Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase is a type of enzyme called a phosphotransferase and is involved in mammalian starch and sucrose metabolism (KEGG, 22.214.171.124). It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to glucose-1-phosphate, yielding 3-phosphoglycerate and glucose-1,6-bisphosphate.
(image courtesy of the BRENDA enzyme database)
The enzyme requires a divalent metal ion cofactor. Zinc 2+, Magnesium 2+, Manganese 2+, Calcium 2+, Nickel 2+, Copper 2+, Cadmium 2+ are all proven effective cofactors. Additionally, the enzyme appears to function optimally in a pH range from 7.3-8.7 and at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.
Metabolic significance of the catalyzed reaction
The main product, glucose-1,6-bisphosphate, appears to have several functions:
Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate is most likely used in correlation with gluconeolysis. The product’s inhibition of hexokinase and activation of PFK-1 and pyruvate kinase is indicative of its role in glycolysis. Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate inhibit hexokinase stopping the production glucose-6-phosphate from D-glucose. Its activation of PFK-1 and pyruvate kinase shows that glycolysis still continues without the production of glucose-6-phosphate from D-glucose. This means that the glucose-6-phosphate needed for glycolysis most likely comes from gluconeolysis.
The reactant glucose-1-phosphate is produced by gluconeolysis. This reactant can also form D-glucose-6-phosphate, which is needed for glycolysis. It can therefore be inferred that it is possible when glucose-1-phosphate is produced, it makes glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (with glucose-1,6-bisophosphate synthase) and glucose-6-phosphate. The glucose-1,6-bisphosphate increase the activity of glycolysis, of which glucose-6-phosphate is a reagent.
In addition, one of the reactants (1,3-bisphosphoglycerate) and one of the products (3-phosphoglycerate) are intermediates in the 'payoff' phase of glycolysis. In other words, two molecules involved with glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase are able to be both created and recycled in the glycolytic pathway.
The reactant glucose 1-phosphate is an important precursor molecule in many different pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Regulation of the enzyme
Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase is allosterically inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate (a product), citrate, lithium, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and acetyl CoA.
The inhibition of the enzyme by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is most likely a feedback inhibition due to the product of the enzyme (glucose-1,6-bisphosphate) activation of PFK-1 (the enzyme which produces fructose-1,6-bisphophate). When too much fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is produced, it inhibited the production of more PFK-1 activator.
The enzyme is also inhibited by PEP, which is a reagent of pyruvate kinase. The product of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase (glucose-1,6-bisphosphate) activates pyruvate kinase.
Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase appears to be activated by the presence of one of its substrates: 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate).
No structure determination of glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase has been documented to date. Nevertheless, studies have shown that its structure appears to be markedly similar to a related enzyme called phosphoglucomutase. Both enzymes contain serine linked phosphates in their active sites, both have the same molecular weights, and both require a metal ion cofactor. Perhaps most importantly, both enzymes produce glucose-1,6-bisphosphate as either a product or an intermediate.
KEGG: starch and sucrose metabolism with glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase (EC# 126.96.36.199)
BRENDA enzyme database link for glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase (EC# 188.8.131.52)
Structure of phosphoglucomutase in the protein data bank
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