Glove

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For other uses, see Glove (disambiguation).
Pair of gloves, 1603-1625 V&A Museum no.1506&A-1882

A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb; if there is an opening but no covering sheath for each finger they are called "fingerless gloves". Fingerless gloves with one large opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets. Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Mittens are warmer than gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other. Reduced surface area reduces heat loss.

A hybrid of glove and mitten also exists, which contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers (as in a fingerless glove, but not the thumb) and also an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers as a mitten would. This compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the mitten cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only, allowing it to be flipped over (normally held back by Velcro or a button) to transform the garment from a mitten to a glove. These hybrids are called convertible mittens or glittens, a combination of "glove" and "mittens".

Gloves protect and comfort hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion or chemicals, and disease; or in turn to provide a guard for what a bare hand should not touch. Latex, nitrile rubber or vinyl disposable gloves are often worn by health care professionals as hygiene and contamination protection measures. Police officers often wear them to work in crime scenes to prevent destroying evidence in the scene. Many criminals wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. However, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints. After collecting glove prints, law enforcement can then match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence.[1] In many jurisdictions the act of wearing gloves itself while committing a crime can be prosecuted as an inchoate offense.[2]

Fingerless gloves are useful where dexterity is required that gloves would restrict. Cigarette smokers and church organists use fingerless gloves. Some gloves include a gauntlet that extends partway up the arm. Cycling gloves for road racing or touring are usually fingerless. Guitar players often use fingerless gloves in circumstances when weather is much too cold to play with an un-covered hand.

Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, leather, rubber, latex, neoprene, and metal (as in mail). Gloves of kevlar protect the wearer from cuts. Gloves and gauntlets are integral components of pressure suits and spacesuits such as the Apollo/Skylab A7L which went to the moon. Spacesuit gloves combine toughness and environmental protection with a degree of sensitivity and flexibility.

History[edit]

Minoan youths boxing, Knossos fresco. One of the earliest documented use of gloves.

Gloves appear to be of great antiquity. According to some translations of Homer's The Odyssey, Laërtes is described as wearing gloves while walking in his garden so as to avoid the brambles.[3] (Other translations, however, insist that Laertes pulled his long sleeves over his hands.) Herodotus, in The History of Herodotus (440 BC), tells how Leotychides was incriminated by a glove (gauntlet) full of silver that he received as a bribe.[4] There are also occasional references to the use of gloves among the Romans as well. Pliny the Younger (c. 100), his uncle's shorthand writer wore gloves in winter so as not to impede the elder Pliny's work.[5]

A gauntlet, which could be a glove made of leather or some kind of metal armour, was a strategic part of a soldier's defense throughout the Middle Ages, but the advent of firearms made hand-to-hand combat rare. As a result, the need for gauntlets also disappeared.

During the 13th century, gloves began to be worn by ladies as a fashion ornament.[3] They were made of linen and silk, and sometimes reached to the elbow.[3] Such worldly accoutrements were not for holy women, according to the early 13th century Ancrene Wisse, written for their guidance.[6] Sumptuary laws were promulgated to restrain this vanity: against samite gloves in Bologna, 1294, against perfumed gloves in Rome, 1560.[7]

A Paris corporation or guild of glovers (gantiers) existed from the thirteenth century. They made them in skin or in fur.[8]

It was not until the 16th century that gloves reached their greatest elaboration, however, when Queen Elizabeth I set the fashion for wearing them richly embroidered and jewelled,[3] and for putting them on and taking them off during audiences, to draw attention to her beautiful hands.[9] The 1592 "Ditchley" portrait of her features her holding leather gloves in her left hand. In Paris, the gantiers became gantiers parfumeurs, for the scented oils, musk, ambergris and civet, that perfumed leather gloves, but their trade, which was an introduction at the court of Catherine de Medici,[10] was not specifically recognised until 1656, in a royal brevet. Makers of knitted gloves, which did not retain perfume and had less social cachet, were organised in a separate guild, of bonnetiers[11] who might knit silk as well as wool. Such workers were already organised in the fourteenth century. Knitted gloves were a refined handiwork that required five years of apprenticeship; defective work was subject to confiscation and burning.[12] In the 17th century, gloves made of soft chicken skin became fashionable. The craze for gloves called "limericks" also took hold. This particular glove-fad was the product of a manufacturer in Limerick, Ireland, who fashioned the gloves from the skin of unborn calves.[13]

Embroidered and jeweled gloves also formed part of the insignia of emperors and kings. Thus Matthew of Paris, in recording the burial of Henry II of England in 1189, mentions that he was buried in his coronation robes with a golden crown on his head and gloves on his hands.[3] Gloves were also found on the hands of King John when his tomb was opened in 1797 and on those of King Edward I when his tomb was opened in 1774.[3]

Pontifical gloves are liturgical ornaments used primarily by the pope, the cardinals, and bishops.[3] They may be worn only at the celebration of mass.[3] The liturgical use of gloves has not been traced beyond the beginning of the 10th century, and their introduction may have been due to a simple desire to keep the hands clean for the holy mysteries, but others suggest that they were adopted as part of the increasing pomp with which the Carolingian bishops were surrounding themselves.[3] From the Frankish kingdom the custom spread to Rome, where liturgical gloves are first heard of in the earlier half of the 11th century.[3]

Portrait of Mme. Paulin wearing gloves, Pierre Auguste Renoir

When short sleeves came into fashion in the 1700s, women began to wear long gloves, reaching half-way up the forearm. By the 1870s, buttoned kid, silk, or velvet gloves were worn with evening or dinner dress, but long suede gloves were also worn during the day and when having tea.[14]

In 1905 The Law Times made one of the first references to the use of gloves by criminals to hide fingerprints, stating: For the future... when the burglar goes a-burgling, a pair of gloves will form a necessary part of his outfit.[15]

Early Formula One race cars used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood, necessitating the use of driving gloves.[16]

Latex gloves were developed by the Australian company Ansell.[17] Ansell also launched the ActivArmr line, which is dedicated to producing protective gloves for construction, plumbing, HVAC, and military applications.[18]

More recently in history, Tommie Smith and John Carlos held up their leather glove-clad fists at the awards ceremony of the 1968 Summer Olympics. Their actions were intended to symbolize Black Power, but they were banned from the Olympics for life as a result of the incident. Yet another of the more infamous episodes involving a leather glove came during the 1995 O.J. Simpson murder case in which Simpson demonstrated that the glove purportedly used in the alleged murder was too small to fit his hand.[citation needed] The glove and its impact on the case have caused the term O.J. Gloves to become a popular nickname for black or brown leather gloves. Rappers 50 Cent and Kanye West have referenced these infamous gloves in their songs.[19][20]

Types of glove[edit]

Commercial and industrial[edit]

A disposable nitrile rubber glove

Sport and recreational[edit]

Dry scuba gloves
Touchscreen gloves, fingerip type
  • Touchscreen gloves - made with conductive material to enable the wearer's natural electric capacitance to interact with capacitive touchscreen devices without the need to remove one's gloves[24]
    • finger tip conductivity; where conductive yarns or a conductive patch is found only on the tips of the fingers (typically the index finger and thumb) thus allowing for basic touch response
    • full hand conductivity; where the entire glove is made from conductive materials allowing for robust tactile touch and dexterity good for accurate typing and multi-touch response[25]
  • Skiing gloves are padded and reinforced to protect from the cold, and also from injury by skis.
  • Underwater Hockey gloves - with protective padding, usually of silicone rubber or latex, across the back of the fingers and knuckles to protect from impact with the puck; usually only one, either left- or right-hand, is worn depending on which is the playing hand.
  • Washing mitt or Washing glove: a tool for washing the body (one's own, or of a child, a patient, a lover).
  • Webbed gloves - a swim training device or swimming aid.
  • Weightlifting gloves
  • Wired glove
  • Wheelchair gloves - for users of manual Wheelchairs

Fashion[edit]

Main article: Evening glove

Western lady's gloves for formal and semi-formal wear come in three lengths: wrist ("matinee"), elbow, and opera or full-length (over the elbow, reaching to the biceps). Satin and stretch satin are popular and mass-produced. Some women wear gloves as part of "dressy" outfits, such as for church and weddings. Long white gloves are common accessories for teenage girls attending formal events such as prom, cotillion, or formal ceremonies at church such as confirmation.

Fingerless gloves[edit]

Leather fingerless gloves

Fingerless gloves or "glovelettes" are garments worn on the hands which resemble regular gloves in most ways, except that the finger columns are half-length and opened, allowing the top-half of the wearer's fingers to be shown.

Fingerless gloves are often padded in the palm area, to provide protection to the hand, and the exposed fingers do not interfere with sensation or gripping. In contrast to traditional full gloves, often worn for warmth, fingerless gloves will often have a ventilated back to allow the hands to cool; this is commonly seen in weightlifting gloves.

Fingerless gloves are also worn by bikers as a means to better grip the handlebars, as well as by skateboarders and rollerbladers, to protect the palms of the hands and add grip in the event of a fall. Some anglers, particularly fly fishermen, favour fingerless gloves to allow manipulation of line and tackle in cooler conditions. Fingerless gloves are common among marching band members. The lack of fabric on the fingertips allows for better use of touchscreens, as on smartphones and tablet computers. Professional MMA fighters are also required to wear fingerless gloves in fights.

Leather gloves[edit]

Lined black leather gloves with red leather fourchettes

A leather glove is a fitted covering for the hand with a separate sheath for each finger and the thumb. This covering is composed of the tanned hide of an animal (with the hair removed), though in recent years it is more common for the leather to be synthetic.

Common uses[edit]

Leather gloves have been worn by people for thousands of years. The unique properties of leather allow for both a comfortable fit and useful grip for the wearer. The grain present on the leather and the pores present in the leather gives the gloves the unique ability to assist the wearer as he or she grips an object. As soft as a leather glove may be, its pores and grain provide a level of friction when "gripped" against an item or surface.[26]

A common use for leather gloves is sporting events. In baseball, a baseball glove is an oversized leather glove with a web used for fielding the ball. Leather gloves also factor into playing handball. Cyclists also use leather gloves. Leather gloves are also used frequently by football players so that they can more easily grip the ball.

Early Formula One racing drivers used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood necessitating the use of driving gloves.[16]

Leather gloves also provide protection from occupational hazards. For example, beekeepers use leather gloves to avoid being stung by bees. Construction workers might also use leather gloves for added grip and for protecting their hands. Welders use gloves too for protection against electrical shocks, extreme heat, ultraviolet and infrared.

Criminals have also been known to wear leather gloves during the commission of their crimes. These gloves are worn by criminals because the tactile properties of the leather allow for good grip and dexterity. These same properties are the result of their being a grain present on the surface of the leather. This understandably makes the surface of the leather as random as human skin since the leather itself is skin, usually from livestock. Investigators are able to dust for the glove prints left behind from the leather the same way in which they dust for fingerprints.[27][28]

Leather dress gloves[edit]

Main types of gloving leather[edit]

Leather is a natural product with special characteristics that make it comfortable to wear, and give it great strength and flexibility. Because it is a natural product, with its own unique variations, every piece has its own individual characteristics. As they are worn and used, leather gloves (especially if they fit snugly) will conform to the wearer's hand. As this occurs the leather of the glove will become more malleable, and thus softer and more supple. This process is known as 'breaking-in' the glove. Overtime wear spots may appear on certain parts of the palm and fingertips, due to the constant use of those areas of the glove. Creases and wrinkles will also appear on the palm side of the leather glove and will generally correspond to the locations of the hinge joints of the wearer's hands, including the interphalangeal articulations of hand, metacarpophalangeal joints, intercarpal articulations, and wrists.

Because the leather is natural as well as delicate, the wearer must take precaution as to not damage them. The constant handling of damp or wet surfaces will discolor lighter-colored gloves and stiffen the leather of any glove. The wearer will often unknowingly damage or stain their gloves while doing such tasks as twisting a wet door knob or wiping a running nose with a gloved hand.[29]

Leather dress gloves that are worn very tight and possess very short, elasticized wrists, are most often referred to as cop gloves or law enforcement gloves because of their prevalence as issued duty gloves for many law enforcement agencies.[30] It is also common attire in leather subculture and BDSM communities.[31][32]

  • Cowhide is often used for lower-priced gloves. This leather is generally considered too thick and bulky for the majority of glove styles, particularly finer dress gloves. It is, however, used for some casual styles of glove.
  • Deerskin has the benefit of great strength and elasticity, but has a more rugged appearance, with more grain on the surface, than "hairsheep". It is very hard-wearing and heavier in weight.
  • Goatskin is occasionally used for gloves. It is hard-wearing but coarser than other leathers and is normally used for cheaper gloves.
  • Hairsheep originates from sheep that grow hair, not wool. Hairsheep leather is finer and less bulky than other leathers. Its major benefits are softness of touch, suppleness, strength, and lasting comfort. It is very durable and is particularly suited for the manufacture of dress gloves.
  • Peccary is the world’s rarest and most luxurious gloving leather. Peccary leather is very soft, difficult to sew, and hard-wearing.[33][34]
  • Sheepskin, also called shearling, is widely used for casual and country gloves. It is very warm in cold weather, and as a leather reversed, it has still attached wool on the inside.
  • Slink lamb is used only in the most expensive lambskin gloves. Some of the finest lambskin comes from New Zealand.[citation needed]

Leather glove linings[edit]

  • Cashmere is warm, light in weight, and very comfortable to wear. Cashmere yarn comes from the hair of mountain goats, whose fleece allows them to survive the extreme weather conditions they are exposed to.
  • Silk is warm in winter and cool in summer and is used both in men’s and women’s gloves, but is more popular in women's.
  • Wool is well known for its natural warmth and comfort, as well as having a natural elasticity.
  • Other linings, which include wool mixtures and acrylics.

Component parts[edit]

The component parts that may be found in a leather dress glove are one pair of tranks, one pair of thumbs, four whole fourchettes, four half fourchettes, two gussets, and six quirks. Depending on the style of the glove there may also be roller pieces, straps, rollers, eyelets, studs, sockets and domes. Finally, linings will themselves consist of tranks, thumbs and fourchettes.

Stitching[edit]

The most popular types of leather glove sewing stitches used today are:

  • Hand stitched, which is most popular in men’s gloves and some women’s styles. Hand stitching is a very time-consuming and skilled process.
  • Inseam, which is mainly used on women’s gloves, but occasionally on men’s dress gloves.

Some glove terms[edit]

  • Button length is the measurement in inches that is used to determine the length/measurement from the base of the glove thumb to the cuff of the glove.
  • Fourchettes are the inside panels on the fingers of some glove styles.
  • Perforations are small holes that are punched in the leather. They are often added for better ventilation, grip, or aesthetics and can be as fine as a pin hole.[35][36][37][38][39]
  • Points are the three, or sometimes single, line of decorative stitching on the back of the glove.
  • Quirks are found on only the most expensive hand sewn gloves. They are small diamond shaped pieces of leather sewn at the base of the fingers, where they are attached to the hand of the glove to improve the fit.
  • A strap and roller is used to adjust the closeness of the fit around the wrist.
  • A Vent is the ‘V’ shaped cut out of the glove, sometimes at the back, but more often on the palm, to give the glove an easier fit around the wrist.

Driving gloves[edit]

Rick Mastracchio's damaged glove during STS-118

Driving gloves are designed for holding a steering wheel and transmitting the feeling of the road to the driver. They provide a good feel and protect the hands. They are designed to be worn tight and to not interfere with hand movements. The increased grip allows for more control and increased safety at speed.[40]

True driver’s gloves offer tactile advantages to drivers frequently handling a car near the limits of adhesion. Made of soft leather, drivers gloves are unlined with external seams.

Further information: Driving glove

Mittens[edit]

"Mitten" redirects here. For other uses, see Mitten (disambiguation).
Saami mittens

Gloves which cover the entire hand but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Generally, mittens still separate the thumb from the other four fingers. They have different colours and designs. Mittens have a higher thermal efficiency than gloves as they have a smaller surface area exposed to the cold.[41]

The earliest mittens known to archeologists date to around 1000AD[42] in Latvia. Mittens continue to be part of Latvian national costume today.[43] Wool biodegrades quickly, so it is likely that earlier mittens, possibly in other countries, may have existed but were not preserved. An exception is the specimen found during the excavations of the Early Medieval trading town of Dorestad in the Netherlands. In the harbour area a mitten of wool was discovered dating from the 8th or early 9th century.[44] Many people around the Arctic Circle have used mittens, including other Baltic peoples, Native Americans[45] and Vikings.[46] Mittens are a common sight on ski slopes, as they not only provide extra warmth but extra protection from injury.[citation needed]

Idiot mittens are two mittens connected by a length of yarn, string or lace, threaded through the sleeves of a coat. This arrangement is typically provided for small children to prevent the mittens becoming discarded and lost; when removed, the mittens simply dangle from the cuffs.[47][48]

Hybrid glove / mitten

Gunner's Mittens - In the 1930s, special fingerless mittens were introduced that have a flap located in the palm of the mitten so a hunter or soldier could have his finger free to fire his weapon. Originally developed for hunters in the frigid zones of the US and Canada, eventually most military organizations copied them.[49]

Scratch mitts do not separate the thumb, and are designed to prevent babies, who do not yet have fine motor control, from scratching their faces.[50][51]

Safety standards[edit]

Several European standards relate to gloves. These include:

  • BS EN388- Mechanical hazards including Abrasion, cut, tear and puncture.
  • BS EN388:2003 - Protective Against Mechanical Rist (Abrasion/Blade Cut Resistance/Tear Resistance/Abrasion Resistance)
  • BS EN374-1:2003 Protective Against Chemical And Micro-Organisms
  • BS EN374-2- Micro-organisms
  • BS EN374-3- Chemicals
  • BS EN420- General requirements for gloves includes sizing and a number of health and safety aspects including latex protein and chromium levels.
  • BS EN60903- Electric shock
  • BS EN407- Heat resistance
  • BS EN511- Cold resistance
  • BS EN1149- Antistatic

These exist to fulfill Personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements.

PPE places gloves into three categories:

  • Minimal risk - End user can easily identify risk. Risk is low.
  • Complex design- Used in situations that can cause serious injury or death.
  • Intermediate - Gloves that don't fit into minimal risk or complex design categories.

In popular culture and fiction[edit]

A footballer's goalkeeper glove from different angles

Countless fictional characters have worn leather gloves as either part of their dress or for specific reasons. In film, television, and other media, villains and others attempting to conceal their fingerprints are often depicted as wearing leather gloves.[52][53]

Screenwriters and directors often use the image of a man or woman slipping on a pair of leather gloves to indicate knowledge that a crime is happening.[54] It is also a common cliche in film for the hero to hold on to a person's gloved hand, and for the person to slip out of the glove and fall to their death. This can be seen in Batman and Indiana Jones & The Last Crusade[55][56][57]

Michael Jackson is famous for his single jeweled glove, which helped develop his signature look. It has been the object of several auctions.[58][59]

In the television show Bonanza, Joe Cartwright wore black leather gloves.

In the film Public Enemies (2009), FBI man Melvin Purvis is instructed to aggressively obtain information from all known associates and relatives of John Dillinger, and to, "As they say in Italy, 'pull off the white gloves'". In upcoming scenes, the FBI is shown torturing Dillinger's captured accomplice Tommy Carroll and girlfriend Billie Frechette.

The eponymous "mad scientist" villain in the 1964 film Dr. Strangelove wears a black leather glove on his out-of-control (artificial?) right hand.

In the world of the science-fiction TV series Babylon 5, human telepaths are required by law to always wear leather gloves when dealing with normal humans, to prevent accidental skin-to-skin contact.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Police use glove prints to catch criminals
  2. ^ James W.H. McCord and Sandra L. McCord, Criminal Law and Procedure for the paralegal: a systems approach, supra, p. 127.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Gloves." Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  4. ^ "The History of Herodotus by Herodotus, Volume VI, at". Classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  5. ^ "Pliny the Younger: Selected Letters". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  6. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien, ed. Ancrene Wisse, 8. The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle: Ancrene Wisse (Early English Text Society, CCXLIX) London 1962, noted by Diane Bornstein, The Lady in the Tower (Hamden, Connecticut) 1983:25 note 4.
  7. ^ Marjorie O'Rourke Boyle, "Coquette at the Cross? Magdalen in the Master of the Bartholomew Altar's Deposition at the Louvre" Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 59.4 (1996:573-577) assembles numerous historical references to gloves, with bibliography.
  8. ^ Étienne-Martin Saint-Léon, Histoire des corporation de métiers depuis leurs origines jusqu'à leur suppression en 1791 (Paris) 1922, noted by Boyle 1996:174:10.
  9. ^ Roy C. Strong, Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I (Oxford) 1963:18f.
  10. ^ Charles VIII of France received some gloves that were scented with powder of violet, but they were not of French making (Boyle 1996:174).
  11. ^ In the earliest usage, bonnet was the woolen thread worked by hand with the needle or a spindle (Boyle 1996:174).
  12. ^ Boyle 1996:174
  13. ^ Jenkins, Jessica Kerwin, The Encyclopedia of the Exquisite, Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, p. 85
  14. ^ History of gloves and their significance
  15. ^ Horace Cox, ed. (1905). The Law Times: The Journal and Record: The Law and The Lawyers. vol. CXIX. London: The Law Times. p. 563. 
  16. ^ a b Formula One [1] retrieved on 02/01/2011
  17. ^ http://www.ansellhealthcare.com/america/latamer/glove/english/intro.htm
  18. ^ "Review:Ansell ActivArmr Combat Gloves". Military Gear News. 2011-11-23. 
  19. ^ Tony Yayo - "O.J. Gloves" feat Maino
  20. ^ Kanye West Stronger And Lyrics
  21. ^ Dents [2] Retrieved on 02/01/2011
  22. ^ http://www.moderngentlemanmagazine.com/driving-gloves-the-coolest-accessory-review-of-sauso-peccary-driving-gloves/ Driving Gloves – The Coolest Accessory & Review of Sauso Driving Gloves
  23. ^ FIA Standard 8856-200 Protective clothing for automobile drivers [3] pg 2
  24. ^ "Touch Screen Gloves". TouchScreenGloves.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  25. ^ "Full Hand Touch Screen Gloves". GliderGloves.com. Retrieved 2011-08-03. 
  26. ^ Frequently Asked Questions
  27. ^ Crime Labs
  28. ^ Personal Identification: Fingerprints
  29. ^ Held Phantom Glove: Initial Impressions
  30. ^ http://www.toughgloves.com/ http://www.toughgloves.com/
  31. ^ http://bootedharleydude.blogspot.com/2008/08/leather-accessories.html Leather: Accessories
  32. ^ http://www.bdsm-lager.com/fetish-shop/tight-leather-cop-gloves-p-1164.html?language=en Tight Leather Cop Gloves
  33. ^ Dents [4] Retrieved on 02/01/2011
  34. ^ Chambers, Helen G., and Verna Moulton. Clothing Selection: Fashions, Figures, Fabrics. Page 349. Literary Licensing, Whitefish, United States. 1961. ISBN 1258228173, 9781258228170.
  35. ^ Bonneville 2010: Part I Prep and the Trip
  36. ^ Gear Review: Fieldsheer Ranger Perforated Leather Gloves
  37. ^ Held Agadir Gloves Review at RevZilla.com
  38. ^ UGG Perf Logo Driver 7668112
  39. ^ Tan Leather Perforated Driving Gloves
  40. ^ Knowledge Center [5] Retrieved on 02/01/2011
  41. ^ "Extreme Cold". Center for Disease control. Retrieved 2010-09-21. 
  42. ^ "NATO Summit 2006". Rigasummit.lv. 2006-12-15. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  43. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: National Costume". Am.gov.lv. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  44. ^ Brandenburgh, Chr., 'Textile production and trade in Dorestad', Willemsen, A. & Kik, H. (reds.), Dorestad in an international framework. New research on centres of trade and coinage in Carolingian times (Turnhout 2010), 83-88.
  45. ^ "Native American Mittens & Gloves". NativeTech. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  46. ^ "Viking Garment Construction". Cs.vassar.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  47. ^ idiot mittens definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Encarta.msn.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  48. ^ "Victorian trading Co. - www.victoriantradingco.com - Idiot Mittens". www.victoriantradingco.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  49. ^ Mitten for Hunters Leave Gun Fingers Free Popular Mechanics, December 1930, right colum mid page 977
  50. ^ "Baby Scratch Mitts pattern - Crochet 'N' More". Crochetnmore.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  51. ^ "Baby Scratch Mitts". John Lewis. 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  52. ^ Why are leather gloves connected to crime?
  53. ^ Movies, Killers wearing leather gloves and finger prints?
  54. ^ Why do most criminals this day and age, wear black leather gloves, when they commit their crimes?
  55. ^ Greatest Movie Series Franchises of All Time: The Batman Films: Batman (1989)
  56. ^ Indiana Jones & The Last Crusade Alternate Koko Ending!
  57. ^ Dr. Elsa Schneider (Character)
  58. ^ BangShowbiz; Duncan, JJ; Bustillo, Deena; Robberson, Joe; Thomas, Darrick; Wenger, Adam; Newlin, John (June 28, 2010). "Michael Jackson's Jeweled Glove Sells for $190K". Zimbio. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 
  59. ^ "Michael Jackson Jeweled Glove Sold for $350,000". Funky Downtown. November 25, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.