Gloucester Cathedral

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Gloucester Cathedral
Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity
Gloucester Cathedral is located in Gloucester Central
Gloucester Cathedral
Gloucester Cathedral
Shown within Gloucester
51°52′03″N 2°14′48″W / 51.8675°N 2.246667°W / 51.8675; -2.246667Coordinates: 51°52′03″N 2°14′48″W / 51.8675°N 2.246667°W / 51.8675; -2.246667
Location Gloucester, Gloucestershire
Country England
Denomination Church of England
Previous denomination Roman Catholic
Website www.gloucester cathedral.org.uk
Architecture
Style Romanesque & Gothic
Years built 1089–1499
Specifications
Length 130m
Width across transepts 43.9m
Height 68.6m
Number of towers 1
Tower height 68.6m
Administration
Diocese Gloucester (since 1541)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Dean Stephen Lake
Precentor Neil Heavisides
Archdeacon Jackie Searle
Laity
Director of music Adrian Partington

Gloucester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn. It originated in 678 or 679 with the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter (dissolved by King Henry VIII).

History[edit]

Foundations[edit]

The foundations of the present church were laid by Abbot Serlo (1072–1104). Walter Gloucester (d. 1412) the abbey's historian, became its first mitred abbot in 1381. Until 1541, Gloucester lay in the see of Worcester, but the separate see was then constituted, with John Wakeman, last abbot of Tewkesbury, as its first bishop. The diocese covers the greater part of Gloucestershire, with small parts of Herefordshire and Wiltshire. The cathedral has a stained glass window containing the earliest images of golf. This dates from 1350, over 300 years earlier than the earliest image of golf from Scotland.[1] There is also a carved image of people playing a ball game, believed by some to be one of the earliest images of medieval football.

Construction and architecture[edit]

The cathedral, built as the abbey church, consists of a Norman nucleus (Walter de Lacy is buried there), with additions in every style of Gothic architecture. It is 420 feet (130 m) long, and 144 feet (44 m) wide, with a fine central tower of the 15th century rising to the height of 225 ft (69 m) and topped by four delicate pinnacles, a famous landmark. The nave is massive Norman with an Early English roof; the crypt, under the choir, aisles and chapels, is Norman, as is the chapter house. The crypt is one of the four apsidal cathedral crypts in England, the others being at Worcester, Winchester and Canterbury.

The south porch is in the Perpendicular style, with a fan-vaulted roof, as also is the north transept, the south being transitional Decorated Gothic. The choir has Perpendicular tracery over Norman work, with an apsidal chapel on each side: the choir vaulting is particularly rich. The late Decorated east window is partly filled with surviving medieval stained glass. Between the apsidal chapels is a cross Lady chapel, and north of the nave are the cloisters, the carrels or stalls for the monks' study and writing lying to the south. The cloisters at Gloucester are the earliest surviving fan vaults, having been designed between 1351 and 1377 by Thomas de Cambridge.[2]

The most notable monument is the canopied shrine of King Edward II of England who was murdered at nearby Berkeley Castle (illustration below). The building and sanctuary were enriched by the visits of pilgrims to this shrine. In a side-chapel is a monument in coloured bog oak of Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror and a great benefactor of the abbey, who was interred there. Monuments of Bishop Warburton and Dr Edward Jenner are also worthy of note.

Between 1873 and 1890, and in 1897, the cathedral was extensively restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott.

Misericords[edit]

The cathedral has forty-six 14th-century misericords and twelve 19th-century replacements by George Gilbert Scott. Both types have a wide range of subject matter: mythology, everyday occurrences, religious symbolism and folklore.

Clergy[edit]

  • Dean – The Very Revd Stephen Lake (since 12 June 2011 installation)[3]
  • Canon Precentor – The Revd Canon Neil Heavisides (since 1993; additionally Acting Dean, 1 October 2010–May 2011)[4]
  • Canon Pastor – The Revd Canon Celia Thomson (since 15 March 2003 installation)[5]
  • Archdeacon of Gloucester (Canon Residentiary) – The Venerable Jackie Searle (since 12 September 2012 collation)
  • Diocesan Canon (City Centre Rector) – The Revd Canon Nikki Arthy (since 2009)
  • Director of Mission and Ministry (Canon Residentiary) – The Revd Canon Andrew Braddock (since 2 February 2013 installation)[6][7]

Music[edit]

The organ, rebuilt by Henry Willis in 1847.

Organ[edit]

Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register

Organists[edit]

In 1582, Robert Lichfield is recorded as the organist of Gloucester Cathedral. Notable among the organists are composers and choral conductors of the Three Choirs Festival, Sir Arthur Herbert Brewer, Herbert Sumsion and John Sanders.

The Three Choirs Festival[edit]

An annual musical festival, the Three Choirs Festival, is hosted by turns in this cathedral and those of Worcester and Hereford in rotation.[8] The Three Choirs is the oldest annual musical festival in the world. Three Choirs Festival

Burials[edit]

Tomb of Edward II

Film and TV location[edit]

Cloisters with fan vaulted roof was used as a location in the Harry Potter film series
  • Harry Potter films
The cathedral has been used from as a location for filming the first, second and sixth Harry Potter films. Filming caused some controversy amongst those who suggest that the theme of the films was unsuitable for a church.[citation needed]
  • Doctor Who
In 2008 the Cathedral was used by BBC Wales as a location for the Doctor Who Christmas Special.[citation needed]
  • The Hollow Crown
The Cathedral was used as a filming location in BBC's series "The Hollow Crown" (an adaption of Shakespeare's Henry IV parts 1 and 2).[9]

Academic use[edit]

Degree ceremonies of the University of Gloucestershire and the University of the West of England (through Hartpury College) both take place at the cathedral.[10][11]

The cathedral is also used during school term-time as the venue for assemblies (known as morning chapel) by The King's School, Gloucester, and for events by the High School for Girls (Denmark Road, Gloucester), the Crypt Grammar School for boys and Ribston Hall High School.[citation needed]

Timeline[edit]

  • 678-9 A small religious community was founded here in Saxon times by Osric of the Hwicce. His sister Kyneburga was the first Abbess.
  • 1017 Secular priests expelled; the monastery given to Benedictine monks.
  • 1072 Serlo, the first Norman abbot, appointed to the almost defunct monastery by William I.
  • 1089 Foundation stone of the new abbey church laid by Robert de Losinga, Bishop of Hereford.
  • 1100 Consecration of St. Peter’s Abbey.
  • 1216 First coronation of King Henry III.
  • 1327 Burial of King Edward II.
  • 1331 Perpendicular remodelling of the quire.
  • 1373 Great Cloister begun by Abbot Horton; completed by Abbott Frouster (1381–1412).
  • 1420 West End rebuilt by Abbot Morwent
  • 1450 Tower begun by Abbot Sebrok; completed by Robert Tully.
  • 1470 Lady Chapel rebuilt by Abbot Hanley; completed by Abbot Farley (1472–98)
  • 1540 Dissolution of Abbey
  • 1541 Refounded as a Cathedral by King Henry VIII.
  • 1616–21 William Laud holds the office of dean of Gloucester.
  • 1649–60 Abolition of Dean and Chapter, reinstated by Charles II.
  • 1735–52 Martin Benson, Bishop of Gloucester carried out major repairs and alterations to the cathedral.
  • 1847–73 Beginning of extensive Victorian restoration work (Frederick S. Waller and Sir G. Gilbert Scott, architects).
  • 1953 Major appeal for the restoration of the cathedral; renewed
  • 1968 Cathedral largely re-roofed and other major work completed.
  • 1989 900th anniversary appeal.
  • 1994 Restoration of tower completed.
  • 2000 Celebration of the novecentennial of the consecration of St Peter’s Abbey

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Simmons, D A (1962). Who's who in music and musicians' international directory (4th. ed.). London: Burke's Peerage Ltd. OCLC 13309419.  Published in America as Simmons, David (1962). Who's who in music and musicians' international directory (4th. ed.). New York: Hafner Publishing Company. OCLC 12923270. 

External links[edit]