Alveolar lateral nasal click

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Alveolar lateral nasal click
ǁ̃
ᵑǁ
ʖ̃
ᵑʖ
Encoding
Kirshenbaum nl!
Main articles: Lateral clicks and nasal clicks

The alveolar lateral nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ǁ̃ or ᵑǁ; a symbol abandoned by the IPA but still preferred by some linguists is ʖ̃ or ᵑʖ.

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar lateral nasal click:

  • The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.

Occurrence[edit]

Lateral nasal clicks are found primarily in the various Khoisan language families of southern Africa and in some neighboring Bantu languages.

Language Word IPA Meaning
ǃKung an [ᵑǁàŋ] = [ʖ̃àŋ] marama bean
Zulu inxeba [iᵑǁɛ́ːɓa] = [iʖ̃ɛ́ːɓa] wound
Hadza konxa [koᵑǁa] = [koʖ̃a] to be a pair
!Xóõ ǁnáã [ᵑǁɑ́ɑ̃] = [ʖ̃ɑ́ɑ̃] grewia berry

Glottalized alveolar lateral nasal click[edit]

Glottalized
alveolar lateral nasal click
ǁ̃ˀ
ᵑǁ͡ʔ
ᵑ̊ǁˀ
ʖ̃͜ʔ
ᵑʖˀ
Main article: Glottalized clicks

All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.

Language Word IPA Meaning
Khoekhoe tsoatsoaǁaposa [tsȍàtsòȁᵑǁˀàpòsa̋] = [tsȍàtsòȁʖ̃ˀàpòsa̋] resolute, principled
Hadza slaxxa [ɬaᵑǁˀa] = [ɬaʖ̃ˀa] a split, fork
Xhosa inkxumo [iᵑǁˀumo] = [iʖ̃ˀumo] a support

Notes[edit]