Global city

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A global city (also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center) is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. The concept comes from geography and urban studies and rests on the idea that globalization can be understood as largely created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.

The most complex of these entities is the "global city", whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic means.[1] The use of "global city", as opposed to "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo[2] though the term "world city" to describe cities that control a disproportionate amount of global business dates to at least the May 1886 description of Liverpool by The Illustrated London News.[3] Patrick Geddes also used the term "world city" later in 1915.[4] Cities can also fall from such categorization, as in the case of cities that have become less cosmopolitan and less internationally renowned in the current era.

Criteria

Global city status is considered to be beneficial and desired, and because of this many groups have tried to classify and rank which cities are seen as world cities or non-world cities.[4] Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities,[5] the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included.[4] The criteria for identification tend either to be based on a yardstick value (e.g., if the producer-service sector is the largest sector then city X is a world city)[4] or on an imminent determination (if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the combined producer-service sectors of N other cities then city X is a world city.)[4]

Characteristics

Although what constitutes a world city is still subject subject to debate, standard characteristics of world cities are:[6]

  • A variety of international financial services,[7] notably in finance, insurance, real estate, banking, accountancy, and marketing
  • Headquarters of several multinational corporations
  • The existence of financial headquarters, a stock exchange and major financial institutions
  • Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area
  • Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities
  • Considerable decision-making power on a daily basis and at a global level
  • Centres of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture and politics
  • Centres of media and communications for global networks
  • Dominance of the national region with great international significance
  • High percentage of residents employed in the services sector and information sector
  • High-quality educational institutions, including renowned universities, international student attendance[8] and research facilities
  • Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal, medical and entertainment facilities in the country

Studies

GaWC study

A map showing the distribution of GaWC-ranked world cities (2010 data)

The first attempt to define, categorize and rank global cities using relational data was made in 1998 by Jon Beaverstock, Richard G. Smith and Peter J. Taylor, who all worked at the time at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom.[9] Together, Beaverstock, Smith and Taylor established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). A roster of world cities was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[5] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks.[10]

The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories), "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities with "High sufficiency" or "Sufficiency" presence. The following is a general guide to the rankings:[10]

  • Alpha++ cities are London and New York City, which are vastly more integrated with the global economy than any other cities.
  • Alpha+ cities complement London and New York City by filling advanced service niches for the global economy.
  • Alpha and Alpha- cities are cities that link major economic regions into the world economy.
  • Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.
  • Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.
  • Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as to not be obviously dependent on world cities.

The rankings for 2012 were:[11]

Cate­gory Cities
Al­pha++
Al­pha+
Al­pha
Al­pha−
Cate­gory Cities
Beta+
Beta
Beta−
Cate­gory Cities
Gam­ma+
Gam­ma
Gam­ma−
Cate­gory Cities
High suffi­cien­cy
Cate­gory Cities
Suffi­cien­cy


Global Cities Index

In 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with the Chicago-based consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others.[12] Foreign Policy noted that "the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."[13] The ranking was updated in 2010 and 2012.

Top ten global cities
Rank 2012
Change
City
Rating
1 Steady United States New York City 6.35
2 Steady United Kingdom London 5.79
3 Increase 1 France Paris 5.48
4 Decrease 1 Japan Tokyo 4.99
5 Steady Hong Kong Hong Kong 4.56
6 Increase 1 United States Los Angeles 3.94
7 Decrease 1 United States Chicago 3.66
8 Increase 2 South Korea Seoul 3.41
9 Increase 2 Belgium Brussels 3.33
10 Increase 3 United States Washington, D.C. 3.22
11 Decrease 3 Singapore Singapore 3.20
12 Decrease 3 Australia Sydney 3.13
13 Increase 5 Austria Vienna 3.11
14 Increase 1 China Beijing 3.05
15 Increase 4 United States Boston 2.94
16 Decrease 2 Canada Toronto 2.92
17 Decrease 5 United States San Francisco 2.89
18 Decrease 1 Spain Madrid 2.80
19 Increase 6 Russia Moscow 2.77
20 Decrease 4 Germany Berlin 2.76
21 Steady China Shanghai 2.73
22 Steady Argentina Buenos Aires 2.71
23 Decrease 3 Germany Frankfurt 2.69
24 Increase 2 Spain Barcelona 2.59
25 Decrease 1 Switzerland Zürich 2.53
Rank 2012
Change
City
Rating
26 Increase 3 Netherlands Amsterdam 2.45
27 Decrease 4 Sweden Stockholm 2.43
28 Steady Italy Rome 2.36
29 Decrease 2 United Arab Emirates Dubai 2.32
30 Increase 1 Canada Montreal 2.32
31 Increase 2 Germany Munich 2.31
32 NA Australia Melbourne 2.25
33 Increase 2 Brazil São Paulo 2.19
34 Decrease 4 Mexico Mexico City 2.18
35 Decrease 3 Switzerland Geneva 2.13
36 Decrease 2 United States Miami 2.13
37 Increase 4 Turkey Istanbul 2.10
38 Steady United States Houston 2.08
39 Increase 1 United States Atlanta 2.06
40 Decrease 1 Taiwan Taipei 2.05
41 Increase 1 Italy Milan 2.01
42 Decrease 5 Denmark Copenhagen 1.99
43 Decrease 7 Thailand Bangkok 1.93
44 Steady Republic of Ireland Dublin 1.82
45 Increase 1 India Mumbai 1.79
46 Increase 4 Israel Tel Aviv 1.69
47 Steady Japan Osaka 1.57
48 Decrease 3 India New Delhi 1.55
49 Decrease 1 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 1.49
50 Decrease 7 Egypt Cairo 1.49
Rank 2012
Change
City
Rating
51 Steady Philippines Manila 1.49
52 Steady South Africa Johannesburg 1.48
53 Decrease 4 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 1.31
54 Decrease 1 Indonesia Jakarta 1.30
55 Decrease 1 Colombia Bogota 1.17
56 Steady Kenya Nairobi 0.98
57 Decrease 2 Venezuela Caracas 0.89
58 Steady India Bangalore 0.85
59 Steady Nigeria Lagos 0.84
60 Decrease 3 China Guangzhou 0.82
61 Steady Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 0.72
62 Decrease 2 Pakistan Karachi 0.66
63 Increase 1 Bangladesh Dhaka 0.65
64 Decrease 1 India Kolkata 0.63
65 Decrease 3 China Shenzhen 0.62
66 Decrease 1 China Chongqing 0.25


Global Economic Power Index[14][15]

In 2012, the first Global Economic Power Index, a "survey of the surveys" written by Richard Florida, was published by The Atlantic (to be differentiated from a namesake list[16] published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on similar lists as published by other entities:

Rank City Score
1 United States New York City 48
2 United Kingdom London 43
3 Japan Tokyo 37
4 France Paris 25
4 Hong Kong Hong Kong 25
6 United States Chicago 20
7 Singapore Singapore 15
8 China Shanghai 11
9 United States Los Angeles 10
10 Switzerland Zürich 9
11 South Korea Seoul 6
11 United States Boston 6
11 China Beijing 6
14 United States Washington, D.C. 5
15 Japan Osaka 4
16 Belgium Brussels 2
16 Germany Rhine-Ruhr 2
18 Canada Toronto 1
18 China Shenzhen 1


Global Power City Index[17]

The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2012. The ranking is based on six overall categories, "Economy", "Research & Development", "Cultural Interaction", "Livability", "Environment", and "Accessibility", with 70 individual indicators among them. This Japanese ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective categories such as "manager, researcher, artist, visitor and resident."

Rank City Score
1 United Kingdom London 1452.5
2 United States New York City 1376.6
3 France Paris 1349.6
4 Japan Tokyo 1324.9
5 Singapore Singapore 1118.6
6 South Korea Seoul 1081.1
7 Netherlands Amsterdam 1068.3
8 Germany Berlin 1047.3
9 Hong Kong Hong Kong 1038.2
10 Austria Vienna 1016.7
11 China Beijing 978.3
12 Germany Frankfurt 966.7
13 Spain Barcelona 964.6
14 China Shanghai 964.5
15 Australia Sydney 962.8
16 Sweden Stockholm 961.2
17 Japan Osaka 942.1
18 Switzerland Zürich 937.9
19 Belgium Brussels 931.3
20 Denmark Copenhagen 929.7
21 Canada Toronto 925.6
22 Spain Madrid 908.6
23 United States Los Angeles 890.7
24 Canada Vancouver 890.1
25 Turkey Istanbul 875.4
26 Switzerland Geneva 867.8
27 United States Boston 858.4
28 United States Chicago 854.1
29 Italy Milan 850.5
30 United States Washington, D.C. 836.5
31 United States San Francisco 833.3
32 Taiwan Taipei 807.9
33 Japan Fukuoka 790.3
34 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 788.1
35 Thailand Bangkok 781.4
36 Mexico Mexico City 781.0
37 Russia Moscow 760.2
38 Brazil São Paulo 667.7
39 India Mumbai 608.1
40 Egypt Cairo 601.0

The Wealth Report[18]

"The Wealth Report" (a global perspective on prime property and wealth) is made by the London based estate agent Knight Frank LLP together with the Citi Private Bank. The report includes a "Global City Survey", evaluating which cities are considered the most important to the world’s HNWIs (high-net-worth individuals, having over $25million of investable assets). For the Global City Survey, Citi Private Bank’s wealth advisors, and Knight Frank’s luxury property specialists were asked to name the cities that they felt were the most important to HNWIs, in regard to: "economic activity", "political power", "knowledge and influence" and "quality of life".

Overall
rank
City
Economic
activity
Political
power
Quality
of life
Knowledge
& influence
1 United States New York City 1 7 6 2
2 United Kingdom London 2 5 8 1
3 France Paris 4 8 11 4
4 Japan Tokyo 3 6 23 13
5 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7 10 26 6
6 Singapore Singapore 8 23 22 3
7 Australia Sydney 17 12 3 7
8 United States Washington, D.C. 14 1 19 23
9 Canada Toronto 12 15 4 15
10 Switzerland Zürich 11 24 1 22
11 Germany Berlin 10 4 18 9
12 Belgium Brussels 27 3 25 21
13 South Korea Seoul 28 11 28 10
14 United States Boston 19 25 24 5
15 China Beijing 6 2 40 27
16 Canada Vancouver 38 19 7 16
17 United States Chicago 13 29 20 14
18 Austria Vienna 23 27 13 8
19 Netherlands Amsterdam 16 26 14 19
20 United States Los Angeles 21 30 15 10
21 Sweden Stockholm 22 28 9 18
22 Australia Melbourne 30 35 2 12
23 Germany Frankfurt 9 33 5 36
24 China Shanghai 5 17 39 35
25 United States San Francisco 15 34 27 20
26 United States Miami 29 20 17 34
27 Switzerland Geneva 26 38 10 24
28 Norway Oslo 20 32 21 32
29 United Arab Emirates Dubai 18 18 36 29
30 Russia Moscow 24 9 37 31
31 Canada Montreal 37 31 16 17
32 New Zealand Auckland 33 40 12 33
33 Israel Tel Aviv 39 13 30 38
34 Italy Milan 31 37 29 25
35 Argentina Buenos Aires 40 14 35 28
36 Brazil São Paulo 32 16 33 37
37 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi 25 21 38 40
38 India Mumbai 36 22 32 39
39 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 34 36 31 30
40 Thailand Bangkok 35 39 34 26

Global City Competitiveness Index[19]

In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit (The Economist Group), ranked the competitiveness of global cities according to their demonstrated ability to attract capital, businesses, talent and visitors.

Rank City Score
1 United States New York City 71.4
2 United Kingdom London 70.4
3 Singapore Singapore 70.0
4 Hong Kong Hong Kong 69.3
4 France Paris 69.3
6 Japan Tokyo 68.0
7 Switzerland Zürich 66.8
8 United States Washington, D.C. 66.1
9 United States Chicago 65.9
10 United States Boston 64.5
11 Germany Frankfurt 64.1
12 Canada Toronto 63.9
13 Switzerland Geneva 63.3
13 United States San Francisco 63.3
15 Australia Sydney 63.1
16 Australia Melbourne 62.7
17 Netherlands Amsterdam 62.4
18 Canada Vancouver 61.8
19 United States Los Angeles 61.5
20 South Korea Seoul 60.5
20 Sweden Stockholm 60.5
22 Canada Montreal 60.3
23 Denmark Copenhagen 59.9
23 United States Houston 59.9
25 United States Dallas 59.8
25 Austria Vienna 59.8
27 Republic of Ireland Dublin 59.5
28 Spain Madrid 59.4
29 United States Seattle 59.3
30 United States Philadelphia 58.5
31 United States Atlanta 58.2
31 Germany Berlin 58.2
33 Norway Oslo 57.2
34 Belgium Brussels 57.1
35 Germany Hamburg 56.8
36 New Zealand Auckland 56.7
37 United Kingdom Birmingham 56.6
37 Taiwan Taipei 56.6
39 China Beijing 56.0
40 United Arab Emirates Dubai 55.9
Rank City Score
41 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi 55.8
41 Spain Barcelona 55.8
43 United States Miami 55.2
43 China Shanghai 55.2
45 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 55.0
46 Czech Republic Prague 53.7
47 Qatar Doha 52.9
47 Italy Milan 52.9
47 Japan Osaka 52.9
50 Japan Nagoya 52.3
50 Italy Rome 52.3
52 China Shenzhen 51.7
53 Poland Warsaw 51.3
54 Monaco Monaco 51.0
55 Hungary Budapest 50.4
56 South Korea Incheon 50.2
57 Portugal Lisbon 49.5
58 Russia Moscow 49.4
59 Israel Tel Aviv 49.3
60 Argentina Buenos Aires 49.2
61 Thailand Bangkok 49.0
62 Brazil São Paulo 48.3
63 Japan Fukuoka 47.7
64 South Korea Busan 47.4
64 China Guangzhou 47.4
66 Poland Kraków 47.3
67 South Africa Johannesburg 47.1
68 India Delhi 46.7
68 Chile Santiago 46.7
70 India Mumbai 46.6
71 Mexico Mexico City 46.2
72 Greece Athens 46.1
73 South Africa Cape Town 45.9
74 Turkey Istanbul 45.5
75 China Tianjin 45.4
76 Romania Bucharest 44.9
76 Brazil Rio de Janeiro 44.9
78 Panama Panama City 44.8
79 India Bangalore 44.6
80 Kuwait Kuwait City 44.2
Rank City Score
81 Indonesia Jakarta 44.1
82 China Dalian 44.0
83 China Chengdu 43.5
84 China Suzhou 43.4
85 Philippines Manila 43.2
86 Oman Muscat 43.0
87 China Chongqing 42.9
88 Peru Lima 42.5
89 Colombia Bogotá 42.3
90 Mexico Monterrey 42.2
91 China Qingdao 42.1
92 India Ahmedabad 41.9
93 China Hangzhou 41.6
94 South Africa Durban 41.2
95 Turkey Ankara 40.9
96 Colombia Medellín 40.0
97 India Pune 39.8
98 Brazil Belo Horizonte 39.4
98 India Hyderabad 39.4
100 Kazakhstan Almaty 39.3
100 Russia Saint Petersburg 39.3
102 Mexico Guadalajara 39.0
102 Brazil Porto Alegre 39.0
104 Vietnam Hanoi 38.8
105 India Chennai 38.1
106 India Kolkata 37.8
106 Saudi Arabia Riyadh 37.8
108 Ukraine Kiev 36.9
109 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City 36.5
110 Indonesia Surabaya 35.9
111 Sri Lanka Colombo 35.6
112 Pakistan Karachi 35.5
113 Egypt Cairo 35.0
114 Indonesia Bandung 34.8
115 Kenya Nairobi 34.6
116 Egypt Alexandria 31.8
117 Lebanon Beirut 30.6
118 Bangladesh Dhaka 27.7
119 Nigeria Lagos 27.6
120 Iran Tehran 27.2


See also

References

  1. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The global city: strategic site/new frontier
  2. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
  3. ^ "UK History". History.ac.uk. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Doel, M. & Hubbard, P., (2002), "Taking World Cities Literally: Marketing the City in a Global Space of flows", City, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 351-368. Subscription required
  5. ^ a b GaWC Research Bulletin 5, GaWC, Loughborough University, 28 July 1999
  6. ^ Pashley, Rosemary. "HSC Geography". Pascal Press, 2000, p.164
  7. ^ J.V. Beaverstock, World City Networks 'From Below', GaWC, Loughborough University, 29 September 2010
  8. ^ K. O'Connor, International Students and Global Cities, GaWC, Loughborough University, 17 February 2005
  9. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Loughborough University. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  10. ^ a b "The World According to GaWC". GaWC. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  11. ^ "The World According to GAWC 2010". GAWC. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  12. ^ "2012 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  13. ^ The main parameters are "Business activity" (30%), "Human capital" (30%), "Information exchange" (15%), "Cultural experience" (15%) and "Political engagement" (10%). "The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy (November/December 2008). 21 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  14. ^ Richard Florida (8 May 2012). "What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  15. ^ "The Top 10 most powerful cities in the world". Yahoo! India Finance. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  16. ^ Richard Florida (15 September 2011). "The 25 Most Economically Powerful Cities in the World". The Atlantic Cities. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  17. ^ Global Power City Index 2012. Tokyo, Japan: Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation. October 2012. 
  18. ^ "The Wealth Report 2013". Knight Frank LLP. 
  19. ^ "The Global City Competitiveness Index". Managementthinking.eiu.com. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 

External links