Alpha-GPC

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Alpha-GPC
Choline alfoscerate.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
[(2S)-2,3-Dihydroxypropyl] 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate
Clinical data
Legal status
  • OTC
Identifiers
CAS number 28319-77-9 N
ATC code N07AX02
PubChem CID 71920
ChemSpider 571409 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:55397 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1567463 N
Chemical data
Formula C8H20NO6P 
Mol. mass 257.221 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor[1] which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease[2] and dementia.[3]

Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter.[2] It is a non-prescription drug in most countries and in the United States it is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).[4]

Efficacy[edit]

Studies have investigated the efficacy of alpha-GPC for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance.[5] Commonly used doses are 300 to 1,200 mg daily.[4]

Production[edit]

Industrially, alpha-GPC is produced by the chemical or enzymatic deacylation of phosphatidylcholine enriched soya phospholipids followed by chromatographic purification. Alpha-GPC may also be derived in small amounts from highly purified soy lecithin.[citation needed]

Storage[edit]

Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable, however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquified or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Jesus Moreno Moreno M (January 2003). "Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Clin Ther 25 (1): 178–93. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3. PMID 12637119. 
  2. ^ a b Parnetti, Lucilla; et al. (2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences 257 (1–2): 264–9. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043. PMID 17331541. 
  3. ^ Doggrell SA & Evans S; Evans (October 2003). "Treatment of dementia with neurotransmission modulation". Expert Opin Investig Drugs 12 (10): 1633–1654. doi:10.1517/13543784.12.10.1633. PMID 14519085. 
  4. ^ a b US Food and Drug Administration: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Determination for the Use of AlphaSize Alpha-Glycerylphosphoryl Choline
  5. ^ Barbagallo Sangiorgi, G; Barbagallo, M; Giordano, M; Meli, M; Panzarasa, R (1994). "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial". Ann NY Acad Sci 717: 253–69. PMID 8030842.