Glucocorticoids (GC) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is present in almost every vertebrate animal cell. The name glucocorticoid (pertaining to glucose + cortex ) derives from its role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, its synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure to the right).
GCs are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system that turns immune activity (inflammation) down. They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases and sepsis. GCs have many diverse (pleiotropic) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter. They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer. This includes mainly inhibitory effects on lymphocyte proliferation (treatment of lymphomas and leukaemias) and mitigation of side effects of anticancer drugs.
GCs cause their effects by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression).
Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. In technical terms, "corticosteroid" refers to both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (as both are mimics of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex), but is often used as a synonym for "glucocorticoid".
Cortisol (or hydrocortisone) is the most important human glucocorticoid. It is essential for life, and it regulates or supports a variety of important cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and homeostatic functions. Various synthetic glucocorticoids are available; these are used either as replacement therapy in glucocorticoid deficiency or to suppress the immune system.
Glucocorticoid effects may be broadly classified into two major categories: immunological and metabolic. In addition, glucocorticoids play important roles in fetal development and body fluid homeostasis.
As discussed in more detail below, glucocorticoids function through interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor:
- up-regulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins.
- down-regulate the expression of proinflammatory proteins.
Glucocorticoids are also shown to play a role in the development and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. This has been shown in transgenic mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids.
The name "glucocorticoid" derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. In the fasted state, cortisol stimulates several processes that collectively serve to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood.
- Stimulation of gluconeogenesis, in particular, in the liver: This pathway results in the synthesis of glucose from nonhexose substrates, such as amino acids and glycerol from triglyceride breakdown, and is particularly important in carnivores and certain herbivores. Enhancing the expression of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis is probably the best-known metabolic function of glucocorticoids.
- Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues: These serve as substrates for gluconeogenesis.
- Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue: A mechanism to conserve glucose
- Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue: The fatty acids released by lipolysis are used for production of energy in tissues like muscle, and the released glycerol provide another substrate for gluconeogenesis.
Excessive glucocorticoid levels resulting from administration as a drug or hyperadrenocorticism have effects on many systems. Some examples include inhibition of bone formation, suppression of calcium absorption (both of which can lead to osteoporosis), delayed wound healing, muscle weakness, and increased risk of infection. These observations suggest a multitude of less-dramatic physiologic roles for glucocorticoids.
Glucocorticoids have multiple effects on fetal development. An important example is their role in promoting maturation of the lung and production of the surfactant necessary for extrauterine lung function. Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity. In addition, glucocorticoids are necessary for normal brain development, by initiating terminal maturation, remodeling axons and dendrites, and affecting cell survival.
Arousal and cognition
Glucocorticoids act on the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes. Along with adrenaline, these enhance the formation of flashbulb memories of events associated with strong emotions, both positive and negative. This has been confirmed in studies, whereby blockade of either glucocorticoids or noradrenaline activity impaired the recall of emotionally relevant information. Additional sources have shown subjects whose fear learning was accompanied by high cortisol levels had better consolidation of this memory (this effect was more important in men). The effect that glucocorticoids have on memory may be due to damage specifically to the CA1 area of the hippocampal formation. In multiple animal studies, prolonged stress (causing prolonged increases in glucocorticoid levels) have shown destruction of the neurons in this area of the brain, which has been connected to memory performance.
Glucocorticoids have also been shown to have a significant impact on vigilance (sustained concentration) and cognition. This appears to follow the Yerkes-Dodson curve, as studies have shown circulating levels of glucocorticoids vs. memory performance follow an upside-down U pattern, much like the Yerkes-Dodson curve. For example, long-term potentiation (the process of forming long-term memories) is optimal when glucocorticoid levels are mildly elevated, whereas significant decreases of LTP are observed after adrenalectomy (low-GC state) or after exogenous glucocorticoid administration (high-GC state). Elevated levels of glucocorticoids enhance memory for emotionally arousing events, but lead more often than not to poor memory for material unrelated to the source of stress/emotional arousal. In contrast to the dose-dependent enhancing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation, these stress hormones have been shown to inhibit the retrieval of already stored information. Long-term exposure to glucocorticoid medications, such as asthma and anti-inflammatory medication, has been shown to create deficits in memory and attention both during and, to a lesser extent, after treatment, a condition known as "steroid dementia."
Body fluid homeostasis
Glucocorticoids could act centrally, as well as peripherally, to assist in the normalization of extracellular fluid volume by regulating body’s action to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Centrally, glucocorticoids could inhibit dehydration induced water intake; peripherally, glucocorticoids could induce a potent diuresis.
Mechanism of action
Glucocorticoids bind to the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This type of receptor is activated by ligand binding. After a hormone binds to the corresponding receptor, the newly formed receptor-ligand complex translocates itself into the cell nucleus, where it binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of the target genes resulting in the regulation of gene expression. This process is commonly referred to as transactivation.
The proteins encoded by these up-regulated genes have a wide range of effects, including, for example:
- anti-inflammatory – lipocortin I, p11/calpactin binding protein and secretory leukoprotease inhibitor 1 (SLPI)
- increased gluconeogenesis – glucose-6-phosphatase and tyrosine aminotransferase
The opposite mechanism is called transrepression. The activated hormone receptor interacts with specific transcription factors (such as AP-1 and NF-κB) and prevents the transcription of targeted genes. Glucocorticoids are able to prevent the transcription of proinflammatory genes, including interleukins IL-1B, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-8, chemokines, cytokines, GM-CSF, and TNFA genes.
The ordinary glucocorticoids do not distinguish among transactivation and transrepression and influence both the "wanted" immune and the "unwanted" genes regulating the metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Intensive research is aimed at discovering selectively acting glucocorticoids that will be able to repress only the immune system.
Genetically modified mice that express a modified GR incapable of DNA binding are still responsive to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, while the stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucocorticoids is blocked. This result strongly suggests most of the desirable anti-inflammatory effects are due to transrepression, while the undesirable metabolic effects arise from transactivation, a hypothesis also underlying the development of selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists.
Glucocorticoids have been shown to exert a number of rapid actions that are independent of the regulations of gene transcription. Binding of corticosteroids to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stimulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase AKT, leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation. Membrane associated GR has been shown to mediate lymphocytolysis. In addition, some glucocorticoids have been shown to rapidly inhibit the release of the inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, this effect is blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-486) and is not affected by protein synthesis inhibitors. These data together suggest a nongenomic mechanism of action.
Acute or chronic administration of corticosteroids causes neutrophilia, suggesting the enhanced release of PMNs from the bone marrow is an important mechanism of the glucocorticoid-induced granulocytosis. An alternative mechanism for the granulocytosis induced by glucocorticoids is an influx of PMNs from the intravascular marginated PMN pools. The response is caused by a shift of cells from the marginal to the circulating pool; hence, it frequently is referred to as demargination.
Some of the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by nongenomic signalling involving the glucocortiocid receptor (GR). A multiprotein complex composed of the unliganded glucocorticoid receptor, Hsp90, and the tyrosine kinases LCK and FYN is recruited to the antigen-activated T cell receptor (TCR) in T cells. This GR complex is necessary for TCR signalling. On binding of glucocorticoids to GR, this complex dissociates, thus blocking TCR signalling.
Glucocorticoids could mediate the gene expression of ANP and its primary receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). It is well documented that glucocorticoids could up-regulate the expression of ANP gene in the cardiomyocytes in vitro and stimulated ANP release in vivo without negative effects on renal sodium and water excretion. Additionally, glucocorticoids could up-regulate NPR-A expression in the kidney and hypothalamus. In the kidney, glucocorticoids improve renal responsiveness to ANP by upregulating NPR-A expression in the renal inner medullary collecting duct, inducing a potent diuresis. In hypothalamus, glucocorticoids inhibited dehydration or angiotensin II induced water intake by potentiating hypothalamic response to ANP. They work in concert to keep the body fluid volume in homeostasis.
A variety of synthetic glucocorticoids, some far more potent than cortisol, have been created for therapeutic use. They differ in both pharmacokinetics (absorption factor, half-life, volume of distribution, clearance) and pharmacodynamics (for example the capacity of mineralocorticoid activity: retention of sodium (Na+) and water; renal physiology). Because they permeate the intestines easily, they are administered primarily per os (by mouth), but also by other methods, such as topically on skin. More than 90% of them bind different plasma proteins, though with a different binding specificity. Endogenous glucocorticoids and some synthetic corticoids have high affinity to the protein transcortin (also called corticosteroid-binding globulin), whereas all of them bind albumin. In the liver, they quickly metabolize by conjugation with a sulfate or glucuronic acid, and are secreted in the urine.
Glucocorticoid potency, duration of effect, and overlapping mineralocorticoid potency varies. Cortisol (hydrocortisone) is the standard of comparison for glucocorticoid potency. Hydrocortisone is the name used for pharmaceutical preparations of cortisol. Data refer to oral dosing, except when mentioned. Oral potency may be less than parenteral potency because significant amounts (up to 50% in some cases) may not be absorbed from the intestine. Fludrocortisone, DOCA (Deoxycorticosterone acetate), and aldosterone are, by definition, not considered glucocorticoids, although they may have minor glucocorticoid potency, and are included in this table to provide perspective on mineralocorticoid potency.
|Name||Glucocorticoid potency||Mineralocorticoid potency||Duration of action (t1/2 in hours)|
|Cortisone||0.8||0.8||oral 8, intramuscular 18+|
|Beclometasone||8 puffs 4 times a day
equals 14 mg oral
prednisone once a day[clarification needed]
|Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)||0||20||-|
Glucocorticoids may be used in low doses in adrenal insufficiency. In much higher doses, oral or inhaled glucocorticoids are used to suppress various allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Inhaled glucocorticoids are the second-line treatment for asthma. They are also administered as post-transplantory immunosuppressants to prevent the acute transplant rejection and the graft-versus-host disease. Nevertheless, they do not prevent an infection and also inhibit later reparative processes. Newly emerging evidence showed that glucocorticoids could be used in the treatment of heart failure to increase the renal responsiveness to diuretics and natriuretic peptides.
Any glucocorticoid can be given in a dose that provides approximately the same glucocorticoid effects as normal cortisol production; this is referred to as physiologic, replacement, or maintenance dosing. This is approximately 6–12 mg/m²/day (m² refers to body surface area (BSA), and is a measure of body size; an average man's BSA is 1.7 m²).
The major mechanism for this immunosuppression through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells(NF-κB). NF-κB is a critical transcription factor involved in the synthesis of many mediators (i.e., cytokines) and proteins (i.e., adhesion proteins) that promote the immune response. Inhibition of this transcription factor, therefore, blunts the capacity of the immune system to mount a response.
Glucocorticoids suppress cell-mediated immunity by inhibiting genes that code for the cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ, the most important of which is IL-2. Smaller cytokine production reduces the T cell proliferation.
Glucocorticoids, however, not only reduce T cell proliferation, but also lead to another well known effect - glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. The effect is more prominent in immature T cells still inside in the thymus, but peripheral T cells are also affected. The exact mechanism underlying this glucocorticoid sensitivity still remains to be elucidated.
Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, thereby causing a humoral immune deficiency. Glucocorticoids cause B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and of IL-2 receptors. This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. The diminished amounts of IL-2 also cause fewer T lymphocyte cells to be activated.
Since glucocorticoid is a steroid, it regulates transcription factors; another factor it down-regulates is the expression of Fc receptors on macrophages, so there is a decreased phagocytosis of opsonised cells.
Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatories, regardless of the inflammation's cause; their primary anti-inflammatory mechanism is lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis. Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2, thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte inflammatory events (epithelial adhesion, emigration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, etc.). In other words, glucocorticoids not only suppress immune response, but also inhibit the two main products of inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. They inhibit prostaglandin synthesis at the level of phospholipase A2 as well as at the level of cyclooxygenase/PGE isomerase (COX-1 and COX-2), the latter effect being much like that of NSAIDs, potentiating the anti-inflammatory effect.
In addition, glucocorticoids also suppress cyclooxygenase expression.
Glucocorticoids marketed as anti-inflammatories are often topical formulations, such as nasal sprays for rhinitis or inhalers for asthma. These preparations have the advantage of only affecting the targeted area, thereby reducing side effects or potential interactions. In this case, the main compounds used are beclometasone, budesonide, fluticasone, mometasone and ciclesonide. In rhinitis, sprays are used. For asthma, glucocorticoids are administered as inhalants with a metered-dose or dry powder inhaler.
Glucocorticoids can be used in the management of familial hyperaldosteronism type 1. They are not effective, however, for use in the type 2 condition.
Resistance to the therapeutic uses of glucocorticoids can present difficulty; for instance, 25% of cases of severe asthma may be unresponsive to steroids. This may be the result of genetic predisposition, ongoing exposure to the cause of the inflammation (such as allergens), immunological phenomena that bypass glucocorticoids, and pharmacokinetic disturbances (incomplete absorption or accelerated excretion or metabolism).
Glucocorticoids could be used in the treatment of decompensated heart failure to potentiate renal responsiveness to diuretics, especially in heart failure patients with refractory diuretic resistance with large dose of loop diuretics.
Glucocorticoid drugs currently being used act nonselectively, so in the long run they may impair many healthy anabolic processes. To prevent this, much research has been focused recently on the elaboration of selectively acting glucocorticoid drugs. Side effects include:
- immunodeficiency (see separate section below)
- hyperglycemia due to increased gluconeogenesis, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance ("steroid diabetes"); caution in those with diabetes mellitus
- increased skin fragility, easy bruising
- negative calcium balance due to reduced intestinal calcium absorption
- steroid-induced osteoporosis: reduced bone density (osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, higher fracture risk, slower fracture repair)
- weight gain due to increased visceral and truncal fat deposition (central obesity) and appetite stimulation
- hypercortisolemia with prolonged and/or excessive use (also known as, exogenous Cushing's syndrome)
- impaired memory and attention deficits
- adrenal insufficiency (if used for long time and stopped suddenly without a taper)
- muscle breakdown (proteolysis), weakness, reduced muscle mass and repair
- expansion of malar fat pads and dilation of small blood vessels in skin
- anovulation, irregularity of menstrual periods
- growth failure, delayed puberty
- increased plasma amino acids, increased urea formation, negative nitrogen balance
- excitatory effect on central nervous system (euphoria, psychosis)
- glaucoma due to increased cranial pressure
In high doses, hydrocortisone (cortisol) and those glucocorticoids with appreciable mineralocorticoid potency can exert a mineralocorticoid effect as well, although in physiologic doses this is prevented by rapid degradation of cortisol by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme 2 (11β-HSD2) in mineralocorticoid target tissues. Mineralocorticoid effects can include salt and water retention, extracellular fluid volume expansion, hypertension, potassium depletion, and metabolic alkalosis.
Glucocorticoids cause immunosuppression, decreasing the function and/or numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes (including both B cells and T cells), monocytes, macrophages, and the anatomical barrier function of the skin. This suppression, if large enough, can cause manifestations of immunodeficiency, including T cell deficiency, humoral immune deficiency and neutropenia.
In addition to the effects listed above, use of high-dose steroids for more than a week begins to produce suppression of the patient's adrenal glands because the exogenous glucocorticoids suppress hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone. With prolonged suppression, the adrenal glands atrophy (physically shrink), and can take months to recover full function after discontinuation of the exogenous glucocorticoid.
During this recovery time, the patient is vulnerable to adrenal insufficiency during times of stress, such as illness. While suppressive dose and time for adrenal recovery vary widely, clinical guidelines have been devised to estimate potential adrenal suppression and recovery, to reduce risk to the patient. The following is one example, but many variations exist or may be appropriate in individual circumstances.
- If patients have been receiving daily high doses for five days or less, they can be abruptly stopped (or reduced to physiologic replacement if patients are adrenal-deficient). Full adrenal recovery can be assumed to occur by a week afterward.
- If high doses were used for six to 10 days, reduce to replacement dose immediately and taper over four more days. Adrenal recovery can be assumed to occur within two to four weeks of completion of steroids.
- If high doses were used for 11–30 days, cut immediately to twice replacement, and then by 25% every four days. Stop entirely when dose is less than half of replacement. Full adrenal recovery should occur within one to three months of completion of withdrawal.
- If high doses were used more than 30 days, cut dose immediately to twice replacement, and reduce by 25% each week until replacement is reached. Then change to oral hydrocortisone or cortisone as a single morning dose, and gradually decrease by 2.5 mg each week. When the morning dose is less than replacement, the return of normal basal adrenal function may be documented by checking 0800 cortisol levels prior to the morning dose; stop drugs when 0800 cortisol is 10 μg/dl. Predicting the time to full adrenal recovery after prolonged suppressive exogenous steroids is difficult; some people may take nearly a year.
- Flare-up of the underlying condition for which steroids are given may require a more gradual taper than outlined above.
Hogg, J. A.; Beal, P. F.; Nathan, A. H.; Lincoln, F. H.; Schneider, W. P.; Magerlein, B. J.; Hanze, A. R.; Jackson, R. W. (1955). Journal of the American Chemical Society 77 (16): 4436. doi:10.1021/ja01621a092.
- Aminoglutethimide blocks GC secretion
- GITR (glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor)
- Glucocorticoid receptor
- Immunosuppressive drug
- Metyrapone blocks GC secretion
- Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (SEGRA)
- Topical steroid
- Rhen T, Cidlowski JA (October 2005). "Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids--new mechanisms for old drugs". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (16): 1711–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050541. PMID 16236742.
- Pazirandeh A, Xue Y, Prestegaard T, Jondal M, Okret S (May 2002). "Effects of altered glucocorticoid sensitivity in the T cell lineage on thymocyte and T cell homeostasis". FASEB J. 16 (7): 727–9. doi:10.1096/fj.01-0891fje. PMID 11923224.
- Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C (June 2009). "Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10 (6): 434–45. doi:10.1038/nrn2639. PMID 19401723.
- Cahill L, McGaugh JL (July 1998). "Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory". Trends Neurosci. 21 (7): 294–9. PMID 9683321.
- N.R. Carlson (2010). Physiology of Behavior, 11th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon. p. 605.
- Belanoff JK, Gross K, Yager A, Schatzberg AF (2001). "Corticosteroids and cognition". J Psychiatr Res 35 (3): 127–45. doi:10.1016/S0022-3956(01)00018-8. PMID 11461709.
- Sapolsky RM (October 1994). "Glucocorticoids, stress and exacerbation of excitotoxic neuron death". Seminars in Neuroscience 6 (5): 323–331. doi:10.1006/smns.1994.1041.
- Lupien SJ, Maheu F, Tu M, Fiocco A, Schramek TE (December 2007). "The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition". Brain Cogn 65 (3): 209–37. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2007.02.007. PMID 17466428.
- de Quervain DJ, Roozendaal B, McGaugh JL (August 1998). "Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory". Nature 394 (6695): 787–90. doi:10.1038/29542. PMID 9723618.
- Wolkowitz OM, Lupien SJ, Bigler ED (June 2007). "The "steroid dementia syndrome": a possible model of human glucocorticoid neurotoxicity". Neurocase 13 (3): 189–200. doi:10.1080/13554790701475468. PMID 17786779.
- Norra C, Arndt M, Kunert HJ (January 2006). "Steroid dementia: an overlooked diagnosis?". Neurology 66 (1): 155; author reply 155. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000203713.04232.82. PMID 16401879.
- Varney NR, Alexander B, MacIndoe JH (March 1984). "Reversible steroid dementia in patients without steroid psychosis". Am J Psychiatry 141 (3): 369–72. PMID 6703100.
- Liu C, Guan J, Kang Y, Xiu H, Chen Y, Deng B, Liu K (2010). "Inhibition of dehydration-induced water intake by glucocorticoids is associated with activation of hypothalamic natriuretic peptide receptor-A in rat". PLoS ONE 5 (12): e15607. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015607. PMC 3004933. PMID 21187974.
- Liu C, Chen Y, Kang Y, Ni Z, Xiu H, Guan J, Liu K (October 2011). "Glucocorticoids improve renal responsiveness to atrial natriuretic peptide by up-regulating natriuretic peptide receptor-A expression in the renal inner medullary collecting duct in decompensated heart failure". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 339 (1): 203–9. doi:10.1124/jpet.111.184796. PMID 21737535.
- Newton R (July 2000). "Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action: what is important?". Thorax 55 (7): 603–13. doi:10.1136/thorax.55.7.603. PMC 1745805. PMID 10856322.
- Schäcke H, Rehwinkel H, Asadullah K (May 2005). "Dissociated glucocorticoid receptor ligands: compounds with an improved therapeutic index". Curr Opin Investig Drugs 6 (5): 503–7. PMID 15912964.
- Newton R, Holden NS (October 2007). "Separating transrepression and transactivation: a distressing divorce for the glucocorticoid receptor?". Mol. Pharmacol. 72 (4): 799–809. doi:10.1124/mol.107.038794. PMID 17622575.
- Reichardt HM, Tronche F, Bauer A, Schütz G (2000). "Molecular genetic analysis of glucocorticoid signaling using the Cre/loxP system". Biol. Chem. 381 (9–10): 961–4. doi:10.1515/BC.2000.118. PMID 11076028.
- Hafezi-Moghadam A, Simoncini T, Yang Z, Limbourg FP, Plumier JC, Rebsamen MC, Hsieh CM, Chui DS, Thomas KL, Prorock AJ, Laubach VE, Moskowitz MA, French BA, Ley K, Liao JK (May 2002). "Acute cardiovascular protective effects of corticosteroids are mediated by non-transcriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Nat. Med. 8 (5): 473–9. doi:10.1038/nm0502-473. PMC 2668717. PMID 11984591.
- Cato AC, Nestl A, Mink S (June 2002). "Rapid actions of steroid receptors in cellular signaling pathways". Sci. STKE 2002 (138): RE9. doi:10.1126/stke.2002.138.re9. PMID 12084906.
- Gametchu B, Watson CS, Pasko D (August 1991). "Size and steroid-binding characterization of membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor in S-49 lymphoma cells". Steroids 56 (8): 402–10. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(91)90028-T. PMID 1788858.
- Gametchu B, Watson CS, Shih CC, Dashew B (August 1991). "Studies on the arrangement of glucocorticoid receptors in the plasma membrane of S-49 lymphoma cells". Steroids 56 (8): 411–9. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(91)90029-U. PMID 1788859.
- Croxtall JD, van Hal PT, Choudhury Q, Gilroy DW, Flower RJ (January 2002). "Different glucocorticoids vary in their genomic and non-genomic mechanism of action in A549 cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 135 (2): 511–9. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704474. PMC 1573139. PMID 11815387.
- Revollo JR, Cidlowski JA (October 2009). "Mechanisms generating diversity in glucocorticoid receptor signaling". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1179: 167–78. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04986.x. PMID 19906239.
- Nakagawa M, Terashima T, D'yachkova Y, Bondy GP, Hogg JC, van Eeden SF (November 1998). "Glucocorticoid-induced granulocytosis: contribution of marrow release and demargination of intravascular granulocytes". Circulation 98 (21): 2307–13. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.98.21.2307. PMID 9826319.
- Borregaard N, Boxer LA (2010). "Chapter 65: Disorders of Neutrophil Function". In Seligsohn U, Kaushansky K, Lichtman MA, Kipps TJ, Prchal J. Williams Hematology (Eighth Edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 951–988. ISBN 0-07-162151-2.
- Löwenberg M, Verhaar AP, Bilderbeek J, Marle J, Buttgereit F, Peppelenbosch MP, van Deventer SJ, Hommes DW (October 2006). "Glucocorticoids cause rapid dissociation of a T-cell-receptor-associated protein complex containing LCK and FYN". EMBO Rep. 7 (10): 1023–9. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400775. PMC 1618362. PMID 16888650.
- Gardner DG, Gertz BJ, Deschepper CF, Kim DY (October 1988). "Gene for the rat atrial natriuretic peptide is regulated by glucocorticoids in vitro". J. Clin. Invest. 82 (4): 1275–81. doi:10.1172/JCI113726. PMC 442679. PMID 2971674.
- Dananberg J, Grekin RJ (November 1992). "Corticoid regulation of atrial natriuretic factor secretion and gene expression". Am. J. Physiol. 263 (5 Pt 2): H1377–81. PMID 1443192.
- From Liapi and Chrousos (ref. 2); Chapter 14. Glucocorticoid Therapy and Adrenal Suppression; http://www.endotext.org/adrenal/adrenal14/adrenalframe14.htm
- Leung DY, Hanifin JM, Charlesworth EN, et al. (September 1997). "Disease management of atopic dermatitis: a practice parameter". Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 79 (3): 197–211. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63003-7. PMID 9305225. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- Leung DY, Bloom JW (January 2003). "Update on glucocorticoid action and resistance". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111 (1): 3–22; quiz 23. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.97. PMID 12532089.
- Goppelt-Struebe M, Wolter D, Resch K (December 1989). "Glucocorticoids inhibit prostaglandin synthesis not only at the level of phospholipase A2 but also at the level of cyclo-oxygenase/PGE isomerase". Br. J. Pharmacol. 98 (4): 1287–95. PMC 1854794. PMID 2514948.
- Rod Flower; Humphrey P. Rang; Maureen M. Dale; Ritter, James M. (2007). Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-06911-5.
- Rado JP, Blumenfeld G, Hammer S (November 1959). "The effect of prednisone and 6-methylprednisolone on mercurial diuresis in patients with refractory cardiac edema". Am. J. Med. Sci. 238: 542–51. PMID 14435747.
- Riemer AD (April 1958). "Application of the newer corticosteroids to augment diuresis in congestive heart failure". Am. J. Cardiol. 1 (4): 488–96. PMID 13520608.
- Newman DA (February 1959). "Reversal of intractable cardiac edema with prednisone". N Y State J Med 59 (4): 625–33. PMID 13632954.
- Zhang H, Liu C, Ji Z, Liu G, Zhao Q, Ao YG, Wang L, Deng B, Zhen Y, Tian L, Ji L, Liu K (September 2008). "Prednisone adding to usual care treatment for refractory decompensated congestive heart failure". Int Heart J 49 (5): 587–95. PMID 18971570.
- Liu C, Liu G, Zhou C, Ji Z, Zhen Y, Liu K (September 2007). "Potent diuretic effects of prednisone in heart failure patients with refractory diuretic resistance". Can J Cardiol 23 (11): 865–8. PMC 2651362. PMID 17876376.
- Liu C, Chen H, Zhou C, Ji Z, Liu G, Gao Y, Tian L, Yao L, Zheng Y, Zhao Q, Liu K (October 2006). "Potent potentiating diuretic effects of prednisone in congestive heart failure". J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 48 (4): 173–6. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000245242.57088.5b. PMID 17086096.
- Massari F, Mastropasqua F, Iacoviello M, Nuzzolese V, Torres D, Parrinello G (March 2012). "The glucocorticoid in acute decompensated heart failure: Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde?". Am J Emerg Med 30 (3): 517.e5–10. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2011.01.023. PMID 21406321.
- Gennari C (May 1993). "Differential effect of glucocorticoids on calcium absorption and bone mass". Br. J. Rheumatol. 32 Suppl 2: 11–4. PMID 8495275.
- Keenan PA, Jacobson MW, Soleymani RM, Mayes MD, Stress ME, Yaldoo DT (December 1996). "The effect on memory of chronic prednisone treatment in patients with systemic disease". Neurology 47 (6): 1396–402. PMID 8960717.
- Klein NC, Go CH, Cunha BA (June 2001). "Infections associated with steroid use". Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 15 (2): 423–32, viii. PMID 11447704.
- Glucocorticoids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Bowen R (2006-05-26). "Glucocorticoids". Colorado State University. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- Wolkowitz OM, Burke H, Epel ES, Reus VI (October 2009). "Glucocorticoids. Mood, memory, and mechanisms". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1179: 19–40. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04980.x. PMID 19906230.