Glucuronidation

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Glucuronidation is the addition of glucuronic acid to a substrate. Glucuronidation is often involved in xenobiotic metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids. These linkages involve glycosidic bonds.[1]

Mechanism[edit]

Glucuronidation consists of transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a substrate by any of several types of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.

GlucuronidationBiphenylAmine.svg

UDP-glucuronic acid (glucuronic acid linked via a glycosidic bond to uridine diphosphate) is an intermediate in the process and is formed in the liver. One example is the N-glucuronidation of an aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl, by UGT1A4 or UGT1A9 from human, rat, or mouse liver.[2]

The substances resulting from glucuronidation are known as glucuronides (or glucuronosides) and are typically much more water-soluble than non-glucuronic acid-containing substance from which they were originally synthesised. The human body uses glucuronidation to make a large variety of substances more water-soluble, and, in this way, allow for their subsequent elimination from the body through urine or feces (via bile from the liver). Hormones may also be glucuronidated to allow for easier transport around the body. Pharmacologists have linked drugs to glucuronic acid to allow for more effective delivery of a broad range of substances. Sometimes toxic substances are also less toxic after glucuronidation.

The conjugation of xenobiotic molecules with hydrophilic molecular species such as glucuronic acid is known as phase II metabolism.

Sites[edit]

Glucuronidation occurs mainly in the liver, although the enzyme responsible for its catalysis, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, has been found in all major body organs, e.g., intestine, kidneys, brain, adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus.[3][4]

General influencing factors[edit]

Various factors affect the rate of glucuronidation, in turn causing increased or decreased glucuronidation of various substances, in turn affecting their clearance. Generally, an increased rate of glucuronidation results in less effect of affected drugs or compounds, and vice versa.

Factor Effect on glucuronidation[5] Main drugs or compounds affected[5]
Age Infant Chloramphenicol, morphine, acetaminophen, bilirubin, steroids
Elderly ↑ or unchanged No change found for acetaminophen, oxazepam, temazepam, or propranolol.
Decreased clearance found for codeine-6-glucuronide, and decreased unbound clearance for oxazepam in the very elderly.
Gender Females Clearance higher in males for acetaminophen, oxazepam, temazepam, and propranolol. Possible additive role with CYP1A2 resulting in higher clozapine and olanzapine concentrations in females
Males
Body habitus Overweight Clearance of lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, and acetaminophen likely the result of an increase in liver size and quantity of enzyme
Underweight/malnourished Chloramphenicol, acetaminophen
Disease states Fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis Zidovudine, oxazepam, lamotrigine
Hypothyroidism Oxazepam, acetaminophen
HIV Acetaminophen
Tobacco smoking Propranolol, oxazepam, lorazepam, acetaminophen. Possible additive role with CYP1A2 induction causing decreased clozapine and olanzapine concentration.

Affected drugs[edit]

Many drugs which are substrates for glucuronidation as part of their metabolism are significantly affected by inhibitors or inducers of their specific glucuronisyltransferase types:

Substrate Inhibitors of glucuronidation[5] Inducers of glucuronidation,[5][6]
Morphine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Clomipramine
  • Clonazepam
  • Diazepam
  • Flurnitrazepam
  • Lorazepam
  • Nitrazepam
  • Oxazepam
  • Codeine
  • Rifampin
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Phenobarbital
Oxazepam
  • Ethinylestradiol
  • Fenoprofen
  • Ibuprofen
  • Ketoprofen
  • Naproxen
  • Phenobarbitone
  • Phenytoin
Bilirubin
  • Phenobarbital
Acetaminophen
  • Ethinylestradiol
  • Probenecid
  • Propranolol
Androsterone
  • Promethazine
  • Chlorpromazine
Carbamazepine-
10,1 1-transdiol
  • Valproic acid
Codeine
  • Amitriptyline
  • Diclofenac
Lamotrigine
  • Sertraline
  • Valproic acid
Lorazepam
  • Ethinylestradiol
  • Probenecid
  • Valproic acid
Temazepam
  • Probenecid
Testosterone
  • Amitriptyline
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Imipramine
  • Promethazine
Zidovudine
  • Probenecid
  • Valproic acid

References[edit]

  1. ^ King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T (2000). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Curr. Drug Metab. 1 (2): 143–61. doi:10.2174/1389200003339171. PMID 11465080. 
  2. ^ Al-Zoughool M., Talaska, G. (2006). "4-Aminobiphenyl N-glucuronidation by liver microsomes: optimization of the reaction conditions and characterization of the UDP-glucoronosyltransferase isoforms". J. Appl. Toxicology 26 (6): 524–532. doi:10.1002/jat.1172. PMID 17080401. 
  3. ^ Ohno, Shuji; Nakajin, Shizuo (2008-10-06). "Determination of mRNA Expression of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Application for Localization in Various Human Tissues by Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction". Drug Metabolism and Disposition (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics) 37 (1): 32–40. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.023598. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  4. ^ Bock K, Köhle C (2005). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6: structural, functional, and regulatory aspects". Methods enzymol. 400: 57–75. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(05)00004-2. PMID 16399343. 
  5. ^ a b c d Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is: Liston, H.; Markowitz, J.; Devane, C. (2001). "Drug glucuronidation in clinical psychopharmacology". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 21 (5): 500–515. doi:10.1097/00004714-200110000-00008. PMID 11593076.  edit
  6. ^ Neil B. Sandson, Drug-Drug Interaction Primer