Alpha-GPC

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Alpha-GPC
Choline alfoscerate.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
[(2S)-2,3-Dihydroxypropyl] 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate
Clinical data
Legal status OTC
Identifiers
CAS number 28319-77-9 N
ATC code N07AX02
PubChem CID 71920
ChemSpider 571409 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:55397 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1567463 N
Chemical data
Formula C8H20NO6P 
Mol. mass 257.221 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor[1] which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease[2] and dementia.[3] Alpha-GPC is also used as a nootropic dietary supplement to enhance memory and cognition.[4][not in citation given]

Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter.[2] It is a non-prescription drug in most countries due to its Generally Recognised As Safe (GRAS) status.[5]

Efficacy[edit]

Studies have investigated its efficacy for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance.[6] Commonly used doses are 300 to 1,200 mg daily.[citation needed] Recent studies in healthy humans also show that high GPCh level in hippocampus is significant for memory capacity and permanency.[7]

Storage[edit]

Many users report degradation of Alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. It should be noted that Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. 99%+ Alpha-GPC will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with Alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with Alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing Alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable, however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquified or gelled Alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.

Production[edit]

Alpha-GPC may be derived from highly purified soy lecithin in small volumes. Industrially, it is produced by the chemical or enzymatic deacylation of phosphatidylcholine enriched soya phospholipids followed by chromatographic purification.

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Jesus Moreno Moreno M (January 2003). "Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Clin Ther 25 (1): 178–93. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3. PMID 12637119. 
  2. ^ a b Parnetti, Lucilla; et al. (2007). "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences 257 (1–2): 264–9. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.01.043. PMID 17331541. 
  3. ^ Doggrell SA & Evans S (October 2003). "Treatment of dementia with neurotransmission modulation". Expert Opin Investig Drugs 12 (10): 1633–1654. doi:10.1517/13543784.12.10.1633. PMID 14519085. 
  4. ^ Takashi Kawamura M.S. a, Takeshi Okubo Ph.D. b, Koji Sato Ph.D. a, Satoshi Fujita Ph.D. a, Kazushige Goto Ph.D. a, Takafumi Hamaoka M.D., Ph.D. a, Motoyuki Iemitsu Ph.D. (2012). "Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults". Nutrition 28: 1122–1126. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.011. 
  5. ^ USFDA
  6. ^ Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. "Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks." An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.
  7. ^ Kozlovskiy, S., Vartanov, A., and Pyasik, M. (2013). Human memory and glycerophosphocholine level in hippocampus. In The 13th European Congress of Psychology. European Federation of Psychologists' Associations Stockholm, Sweden.