067 and 1,201 direct civilian deaths were reported by those news organizations during the five months from 7 October 2001 to 28 February 2002. This review excluded all civilian deaths in Afghanistan that did not get reported by US, British, or Pakistani news, excluded 497 deaths that did get reported in US, British, and Pakistani news but that were not specifically identified as civilian or military, and excluded 754 civilian deaths that were reported by the Taliban but not independently confirmed.[148]
  • 2,046 US military dead (339 non-hostile deaths), and 18,201 wounded in action.[139]
  • Pakistan: Between 1467 and 2334 people were killed in U.S. drone attacks as of 6 May 2011. tens of thousands have been killed by terrorist attacks, millions displaced.
  • Somalia: 7,000+
  • In December 2007, The Elman Peace and Human Rights Organization said it had verified 6,500 civilian deaths, 8,516 people wounded, and 1.5 million displaced from homes in Mogadishu alone during the year 2007.[150]
  • USA

Total American casualties from the War on Terror
(this includes fighting throughout the world):

US Military killed 6,639[139]
US Military wounded 50,422[139]
US DoD Civilians killed 16[139]
US Civilians killed (includes 9/11 and after) 3,000 +
US Civilians wounded/injured 6,000 +
Total Americans killed (military and civilian) 9,655 +
Total Americans wounded/injured 56,422 +
Total American casualties 66,077 +

[154][155][156][157][158]

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs has diagnosed more than 200,000 American veterans with PTSD since 2001.[159]

  • Yemen

Costs[edit]

A March 2011 Congressional report[160] estimated spending related to the war through fiscal year 2011 at $1.2 trillion, and that spending through 2021 assuming a reduction to 45,000 troops would be $1.8 trillion. A June 2011 academic report[160] covering additional areas of spending related to the war estimated it through 2011 at $2.7 trillion, and long term spending at $5.4 trillion including interest.[note 3]

Expense CRS/CBO (Billions US$):[161][162][163] Watson (Billions constant US$):[164]
FY2001-FY2011
War appropriations to DoD 1208.1 1311.5
War appropriations to DoS/USAid 66.7 74.2
VA medical 8.4 13.7
VA disability 18.9
Interest paid on DoD war appropriations 185.4
Additions to DoD base spending 362.2-652.4
Additions to Homeland Security base spending 401.2
Social costs to veterans and military families to date 295-400
Subtotal: 1283.2 2662.1-3057.3
FY2012-future
FY2012 DoD request 118.4
FY2012 DoS/USAid request 12.1
Projected 2013–2015 war spending 168.6
Projected 2016–2020 war spending 155
Projected obligations for veterans' care to 2051 589-934
Additional interest payments to 2020 1000
Subtotal: 454.1 2043.1-2388.1
Total: 1737.3 4705.2-5445.4

Final Phase of War[edit]

Analysts describe an unofficial end to the war on terror with President’s Obama speech of May 23, 2013. Eugene Robinson, of the Washington Post, interprets that speech as close to a “mission accomplished” declaration that prudent politics will allow.[165] The President said that low-grade terror will continue but “need not rise to the level that we saw on the eve of 9/11.”[165] Republicans reject the President’s proposals to end measures taken in the name of the “war on terror” and counter that it is too soon to “argue that al Qaeda is quote ‘on the run.'”[166] Peter Beinart writing a month after the President’s speech, declares that most Americans accept that the “war on terror” has ended.[167] Peter Bergen, CNN's national security analyst, explains that President “Obama intends to end a seemingly endless war” by entering a wind-down phase.[168]

Criticism[edit]

Participants in a rally, dressed as hooded detainees.

Criticism of the War on Terror addresses the issues, morality, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terror and made against the phrase itself, calling it a misnomer. The notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven highly contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy / military objectives,[169] reduce civil liberties,[170] and infringe upon human rights. It is argued that the term war is not appropriate in this context (as in War on Drugs), since there is no identifiable enemy, and that it is unlikely international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means.[171]

Other critics, such as Francis Fukuyama, note that "terrorism" is not an enemy, but a tactic; calling it a "war on terror", obscures differences between conflicts such as anti-occupation insurgents and international mujahideen. With a military presence in Iraq and Afghanistan and its associated collateral damage Shirley Williams maintains this increases resentment and terrorist threats against the West.[172] There is also perceived U.S. hypocrisy,[173] media induced hysteria,[174] and that differences in foreign and security policy have damaged America's image in most of the world.[175]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Origins date back to the 1980s.
  2. ^ Former army chief.
  3. ^ Among costs not covered by these figures are off-DoD spending beyond 2012, economic opportunity costs, state and local expenses not reimbursed by the federal government, nor reimbursements made to foreign coalition allies for their expenses.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ETA "Presidential Address to the Nation" (Press release). The White House. 11 September 2001. 
  2. ^ "Bush likens 'war on terror' to WWIII". ABC News Online – Abc.net.au. 06/05/2006. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Thomas L. Friedman (13 September 2009). "Foreign Affairs; World War III". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  4. ^ "World War II Strikes Spain". Daily News (New York). 12 March 2004. Archived from the original on 2012-10-26. Retrieved 10 November 2009. 
  5. ^ Charles Feldman and Stan Wilson (3 April 2003). "Ex-CIA director: U.S. faces 'World War IV'". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. 
  6. ^ Coman, Julian (13 April 2003). "'We want them to be nervous' (That means you Ali, Bashar and Kim)". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 November 2009. 
  7. ^ Elio A. Cohen (20 November 2001). "World War IV". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 6 April 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 
  8. ^ Thompson, Mark (26 December 2008). "The $1 Trillion Bill for Bush's War on Terror". TIME. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  9. ^ Priest, Dana (23 January 2009). "Bush's 'War' On Terror Comes to a Sudden End". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  10. ^ "Bush's War On Terror Shifting Targets". CBS News. 28 January 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  11. ^ "The Long War Against Terrorism". Web.archive.org. 9 September 2005. Archived from the original on 9 September 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  12. ^ "Abizaid Credited With Popularizing the Term 'Long War'", 3 February 2006: Washington Post traces history of the phrase "Long War" [1]
  13. ^ "Joint Forces Intelligence Command.". Web.archive.org. 4 February 2005. Archived from the original on 4 February 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  14. ^ "Eric L. Bradley, Deputy Commander". 8tharmy.korea.army.mil. Retrieved 2 January 2012. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Compensation Package for Bomb Blast Victims.". Bisp.gov.pk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  16. ^ Lucas, Fred (7 January 2010). "Obama Declares America ‘At War’ with Al Qaeda, Offers New Security Initiatives". CNSnews.com. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  17. ^ Sulmasy, Glenn (20 February 2007). "A new look for the war on al Qaeda". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  18. ^ Silver, Alexandra (18 March 2010). "How America Became a Surveillance State". Time Magazine. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  19. ^ Matt Lauer; Katie Couric; Tom Brokaw (11 September 2001). "Breaking News on September 11th". NBC Learn K-12. NBCUniversal Media. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  20. ^ "Kenneth R. Bazinet, "A Fight Vs. Evil, Bush And Cabinet Tell U.S."". Daily News (New York). 17 September 2001. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  21. ^ Jonathan Lyons, "Bush enters Mideast's rhetorical minefield" (Reuters: 21 September 2001). Greenspun.com
  22. ^ a b "Transcript of President Bush's address". CNN. 20 September 2001. 
  23. ^ Reynolds, Paul (17 April 2007). "Declining use of 'war on terror'". BBC. 
  24. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (2 September 2011). "MI5 former chief decries 'war on terror'". The Guardian. 
  25. ^ "FULL TRANSCRIPT: President Barack Obama's Inaugural Address". ABC News. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  26. ^ a b 'Global War On Terror' Is Given New Name, Scott Wilson and Al Kamen, The Washington Post, 25 March 2009; Page A04
  27. ^ Jai Singh and Ajay Singh, "The War on Terror - Over?", Small Wars Journal, 28 August 2012.
  28. ^ David Kravets, "Former CIA Chief: Obama's War on Terror Same as Bush's, But With More Killing", Wired, 10 September 2012.
  29. ^ "Pentagon lawyer: War on terror not endless". Las Vegas Sun (Greenspun Media Group). The Associated Press. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012. [dead link]
  30. ^ Julian E. Barnes (30 November 2012). "Pentagon Lawyer Looks Post-Terror". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  31. ^ Paul D. Shinkman (23 May 2013). "Obama: 'Global War on Terror' Is Over". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  32. ^ Marc Ambinder (20 May 2010). "The New Term for the War on Terror". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  33. ^ Jackson, Writing the War on Terrorism (2005), p. 8.
  34. ^ Jackson, Writing the War on Terrorism (2005), p. 62.
  35. ^ Jackson, Writing the War on Terrorism (2005), pp. 62–75.
  36. ^ Jackson, Writing the War on Terrorism (2005), pp. 77–80.
  37. ^ Borhan Uddin Khan and Muhammad Mahbubur Rahman, "Combating Terrorism under Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Regime", Mediterranean Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 12 (Double Issue), 2008, pp.379–397.
  38. ^ "Civil Rights and the "War on Terror"". amnestyusa.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  39. ^ Cooley, John K. (Spring 2003). "Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism" (reprint). Demokratizatsiya. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. 
  40. ^ The group was also responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Megan K. Stack (6 December 2001). "Fighters Hunt Former Ally". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  41. ^ "Al Qaeda's Fatwa". PBS Newshour. 23 February 1998. Retrieved 10 September 2011. [dead link]
  42. ^ J. T. Caruso (8 December 2001). "Al-Qaeda International". Federal Bureau of Investigation. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  43. ^ Nic Robertson (19 August 2002). "Previously unseen tape shows bin Laden's declaration of war". CNN. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  44. ^ Lisa Myers (17 March 2004). "Osama bin Laden: missed opportunities". NBC. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  45. ^ "Report of the Accountability Review Boards". US Department of State. 7 August 1998. [dead link]
  46. ^ "U.S. strikes terrorist targets in Afghanistan, Sudan". CNN. 20 August 1998. 
  47. ^ "U.S. retaliates for Africa bombings". CNN. 20 August 1998. 
  48. ^ a b Malcolm Clark (20 March 2000). "Bad air and rank hypocrisy". newstatesman.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  49. ^ Stevel Lee Myers and Tim Weiner (27 August 1998). "Possible Benign Use Is Seen for Chemical at Factory in Sudan". partners.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  50. ^ "What proof of bin Laden's involvement". CNN. 13 September 2001. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. 
  51. ^ President Bush Releases National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, 14 February 2003, The White House
  52. ^ "Operation Active Endeavour". NATO. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  53. ^ "Taliban rejects president Bush's demands". PBS. 21 September 2001. [dead link]
  54. ^ Shane, Scott (28 November 2009). "Senate Report Explores 2001 Escape by bin Laden From Afghan Mountains". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  55. ^ Pilkington, Ed (29 November 2009). "Rumsfeld let Bin Laden escape in 2001, says Senate report". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  56. ^ Shahzad, Syed Saleem (12 March 2002). "Taliban find unlikely allies". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  57. ^ "Al Qaeda, Taliban may be regrouping". CNN. 26 March 2002. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  58. ^ "Operation Moshtarak: At a glance". Al Jazeera English. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  59. ^ "Guardians of the Pacific". Special Operations Command, Pacific. 3 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  60. ^ "Joint Special Operations Task Force – Philippines (JSOTF-P)". GlobalSecurity.org. 
  61. ^ "Improving Lives: Military Humanitarian and Assistance Programs". American Institute in Taiwan. November 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2011. [dead link]
  62. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  63. ^ "COMBINED JOINT TASK FORCE–HORN OF AFRICA". United States Africa Command. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  64. ^ "DOD Needs to Determine the Future of Its Horn of Africa Task Force". Government Accountability Office. April 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  65. ^ "Bin Laden releases Web message on Iraq, Somalia". USA Today. 1 July 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  66. ^ "US says al Qaeda behind Somali Islamists". Web.archive.org. 4 February 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-04. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  67. ^ Burke, Jason (13 June 2004). "Secret world of US jails". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  68. ^ Stephanie Hanson (2 March 2009). "Backgrounder: Al-Shabaab". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  69. ^ "U.S. Launches Attack on Suspected Al Qaeda Members in Somalia". Fox News. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  70. ^ Youssef, Maamoun (16 September 2009). "Somali al-Qaida group confirms death of leader". Associated Press. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  71. ^ "Mother demands to see Nabhan's body". Al Jazerra. 16 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  72. ^ "Mali conflict: militants killed as French air strikes pound rebel camps". The Guardian. 14 January 2013. 
  73. ^ "Iraq accuses US, Turkey of 'illegally' meeting with Kurds". CNN. 9 March 2000. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. 
  74. ^ "Clinton: Iraq has abused its final chance". CNN. 16 December 1998. 
  75. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (December 2, 2008). "Iraq war my biggest regret, Bush admits". London: www.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  76. ^ "U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Senate Intelligence Committee Unveils Final Phase II Reports on Prewar Iraq Intelligence (Two Bipartisan Reports Detail Administration Misstatements on Prewar Iraq Intelligence, and Inappropriate Intelligence Activities by Pentagon Policy Office )". Intelligence.senate.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  77. ^ Chulov, Martin and Pidd, Helen (2011-02-15) Defector admits to WMD lies that triggered Iraq war, The Guardian
  78. ^ "Bush's remarks after UN passes Iraq resolution". CNN. 8 November 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-11-07. 
  79. ^ "The Second UN Resolution". pbs.org. 24 February 2003. Retrieved 4 May 2010. [dead link]
  80. ^ "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of US Armed Forces Against Iraq". White House. 2 October 2002. 
  81. ^ "UN news briefing". Un.org. 2003-03-07. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  82. ^ "''CNN'': Text of memorandum submitted by France, Russia, Germany". Cnn.com. February 24, 2003. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  83. ^ "Chirac declares veto over any Iraq resolution". Pbs.org. 2003-03-10. Retrieved 2010-08-05. [dead link]
  84. ^ Farley, Maggie (2003-02-06). "''Los Angeles Times'': War Still Not the Answer Say France, Russia, China". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  85. ^ "President Bush Announces Major Combat Operations in Iraq Have Ended" (Press release). The White House. 1 May 2003. 
  86. ^ MICHAEL WARE (27 June 2004). "Meet The New Jihad". TIME. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  87. ^ "Iraq war: Last US combat brigade crosses into Kuwait". CSMonitor.com. 19 August 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  88. ^ Shanker, Thom; Schmidt, Michael S.; Worth, Robert F. (15 December 2011). "In Baghdad, Panetta Leads Uneasy Closure to Conflict". The New York Times. 
  89. ^ Musharraf's book says Pakistan faced US 'onslaught' if it didn't back terror war 26 September 2006 USA Today
  90. ^ Ali, Rafaqat (5 December 2003). "Musharraf vows to root out extremism: Banned outfits won’t be allowed to resurface". Dawn.Com. Retrieved 26 March 2011. [dead link]
  91. ^ "Musharraf braced for jihadi backlash". Atimes.com. 20 August 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  92. ^ "Officials: Captured man says he's al Qaeda brass". CNN. 1 April 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  93. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom | Afghanistan". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  94. ^ "Bin Laden 'shot in the head and chest'". Dailynews.co.zw. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  95. ^ "Yemen: new air-strikes target al-Qaeda". World War 4 Report. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  96. ^ Spencer, Richard (28 December 2009). "Detroit terror attack: Yemen is the true home of Al-Qaeda". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 26 December 2010. 
  97. ^ MacLeod, Hugh (28 December 2009). "Al-Qaida: US support for Yemen crackdown led to attack". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  98. ^ Osama bin Laden "letter to the American people", GlobalSecurity.org, 20 November 2002
  99. ^ Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America', The Guardian, 24 November 2002
  100. ^ Analysis: Is al-Qaeda in Kashmir?, BBC, 13 June 2002
  101. ^ Rumsfeld offers US technology to guard Kashmir border, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 June 2002
  102. ^ Al Qaeda thriving in Pakistani Kashmir, The Christian Science Monitor, 2 July 2002
  103. ^ SAS joins Kashmir hunt for bin Laden, The Telegraph, 23 February 2002
  104. ^ Kashmir Militant Extremists, Council on Foreign Relations, 9 July 2009
  105. ^ Al-Qaeda claim of Kashmir link worries India, The New York Times, 13 July 2006
  106. ^ "No Al Qaeda presence in Kashmir: Army". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 18 June 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  107. ^ Al Qaeda could provoke new India-Pakistan war: Gates at the Wayback Machine (archived January 23, 2010)[dead link], Dawn, 20 January 2010
  108. ^ US drones killed two terrorist leaders in Pak at the Wayback Machine (archived September 23, 2009)[dead link], Dawn, 17 September 2009
  109. ^ Chicago Man Pleads Not Guilty in Terror Cases, The New York Times, 25 January 2010
  110. ^ Al Qaeda's American Mole, Brookings Institution, 15 December 2009
  111. ^ Ilyas Kashmiri alive, lays out future terror strategy[dead link], Daily Times (Pakistan), 15 October 2009
  112. ^ Ilyas Kashmiri had planned to attack COAS[dead link], The News International, 18 September 2009
  113. ^ "‘Militants recruit in Rawalpindi for anti-India activities’". 10 July 2012. 
  114. ^ "PM speaks on Ansett collapse, Anzus treaty". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 September 2001. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  115. ^ "Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism". NATO. 22 November 2002. Retrieved 19 January 2011. [dead link]
  116. ^ "New frontline in the war on terror.". 
  117. ^ "Afghan war cost rise tests US taxpayers’ patience". Thenewstribe.com. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  118. ^ "UK troops take over Afghan duties". BBC. 1 June 2006. 
  119. ^ "Canada set for longer Afghan stay". BBC. 16 June 2006. 
  120. ^ "Australia outlines Afghan force". BBC. 8 May 2006. 
  121. ^ "More Dutch troops for Afghanistan". BBC. 3 February 2006. 
  122. ^ "Tackling Pakistan". India Today. 9 January 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  123. ^ "The double danger of the NSA's 'collect it all' policy on surveillance | Rachel Levinson-Waldman | Comment is free". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  124. ^ "American Libraries – First Patriot Act Challenge Filed by ACLU". ALA. 4 August 2003. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  125. ^ Cindy C Combs (2003), Terrorism in the Twenty First Century, (3rd Edition, New Jersey: Pearsons Educ. Inc.)
  126. ^ "UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee". United Nations. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  127. ^ US Senate: Legislation & Records
  128. ^ "US Cong votes for designating Haqqani network as terror group". 28 July 2012. 
  129. ^ Goldstein, Joshua S. "Think Again: War." Foreign Policy Magazine, 15 August 2011.
  130. ^ Staff writer (October 23, 2010). "Iraq War Logs: What the Numbers Reveal". Iraq Body Count. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
  131. ^ "Civilian deaths from violence in 2003–2011". Iraq Body Count. January 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-10. 
  132. ^ "Civilian deaths from violence in 2012". Iraq Body Count. January 1, 2013. 
  133. ^ Associated Press, 14 October 2009
  134. ^ "Iraq Family Health Survey" New England Journal of Medicine 31 January 2008
  135. ^ "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered" at the Wayback Machine (archived October 2, 2007)[dead link]. September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: Opinion.co.uk[dead link]
  136. ^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million". By Tina Susman. 14 September 2007. Los Angeles Times.
  137. ^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. 16 September 2007. The Observer (UK).
  138. ^ "IraqBodyCount". IraqBodyCount. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  139. ^ a b c d e f "OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS *". American Forces Press Service. United States Department of Defense. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  140. ^ "Afghan Civilians". Costs of War. 27 February 2001. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  141. ^ "Dossier on Civilian Victims of United States' Aerial Bombing". Pubpages.unh.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  142. ^ "The FP Memo: Operation Comeback – By Joshua Muravchik". Foreign Policy. 10 October 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  143. ^ "The Prof Who Can't Count Straight". The Weekly Standard. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  144. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties?". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  145. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties – Bombers and cluster bombs". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  146. ^ "Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties – Appendix 1. Estimation of Civilian Bombing Casualties: Method and Sources". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  147. ^ "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war". Comw.org. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  148. ^ "'The Americans . . . They Just Drop Their Bombs and Leave'". Los Angeles Times - Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 4 June 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  149. ^ "Guardian.co.uk" The Guardian
  150. ^ "Mogadishu violence kills 6,500 in past year: rights group". Web.archive.org. 21 March 2008. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  151. ^ Gambrell, Jon (8 June 2009). "Funeral held for soldier killed in Ark. attack". Seattle Times. 
  152. ^ "Recruitment Shooting Suspect Doesn't Think Killing Was Murder". Fox News. Associated Press. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 
  153. ^ "Bill would give Purple Heart to Fort Hood shooting victims". Austin Statesman. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013. "Thirteen people were killed and more than 30 wounded in the rampage." 
  154. ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom | Iraq". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  155. ^ "Forces: U.S. & Coalition/POW/MIA". CNN. 
  156. ^ "Military Casualty Information". Siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  157. ^ "OEF | Afghanistan | Fatalities By Year". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  158. ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom | Iraq | Fatalities By Nationality". iCasualties. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  159. ^ Aikins, Matthieu; Koehler, Chris (2013). "Mental Combat". Popular Science (Bonnier Corporation) 282 (3): 40–45. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  160. ^ a b Daniel Trotta (29 June 2011). "Cost of war at least $3.7 trillion and counting". Reuters. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  161. ^ Amy Belasco (16 July 2010). "The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 2011". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  162. ^ K. Alan Kronstadt (6 February 2009). "Pakistan-U.S. Relations". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  163. ^ Congressional Research Service (11 February 2011). "Long-Term Implications of the 2011 Future Years Defense Program". Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  164. ^ Eisenhower Study Group (2011). "Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Anti-Terrorism Operations". Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  165. ^ a b Eugene Robinson (May 27, 2013). "The end of the ‘war on terror’". Washington Post. [dead link]
  166. ^ Patricia Zengerle and Matt Spetalnick (May 24, 2013). "Obama wants to end 'war on terror' but Congress balks". Reuters. 
  167. ^ Peter Beinart (Jun 10, 2013). "NSA Surveillance Furor Shows We’re Ready for War on Terror to Be Over". The Daily Beast. 
  168. ^ Peter Bergen (May 26, 2013). "Bush's war on terror is over". CNN. 
  169. ^ George Monbiot, "A Wilful Blindness" ("Those who support the coming war with Iraq refuse to see that it has anything to do with US global domination"), monbiot.com (author's website archives), reposted from The Guardian, 11 March 2003. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
  170. ^ Singel, Ryan (13 March 2008). "FBI Tried to Cover Patriot Act Abuses With Flawed, Retroactive Subpoenas, Audit Finds". Wired. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  171. ^ Richissin, Todd (2 September 2004). ""War on terror" difficult to define". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  172. ^ Williams, Shirley. "The seeds of Iraq's future terror". The Guardian, 28 October 2003.
  173. ^ "American Hegemony: How to Use It, How to Lose It by Gen. William Odom" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  174. ^ Lustick, Ian S. (2006) [1 September 2006]. Trapped in the War on Terror. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3983-0. 
  175. ^ "America's Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project". Pew Research Center. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jackson, Richard. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counter-Terrorism. Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2005. ISBN 0719071216.

External links[edit]