Glossary of biology

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This glossary of biology terms is a list of definitions about the fundamentals of biology, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.

A[edit]

  • Abscission - shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant
  • Absorption - a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid. Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
  • Abyssal zone - the deep sea (2000 meters or more) where there is no light.
  • Acoelomate - animals, like flatworms and jellyfish, that have no body cavity (coelom). Semi-solid mesodermal tissues between the gut and body wall hold their organs in place.
  • Actin - one of the proteins into which actomyosin can be split; can exist in either a globular or a fibrous form.
  • Activation energy - the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur.
  • Aerobiology - the study of organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
  • Agriculture - the practice of cultivating land, growing food, and raising stock.
  • Amniote - organisms that produce an egg composed of shell and membranes that creates a protected environment in which the embryo can develop out of water
  • Artificial selection - professionals study the genotype and phenotype of parent organisms in the hope of producing a hybrid that possesses many of the desirable characteristics found in their parents. Also known as selective breeding.
  • Astrobiology - the branch of biology concerned with the effects of outer space on living organisms and the search for extraterrestrial life
  • Atom - the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

B[edit]

  • B cell - type of lymphocyte in the humoral immunity of the adaptive immune system.
  • Barr body - the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell,[2] rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X or Z.
  • Basal body - (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is an organelle formed from a centriole, and a short cylindrical array of microtubules.
  • Behavioral ecology - the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.
  • Binary fission - One cell dividing into two identical daughter cells.
  • Biology - Study of living organisms.
  • Bionics - Application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. Also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering

C[edit]

  • Cell - the structural and functional unit of all organisms; an autonomous self-replicating unit that may exist as functional independent unit of life (as in the case of unicellular organism), or as sub-unit in a multicellular organism that is specialized into carrying out particular functions towards the cause of the organism as a whole.

D[edit]

E[edit]

F[edit]

  • FIRST - For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology - is an organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields.

G[edit]

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

K[edit]

L[edit]

M[edit]

N[edit]

  • Natural selection - a process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic qualities to succeeding generations.

O[edit]

P[edit]

Q[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

V[edit]

W[edit]

X[edit]

  • Xanthophyll - the yellow coloured phoyosynthetic pigments

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

  • Zoology - Study of animal kingdom.

See also[edit]

References[edit]