Alveolar lateral nasal click

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Alveolar lateral nasal click
ǁ̃
ᵑǁ
ʖ̃
ᵑʖ
Encoding
Kirshenbaum nl!
Main articles: Lateral clicks and nasal clicks

The alveolar lateral nasal click is a click consonant found primarily among the languages of southern Africa. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ǁ̃ or ᵑǁ; a symbol abandoned by the IPA but still preferred by some linguists is ʖ̃ or ᵑʖ.

Features[edit]

Features of the alveolar lateral nasal click:

  • The airstream mechanism is lingual ingressive (also known as velaric ingressive), which means a pocket of air trapped between two closures is rarefied by a "sucking" action of the tongue, rather than being moved by the glottis or the lungs/diaphragm. The release of the forward closure produces the "click" sound. Voiced and nasal clicks have a simultaneous pulmonic egressive airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.

Occurrence[edit]

Lateral nasal clicks are found primarily in the various Khoisan language families of southern Africa and in some neighboring Bantu languages.

Language Word IPA Meaning
ǃKung an [ᵑǁàŋ] = [ʖ̃àŋ] marama bean
Zulu inxeba [iᵑǁɛ́ːɓa] = [iʖ̃ɛ́ːɓa] wound
Hadza konxa [koᵑǁa] = [koʖ̃a] to be a pair
!Xóõ ǁnáã [ᵑǁɑ́ɑ̃] = [ʖ̃ɑ́ɑ̃] grewia berry

Glottalized alveolar lateral nasal click[edit]

Glottalized
alveolar lateral nasal click
ǁ̃ˀ
ᵑǁ͡ʔ
ᵑ̊ǁˀ
ʖ̃͜ʔ
ᵑʖˀ
Main article: Glottalized clicks

All Khoisan languages, and a few Bantu languages, have glottalized nasal clicks. These are formed by closing the glottis so that the click is pronounced in silence; however, any preceding vowel will be nasalized.

Language Word IPA Meaning
Khoekhoe tsoatsoaǁaposa [tsȍàtsòȁᵑǁˀàpòsa̋] = [tsȍàtsòȁʖ̃ˀàpòsa̋] resolute, principled
Hadza slaxxa [ɬaᵑǁˀa] = [ɬaʖ̃ˀa] a split, fork
Xhosa inkxumo [iᵑǁˀumo] = [iʖ̃ˀumo] a support

Notes[edit]