Gloucester (UK Parliament constituency)

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Coordinates: 51°52′01″N 2°14′56″W / 51.867°N 2.249°W / 51.867; -2.249

Gloucester
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Gloucester in Gloucestershire.
Outline map
Location of Gloucestershire within England.
County Gloucestershire
Electorate 80,788 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1885
Member of Parliament Richard Graham (Conservative)
Number of members One
1295–1885
Number of members Two
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency South West England

Gloucester Listeni/ˈɡlɒstər/ is a constituency[n 1] centred on the cathedral city and county town of the same name, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament[n 2] by Richard Graham of the Conservative Party.

History[edit]

A borough of Gloucester was established by 1295 that returned two burgesses as Members of Parliament to the House of Commons. Its population meant this was a situation not leading to an outright rotten borough identified for abolition under the Reform Act 1832 however on more fair (far more equal representation) national changes in 1885, representation was reduced to one member under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.

Profile[edit]

Since 1979 Gloucester has been a bellwether constituency by passing between representatives of the two largest parties in the same way as the government. After nearly three decades as a Conservative seat, it was held by Labour from 1997 to 2010 before returning to a Conservative on a swing of 8.9%.

Boundaries[edit]

1950-1974: The county borough of Gloucester; and the parishes of Barnwood, Brockworth, Hempsted, and Hucclecote in the rural district of Gloucester.

1974-1983: The county borough of Gloucester.

1983-1997: The City of Gloucester; and the District of Stroud wards of Quedgeley and Hardwicke, and Upton St Leonard's.

1997-2010: The City of Gloucester.

2010-present: The City of Gloucester wards of Abbey, Barnwood, Barton and Tredworth, Elmbridge, Grange, Hucclecote, Kingsholm and Wotton, Matson and Robinswood, Moreland, Podsmead, Quedgeley Fieldcourt, Quedgeley Severn Vale, Tuffley, and Westgate.

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1295-1640[edit]

Parliament 1st Member 2nd Member
Parliament of 1295 Henry le Chaunger Roger le Heberer
Parliament of 1298 Richard de Bryhthamton Robert le Especer
Parliament of 1302 Robert le Especer John le Bole
Parliament of 1305 William de Hertford John de Combe
Parliament of 1306 Richard le Clerk Richard le Blekstere
Parliament of 1307 Andrew de Penedok Thomas de Hauneley
Parliament of 1309 William de Hertford John de Northwick
Parliament of Aug 1311 Walter le Spicer John Lucas
Parliament of Nov 1311 Walter le Spicer John King
Parliament of Mar 1313 William de Hertford John King
Parliament of Sep 1313 Walter le Spicer John King
Parliament of 1315 John le Bury Thomas Coperych
Parliament of 1318 Walter le Spicer Stephen de Maismore
Parliament of 1319 John de Hereford Andrew de Penedok
Parliament of 1320 Andrew Pendok John de Brugge (Bridge)
Parliament of 1321 Andrew de Pendok William de Russell
Parliament of May 1322 Andrew de Pendok Walter le Spicer
Parliament of Nov 1322 John de Hereford Richard Kyst
Parliament of Jan 1324 Andrew de Pendok Richard de Bradenestok
Parliament of 1325 Andrew de Penedok John de Coueleye
Parliament of 1326 Andrew de Penedok John de Coueleye
Parliament of 1327 John Brayton John in the Field
Parliament of Feb 1328 Elias de Aylberton John de Coggeshale
Parliament of Apr 1328 Walter le Spicer John de Brockworth
Parliament of Mar 1330 Walter le Spicer Richard le Fysshere
Parliament of Nov 1330 Walter le Spicer Edmund de Baverton
Parliament of Mar 1332 Walter le Spicer William de Hereford
Parliament of Sep 1332 William de Tyderynton William de Hereford
Parliament of Dec 1332 Walter le Spicer William de Coubrugg (Cowbridge)
Parliament of Feb 1334 Robert de Goldhull Walter Wawepol
Parliament of 1335 Thomas de Gloucester Walter le Spicer
Parliament of Mar 1336 William de Tyderynton John de Walsh
Parliament of Sep 1336 Walter le Spicer William de Coubrugg
Parliament of Jan 1337 John de Couele Robert Laurence
Parliament of Feb 1338 John de Coueleye Hugh de Aylbrighton
Parliament of Jul 1338 Andrew de Penedok John de Gloucester
Parliament of Jan 1339 Hugh de Aylbrighton John (?)
Parliament of Jan 1340 William de Knygeshaw Roger de Kyngesloue
Parliament of Mar 1340 William de Kyngeshaw Roger de Kyngesloue
Parliament of 1341 William de Kyngeshaw Robert le Walour
Parliament of 1344 John de Wynston Robert de Staverton
Parliament of 1346 Adam de Hope Hugh de Aylbrighton
Parliament of Jan. 1348 Nicholas Buyrsy John Wynston
Parliament of Mar. 1348 William Brown John Wynston
Parliament of Feb. 1351 John Coles John Hoorn
Parliament of 1353 Robert Brown William de Norfolk
Parliament of 1355 Nicholas Crikkelade Thomas Okynton
Parliament of 1358 Robert Waler Robert Brown
Parliament of 1360 Thomas de Stoke Thomas Steward
Parliament of 1361 John de Haselton William de Heyberare
Parliament of 1362 William Heyberer Hugh le Parkere
Parliament of 1365 William Heyberer John de Monmouth
Parliament of 1366 John Butte John Elemore
Parliament of 1368 Thomas Steward William le Veltare
Parliament of 1369 William Croke Thomas Steward
Parliament of Feb 1371 William Heyberer John de Compton
Parliament of Jun 1371 William Heyberer (One Member only returned)
Parliament of 1372 William Heyberer Thomas Styward
Parliament of 1373 William Heyberer Thomas Styward
Parliament of 1376 Edward Taverner Robert Pope
Parliament of Jan 1377 John Anlep Richard Baret
Parliament of Oct 1377 William Heyberare John Dulep
Parliament of Jan 1380 William Heyberer William Wightfield
Parliament of Oct 1382 John Haseltone John Biseley
Parliament of Feb 1383 John Haselton John Biseley
Parliament of Oct 1383 John Biseley William Baret
Parliament of Apr 1384 John Head Robert Pope
Parliament of Nov 1384 John Compton John Pope jnr
Parliament of 1385 William Croke Robert Sweynesey
Parliament of 1386 William Croke John Pope
Parliament of Feb 1388 John Head Robert Pope
Parliament of Sept 1388 John Pope Stephen Pope
Parliament of Jan 1390 William Heyberer John Banbury
Parliament of 1391 Richard Asshewell John Bisley
Parliament of 1393 Thomas Pope Simon Broke
Parliament of 1395 Roger Ball William Croke
Parliament of 1397 John Thomas Pope Richard Baret
Parliament of Sept 1397 John Pope Richard Baret
Parliament of 1399 Richard Baret Simon Broke
Parliament of 1402 John Bisley Simon Broke
Parliament of 1406 Simon Broke William Birdlip
Parliament of Sep 1407 John Bisley Roger Ball
Parliament of Oct 1411 John Bisley William Birdlip
Parliament for May 1413 John Streyneshan John Clopton
Parliament for Nov 1414 Thomas Byseley snr Thomas More
Parliament of Oct 1415 Robert Gilbert Thomas More
Parliament of Oct 1417 William Birdlip John Bisley
Parliament of Sep 1419 John Bisley Robert Gilbert
Parliament of Nov 1420 Thomas More Thomas Stevens
Parliament of Apr 1421 John Biseley snr Robert Gilbert
Parliament of Nov 1421 Robert Gilbert Richard Dalby
Parliament of Oct 1422 Robert Gilbert Thomas Stevens
Parliament of Oct 1432 John Streynsham Thomas Stevens
Parliament for Apr 1425 John Streynsham Thomas Stevens
Parliament for Jan 1426 Thomas Hewes John Bysley jnr
Parliament for Sept 1427 Robert Gilbert Thomas Stevens
Parliament for Dec 1430 John Hamelyn Thomas Stevens
Parliament for Apr 1432 Robert Gilbert Thomas Stevens
Parliament for Jun 1433 John Hamelyn Thomas Derehurst
Parliament for July 1435 Thomas Hewes Richard Dalby
Parliament for Dec 1436 Thomas Derhurst John Andrewe
Parliament for Jan 1442 Thomas Stevens William Olyver
Parliament for Jan 1447 Thomas Derehurst Walter Chaunterell
Parliament for 1449 Thomas Derehurste John Andreaux
Parliament for Oct 1449 William Notyngham Henry Dode
Parliament for Oct 1450 John Andreaux Thomas Bokeland
Parliament for Feb 1453 Robert Bentham William Eldesfeld
Parliament for Feb 1453 Robert Bentham William Eldesfeld
Parliament for July 1455 John Andreaux John Dodying
Parliament for Sep 1460 Nicholas Hert William Brockwood
Parliament for May 1467 John Hylley John Trye
Parliament for Sep 1472 John Trye Alexander Cely
Parliament for Jan 1478 John Farley Alexander Cely
Parliament of 1485-86 Thomas Limrick
Parliament of 1491 Walter Ronde or Rende William Marmyan
Parliament of 1512 William Goldsmith alias Smith|Robert Cole
Parliament of 1515 John Pakington Thomas Porter
Parliament of 1529 John Rawlins Adam Appwell
Parliament of 1545 Richard Morgan (Sir) Thomas Bell
Parliament of Sep 1547 Sir Thomas Bell Richard Morgan
Parliament of Jan 1553
Parliament of Sep 1553 Thomas Payne Thomas Loveday
Parliament of Mar 1554
Parliament of Oct 1554 Sir Thomas Bell William Massinger
Parliament of 1555 Arthur Porter
Parliament of 1558 Richard Pates Thomas Payne
Parliament of 1559 Sir Nicholas Arnold
Parliament of 1563-1567
Parliament of 1571 Thomas Atkins William Massinger
Parliament of 1572-1583 Thomas Semys
Parliament of 1584-1585 Luke Garnons
Parliament of 1586-1587 Richard Pates
Parliament of 1588-1589 Luke Garnons
Parliament of 1593 Richard Birde
Parliament of 1597-1598 William Oldsworth Luke Garnons
Parliament of 1601
Parliament of 1604-1611 Nicholas Overbury John Jones
Addled Parliament (1614) Thomas Machen John Browne
Parliament of 1621-1622 Anthony Robinson
Happy Parliament (1624-1625)
Useless Parliament (1625) Christopher Caple
Parliament of 1625-1626
Parliament of 1628-1629 John Hanbury
No Parliament summoned 1629-1640

MPs 1640-1885[edit]

Year First member[2] First party Second member[2] Second party
April 1640 William Singleton Henry Brett
November 1640 Thomas Pury, senior Parliamentarian Henry Brett Royalist
February 1644 Brett disabled from sitting - seat vacant
1645 John Lenthall
1653 Gloucester was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Pury, senior William Lenthall[3]
1656 James Stephens[4]
January 1659 Laurence Singleton James Stephens
May 1659 Thomas Pury, senior John Lenthall
April 1660 Sir Edward Massey James Stephens
1661 Evan Seys
1675 Henry Norwood
February 1679 William Cooke
September 1679 Sir Charles Berkeley
1681 Lord Herbert
1685 John Wagstaffe John Powell
1689 Sir Duncombe Colchester William Cooke
1690 William Trye
1695 Robert Payne
1698 Sir William Rich William Selwyn
January 1701 John Bridgeman
December 1701 Viscount Dursley John Hanbury
July 1702 John Grobham Howe William Trye
December 1702 John Hanbury
1705 William Cooke
1708 Thomas Webb
1709 Francis Wyndham
1710 John Blanch
1713 John Snell Charles Coxe
1722 Charles Hyett
February 1727 John Howe
September 1727[5] Benjamin Bathurst Charles Selwyn
1734 John Selwyn
1751 (Sir) Charles Barrow[6] Tory
1754 George Augustus Selwyn Whig
1761 Whig
1780 John Webb Whig
1789 John Pitt Tory
1795 Henry Thomas Howard Whig
1805 Robert Morris Whig
1816 Edward Webb Whig
1818 Robert Bransby Cooper Tory
1830 John Phillpotts Whig
1831 Maurice Berkeley Whig
1832 John Phillpotts Whig
1833 Henry Hope Conservative
1835 Maurice Berkeley Whig
1837 John Phillpotts Whig
1841 Maurice Berkeley Whig
1847 Henry Hope Conservative
1852 William Philip Price Whig
1857 Sir Robert Carden Conservative
1859[7] Charles James Monk Liberal Liberal
1862 Hon. Charles Berkeley Liberal John Joseph Powell Liberal
1865 Charles James Monk Liberal William Philip Price Liberal
1873 William Killigrew Wait Conservative
1880 Thomas Robinson[8] Liberal
1881 Writ suspended: seat vacant
1885 Representation reduced to one Member

In 1881, Robinson's willingness to stand down faced with a popular petition and the unwillingness of the Conservatives to make allegations nor investigate matters further led to suspicions of collusion between the parties and a Royal Commission was set up to examine electoral practices. The Royal Commission concluded that Gloucester was among the most corrupt of the seven towns investigated and that bribery was endemic in all elections in the city. The Commission concluded that half of the electorate had taken bribes in 1880 and blamed local politicians for most of the corruption. Despite these findings and virtually halving the electorate eligible to vote Robinson was reelected for Gloucester in 1885 when representation had been reduced to one member under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.[9]

MPs since 1885[edit]

Election Member[2] Party
1885 Thomas Robinson Liberal
1895 Charles James Monk Liberal Unionist
1900 Russell Rea Liberal
Jan 1910 Henry Terrell Conservative
1918 Sir James Bruton Conservative
1923 James Horlick Conservative
1929 Leslie Boyce Conservative
1945 Moss Turner-Samuels Labour
1957 by-election Jack Diamond Labour
1970 Sally Oppenheim Conservative
1987 Douglas French Conservative
1997 Tess Kingham Labour
2001 Parmjit Dhanda Labour
2010 Richard Graham Conservative

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2015: Gloucester[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Richard Graham
Labour Sophy Gardner[11]
Liberal Democrat Jeremy Hilton
UKIP Richard Ford
Green Jonathan Ingleby
General Election 2010: Gloucester[12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Richard Graham 20,267 39.9 +5.3
Labour Parmjit Dhanda 17,847 35.2 −12.4
Liberal Democrat Jeremy Hilton 9,767 19.2 +5.6
UKIP Mike Smith 1,808 3.6 +1.2
English Democrats Alan Platt 564 1.1 +1.1
Green Bryan Meloy 511 1.0 -0.7
Majority 2,420 4.8
Turnout 50,764 64.0 +1.5
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Parmjit Dhanda 23,138 44.7 −1.1
Conservative Paul James 18,867 36.4 −1.3
Liberal Democrat Jeremy Hilton 7,825 15.1 +0.8
UKIP Gary Phipps 1,116 2.2 +0.5
Green Bryan Meloy 857 1.7 N/A
Majority 4,271 8.2
Turnout 51,803 62.8 +3.4
Labour hold Swing +0.1
General Election 2001: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Parmjit Dhanda 22,067 45.8 −4.2
Conservative Paul James 18,187 37.7 +2.0
Liberal Democrat Tim Bullamore 6,875 14.3 +3.8
UKIP Terry Lines 822 1.7 +0.9
Socialist Alliance Stewart Smyth 272 0.6 N/A
Majority 3,880 8.1
Turnout 48,223 59.4 −14.1
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tess Kingham 28,943 49.98
Conservative Douglas French 20,684 35.72
Liberal Democrat Peter Munisamy 6,069 10.48
Referendum Party Andrew Reid 1,482 2.56
UKIP A.L. Harris 455 0.79
Natural Law Moira Hamilton 281 0.49
Majority 8,259 14.26
Turnout 73.45
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1992: Gloucester[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Douglas French 29,870 46.2 −3.5
Labour Kevin E. Stephens 23,801 36.8 +7.2
Liberal Democrat John M. Sewell 10,978 17.0 −3.7
Majority 6,069 9.4 −10.7
Turnout 64,649 80.2 +2.1
Conservative hold Swing −5.3

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Douglas French 29,826 49.68
Labour D Hulme 17,791 29.63
Liberal J Hilton 12,417 20.68
Majority 12,035 20.05
Turnout 78.06
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1983: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sally Oppenheim 27,235 48.49
Labour CWV Hinds 14,698 26.17
Social Democratic M Golder 13,499 24.03
Ecology J Waters 479 0.85
BNP Richard Rhodes 260 0.46
Majority 12,537 22.32
Turnout 75.63
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sally Oppenheim 25,163 48.73
Labour MD Golder 18,747 36.30
Liberal DG Halford 7,213 13.97
National Front R Morgan 527 1.02
Majority 6,416 12.42
Turnout 79.51
Conservative hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sally Oppenheim 22,664 46.11
Labour AC Roberts 19,136 38.93
Liberal DG Halford 7,357 14.97
Majority 3,528 7.18
Turnout 78.65
Conservative hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sally Oppenheim 23,052 44.51
Labour AE Pegler 18,215 35.17
Liberal D Halford 10,155 19.61
Powell Conservative B Gordon-Storkey 366 0.71
Majority 4,837 9.34
Turnout 83.69
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1970: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sally Oppenheim 21,838 46.91
Labour Jack Diamond 20,777 44.63
Liberal James P Heppell 3,935 8.45
Majority 1,061 2.28
Turnout 76.03
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Jack Diamond 20,951 48.53
Conservative CJJ Balfour 15,678 35.32
Liberal Inga-Stina Robson 6,540 15.15
Majority 5,273 12.21
Turnout 77.50
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Jack Diamond 19,631 45.54
Conservative JHR Stokes 15,514 35.99
Liberal Inga-Stina Robson 7,581 17.59
Independent R Eckley 380 0.88
Majority 4,117 9.55
Turnout 78.51
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Gloucester

Electorate 52,836

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Diamond 19,450 44.75
Conservative H D Keith Scott 16,679 38.37
Liberal Patrick Herbert Lort-Phillips 7,336 16.88
Majority 2,771 6.38
Turnout 82.26
Labour hold Swing
Gloucester by-election, 1957

Electorate

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour John Diamond 18,895
Conservative FJVH Dashwood 10,521
Liberal Patrick Herbert Lort-Phillips 7,393
Majority 8,374
Turnout
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1955: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Moss Turner-Samuels 21,354 50.89
Conservative DC Napley 20,606 49.11
Majority 748 1.78
Turnout 80.94
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1951: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Moss Turner-Samuels 21,097 48.81
Conservative John Anthony Kershaw 18,836 43.58
Liberal Gordon E Payne 3,292 7.62
Majority 2,261 5.23
Turnout 85.50
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1950: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Moss Turner-Samuels 20,202 47.70
Conservative John Anthony Kershaw 15,708 37.09
Liberal Harold Arthur Guy 6,444 15.21
Majority 4,494 10.61
Turnout 86.60
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Moss Turner-Samuels 14,010 46.99
Conservative Harold Leslie Boyce 10,466 35.10
Liberal Harold Arthur Guy 5,338 17.90
Majority 3,544 11.89
Turnout 74.36
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Leslie Boyce 15,682 57.06
Labour Moss Turner-Samuels 11,803 42.94
Majority 3,879 14.11
Turnout 79.01
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Gloucester
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Leslie Boyce 19,201 67.55
Labour CH Fox 9,223 32.45
Majority 9,978 35.10
Turnout 82.45
Conservative hold Swing

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "G" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  3. ^ Lenthall was also elected for Oxfordshire. Cobbett's recording of William Lenthall as elected for Gloucester may be an error, as his son John sat for the city both before and after this Parliament.
  4. ^ Major-General John Desborough elected but was also elected for Somerset. Chose Somerset and was replaced by James Stephens
  5. ^ At the election of 1727 there was a double return, but two of the candidates returned, Matthew Ducie Moreton and Thomas Chester waived their rights and Bathurst and Selwyn were declared duly elected.
  6. ^ Created a baronet, 1784
  7. ^ On petition, the 1859 election was declared void, the writ was suspended, and a Royal Commission appointed to investigate. After the Commission reported, the writ was restorted and a by-election held to fill the vacant seats.
  8. ^ On petition, Robinson's election was declared void, the writ was suspended and a Royal Commission appointed to investigate
  9. ^ Gloucester, 1835-1985: Parliamentary representation, A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 4: The City of Gloucester (1988), pp. 205-209. Date accessed: 22 April 2009
  10. ^ http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/2015guide/Gloucester/
  11. ^ http://electionresults.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/gloucester-2015.html
  12. ^ Wain, Julian (20 April 2010). "Statement of Persons Nominated and Notice of Poll" (PDF). Acting Returning Officer. Gloucester City Council. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  13. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 

Sources[edit]

  • Williams, W.R., Parliamentary History of Co. of Gloucester, Hereford, 1898
  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D. Brunton & D. H. Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 (Glasgow: Political Reference Publications, 1969)
  • Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988) [3]
  • Lewis Namier & John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1754-1790 (London: HMSO, 1964)
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)

External links[edit]