Gödöllő

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Gödöllő
  • Getterle
  • Jedľovo
Town
University of Gödöllő
University of Gödöllő
Official seal of Gödöllő
Seal
Nickname(s): City of Sissi
Gödöllő is located in Hungary
Gödöllő
Gödöllő
Location of Gödöllő
Gödöllő is located in Pest County
Gödöllő
Gödöllő
Location of Gödöllő
Coordinates: 47°36′0.00″N 19°22′0.12″E / 47.6000000°N 19.3667000°E / 47.6000000; 19.3667000Coordinates: 47°36′0.00″N 19°22′0.12″E / 47.6000000°N 19.3667000°E / 47.6000000; 19.3667000
Country Hungary Hungary
Region Central Hungary
County Pest
Metro Budapest metropolitan area
Settled 1349
Incorporated 1868
Government
 • Mayor dr. György Gémesi
Area
 • Town 61.92 km2 (23.91 sq mi)
 • Land 58.36 km2 (22.53 sq mi)
 • Water 3.56 km2 (1.37 sq mi)
Area rank 97th in Hungary
Elevation 207 m (690 ft)
Highest elevation 317 m (1,040 ft)
Lowest elevation 189 m (620 ft)
Population (1 January 2010)[1]
 • Town 34 396 Increase
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 511.53/km2 (1,324.9/sq mi)
 • Urban 104 471
 • Demonym gödöllői
Population by ethnicity[1]
 • Hungarians 94.4%
 • Gypsies 1.1%
 • Germans 0.6%
 • Slovaks 0.4%
 • Ukrainians 0.1%
Population by Religion[1]
 • Roman Catholics 52.0%
 • Atheists 15.3%
 • Calvinists 14.8%
 • Lutherans 3.1%
 • Greek Catholics 1.2%
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal Code 2100
Area code(s) 28
Motorways M3 motorway (Hungary) M31 motorway (Hungary)
Website gödöllő.hu

Gödöllő (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɡødølːøː]) (German: Getterle, Slovak: Jedľovo) is a town situated in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, about 30 km (20 mi) northeast from the outskirts of Budapest. Its population is 34,396 according to the 2010 census and is growing rapidly. It can be easily reached from Budapest with the suburban railway (HÉV). Gödöllő is home to the Szent István University, the main education institute of agriculture in Hungary. The palace at Gödöllő was originally built for the aristocratic Grassalkovich family, later Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary and his wife Elisabeth ("Sisi") had their summer residence here.

Hungary hosted the 4th World Scout Jamboree in August 1933 at the Royal Forest of Gödöllő, during which 25,792 Scouts from 54 nations camped together. The camp chief was Pál Teleki, a member of the World Scout Committee who later became Prime Minister of Hungary.

Communism saw much of the town's original one-storey housing levelled to make way for the blocks of flats which continue to dominate the town centre, as well as much of the Royal Forest and Elisabeth's Park levelled for industrial use.

History[edit]

Stone Age[edit]

As far back as the Stone Age this area was populated.

Ancient Times[edit]

The earliest evidence of occupation is from the Roman period. The Devil's Dykes (Hungarian: Ördögárok) is situated south from Gödöllő. It is also known as the Csörsz árka ("Csörsz Ditch") or the Limes Sarmatiae (Latin for "Sarmatian border"), are several lines of Roman fortifications built mostly during the reign of Constantine I (312–337).

Middle-Age[edit]

The earliest available written data on the property rights in Gödöllő date back to the early 14th century. At that time Gödöllő was separated from the community of Besnyő which had a larger population. The settlement was then owned by families of the lesser nobility. By the middle of the 15th century Gödöllő developed into a village.

Turkish Rule[edit]

Hamvay Mansion, now the Town Museum

After the disastrous defeat at Mohács in 1526, the invading Turkish troops occupied Buda and then Gödöllő, too. As a result of this, the population decreased to merely a few families. No data on property rights during the 160-year long Turkish rule remain.

By the mid-17th century, Gödöllő again became a village. Its then proprietor, Ferenc Hamvay, was the first owner who resided in the locality, in his country house in the village centre. At that time the village consisted of a few houses with walls of wattle and daub and thatched roofs in addition to the mansion and the reform church.

Habsburg Rule[edit]

Antal Grassalkovich

A decisive turn in the life of Gödöllő was brought about by Antal Grassalkovich I (1694–1771) who was one of the greatest noblemen of 18th-century Hungary. Grassalkovich, born of an impoverished family of the lesser nobility, began his career as a lawyer in 1715. A year later he was already working with the "Hofkammer" (The Royal Chamber, a body of the Habsburg financial administration in the 16–18th centuries). In 1727 he became president of the Commission of New Acquisitions (Neoaquistica Commissio) dealing with the revision and arrangement of the chaotic ownership rights after the Turkish rule. It was in this capacity that he first came across the estate of Gödöllő, whose then proprietress, Krisztina Bossányi, could verify her ownership rights.

Elisabeth (Sissi), Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary.

Increasing in political power and wealth, Grassalkovich planned the development of a large estate, having its centre in Gödöllő. This became possible after the death of Krisztina Bossányi (1737) when Grassalkovich successively purchased the properties from her heirs. He began to build his palatial residence as early as 1741, which, as the greatest Baroque manor house in Hungary is, even today the principle landmark of Gödöllő.

Grassalkovich, who curried favour with King Charles III and Queen Maria Theresa, also managed very successfully the properties of the Treasury. For his economic and political abilities he received first the title of baron and later on became a count.

He took meticulous care in making his properties profitable and in keeping them in good order. On his estates he built 33 churches, including the church in the holy place of Máriabesnyő, and the chapel of the mansion house in Gödöllő. In the centre of Gödöllő he had rows of houses built and settled German artisans and craftsmen there – increasing thereby the number of Roman Catholics alongside the Reformed population. He added a storey to Hamvay House and made it operate as a retreat. In public places Baroque works of art were also made on his initiative (such as the Calvary, the Column of the Holy Virgin, and the statue of St. John of Nepomuk). Owing to his village-planning activities, Gödöllő became a country town in 1763, with the right of holding markets.

The son of Grassalkovich I, Antal Grassalkovich II (1734–1794), who was raised to the rank of prince, cared little for the estate. He leased out the properties one after the other, liquidated the household in Gödöllő and moved to Vienna. Following his death, the estate, heavily charged with debts, was inherited by his son, Antal Grassalkovich III. Grassalkovich III, who continued to increase the debts, died without opffspring, hence the properties were inherited on the female line.

At that time, the mansion house came to be the scene of an important political event. In the course of the spring campaign of the 1848-1849 War of Independence, the Hungarian soldiers gained a victory in Isaszeg on 6 April 1849. After this, Lajos Kossuth and his generals set up quarters in the mansion house of Gödöllő. Here a war council was held where the idea to dethrone the Habsburgs and to fight for Hungarian independence emerged.

The statue of Empress Elisabeth of Austria in the Erzsébet Park

In 1850 a banker, György Sina, purchased the estate of Gödöllő. He, and later on his son, rarely stayed in Gödöllő; they considered the transaction merely a capital investment and in 1864 sold the whole of the property to a Belgian bank. The Hungarian state bought it back from this bank in March 1867 and gave it, together with the mansion house, to Francis Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth of Austria ("Sissi") as a coronation gift. From that time on, the royal family stayed in Gödöllő mainly in spring and autumn, and this resulted in a significant upswing in the life of the town. The Northern railway line, for instance, – contrary to the original plan – passes close to Gödöllő because the royal summer resort was there. The Gas Factory, destined to produce the gas needed for the railway station and the royal mansion house, was accomplished by 1874. The number of artisans and small shopkeepers increased. Many of them were provided with work by the estate and the court. In 1869 the Gödöllő Savings Bank was established, its first shareholder being Francis Joseph I. The country town (that is, from 1864 on, a large village as an administrative division) grew into an increasingly popular summer resort, owing, in addition to the presence of the royal family, to its natural endowments and its benign fresh air. Annually 300–400 families of Pest spent the summer season in Gödöllő, which was growing richer and richer with bathing places and restaurants or village inns. The "Hotel Queen Elisabeth", established in the Hamvay mansion, became the scene of a teeming social life. The Casino was open there and various social clubs and circles often organised their evening parties linked with theatrical performances.

The agrarian character of the village began to take shape at the tum of the century. The legal successors of the agricultural training institutes and model farms established in the territories of the royal demesne are still operating today. Besides, the number of artisans further increased since, partly because the royal summer resort was here; no big industry had settled in Gödöllő: A result of the transport development was the lengthening of the suburban ("HÉV") railway line, originally between Budapest and Kerepes, up to Gödöllő. This line still works well today.

The Old Town Hall, today it is the Hotel Erzsébet Királyné

Gödöllő at the turn of the century, also wrote its name into the history book of Hungarian arts. From 1901 to 1920 the only organised artists colony of the period of the Hungarian Sezession was working here.

This was the time when secondary school teaching started in the community. The Grammar School of the Minorites opened its gates in 1911. By 1924, the Grammar School of the Premonstratensian Order had also been built.

During the World Wars[edit]

In autumn 1918 important political events again occurred in the mansion house. It was here that King Charles IV recognised the resignation of the Hungarian government. In those days, several politicians turned up in the mansion, among others Mihály Károlyi who, after some discussions which ended in failure, was designated prime minister by the victorious revolution. In 1919 the military general staff of the Hungarian Soviet Republic had their headquarters in the mansion house. From 1920 on there was a time similar to that of the king in the life of Gödöllő since the mansion house became a seat of the governor, Miklós Horthy This era, lasting almost two and a half decades, influenced favourably the development of the village. This manifested itself in the ordered nature of the settlement and also in the relatively higher level of public supply.

Hosts 4th World Scout Jamboree[edit]

Gödöllő in the area around the royal palace hosted the 4th World Scout Jamboree during 2–13 August 1933 at the Royal Forest of Gödöllő. A total of 25,792 Scouts from 54 nations camped on the site. The Jamboree Camp Chief was the Chief Scout of Hungary, Count Teleki Pál, a member of the International Committee who had previously been and would later once again become Prime Minister of Hungary. The General Camp Manager was Vitez Kisbarnaki Ferenc Farkas, a general staff officer of the Hungarian Royal Army, who was later appointed the Chief Scout of Hungary on Teleki Pál's death in 1941.[2] The Scouts lived in ten sub-camps. The overall encampment was serviced by its own post office, ambulance station, hospital, a steam railroad and station, an electric local streetcar line with four stations,[3] radio service, 14 km (9 mi) water supply with 9 wells and an air-service.[4]

This event was notable as the first international gathering where Air Scouts were represented, including the famous pilots, Hungarian László Almásy and Austrian Robert Kronfeld.[5][6] In 1939 the royal park also hosted a jamboree of girl scouts.

Gödöllő and The Holocaust[edit]

Gödöllő has records of a Jewish population since the first half of the 19th century,[7] suppliers to the court of Francis Joseph I since 1867:[7] a synagogue was built in 1870, and a Jewish school operated from 1857 to 1944. The Jewish population was 195 in 1880, and 276 in 1930, after reaching a peak of 451 in 1920.[7] After World War I, the Jews were severely persecuted, particularly after László Endre's 1923 appointment as district commissioner of the town.[7]

The Jewish population of Gödöllő was deported to Auschwitz via Hatvan on 12 June 1944[7][8] as part of the so-called "emergency" deportations from Zala County and other parts of southern Hungary, rather than as part of the operations in Zones III and IV. Randolph L. Braham suggests this order came directly from Hungarian government circles, citing allegations that it was "to enable Miklós Horthy to walk around the town without having to see any Jews and to make it possible for him to personally experience the consequences of the anti-Jewish measures."[8] The town was at this time the "summer residence" of Horthy,[8] regent of Hungary.

Soviet Era[edit]

After World War II the development of the community took a new turn. Soviet troops were stationed in part of the mansion house, while in a larger part there was a social welfare home. In contrast to its earlier character as a summer-resort, industry started in Gödöllő. The first step in this direction was the building of the "Ganz" Factory of Electric Measuring Instruments in 1950, which was then followed by other industrial plants. It was in the same year that the University of Agricultural Sciences moved into the buildings of the closeddown institute of the Premonstratensian. This meant the completion of the community's character as an agrarian centre and resulted in a further expansion of the network of agricultural institutions linked to the university.

"Ganz" Factory of Electric Measuring Instruments

The role of the ecclesiastical schools nationalised in 1948 was taken over by the general and secondary schools of the state. In 1951 the School of Apprentices started its activities and in 1955 the "Török Ignác" General State Grammar School began its work. The library of the community opened in 1955 and since then it has been extended with departments for children and for music.

On 1 January 1966, Gödöllő was promoted to the rank of a town. The present face of the town began to take shape at that time. The old rows of peasant houses disappeared one after the other, giving place to housing estates and public institutions.

In the cultural life of the town a new era started in 1981 when the "Sándor Petőfi" Cultural Centre was inaugurated which, with its varied programmes, soon attained nationwide renown. During this decade the face of the town centre changed a lot. In the main square a bank and a travel agency were built. The present Town Hall was finished in 1986. Opposite this the new building of the Grammar School was inaugurated in 1988. It was in this year that Hamvay House, which held the Collection of Local History since 1978, received the rank of a Museum. At the same time the collection of mechanical machinery of the Agricultural University was opened.

Political changes which came about at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s brought about significant changes in the life of Gödöllő, too. Some of the industrial projects settled here in the 1950s closed, while others which were viable were privatised. The number of industrial and service units in private ownership increased and quickly transformed the appearance of the town.

The influence of the changes also made itself felt in education. The church schools restarted their activities. In 1989 the Capuchins and the Salvator Sisters received back their monasteries; in 1990 the Premonstratensian returned to Gödöllő and, after having opened their school, built their church in 1993.

After the End of Communism[edit]

The signal of the 2011 Hungarian EU Presidency

In 1990, after the departure of the Soviet troops, clearing the almost ruined Grassalkovich mansion house started, which was essential if the restoration programme begun in 1985 was to be accelerated. As a result of this, the mansion house may, after a few years, receive guests visiting the town in its full splendour.[citation needed]

During the 2011 Hungarian EU Presidency, the informal ministerial meetings were held in the Royal Palace, because the government didn't want the delegation's moving to paralyze the traffic in Budapest.[citation needed] The main venues were the Baroque Palace's riding school and the reconstructed stables.[citation needed]

The town hosted The 10th ASEM Foreign Ministers' Meeting which is an interregional forum. It consists of the 27 members of the European Union (EU), the European Commission, the 10 members of the ASEAN Secretariat, China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, India, Mongolia, Pakistan, Australia, Russia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Norway, and Switzerland. The main components of the ASEM process are the following so-called three pillars: Political Pillar,Economical Pillar,Social, Cultural and Educational Pillar. In general, the process is considered by the parties involved to be a way of deepening the relations between Asia and Europe at all levels, which is deemed necessary to achieve a more balanced political and economic world order. The process is enhanced by the biennial meetings of heads of state, alternately in Europe and Asia, and political, economic, and socio-cultural meetings and events at various levels.

The Royal Palace of Gödöllő[edit]

Main article: Gödöllő Palace
The Palace from bird's-eye view
Grassalkovich-kastély (7051. számú műemlék) 8.jpg
Kastélypark.jpg

Early history of the Palace[edit]

The Palace is one of the most important, largest monuments of Hungarian Palace architecture. Its builder, Count Antal Grassalkovich I (1694–1771) was a typical figure of the regrouping Hungarian aristocracy of the 18th century. He was a Royal Septemvir, president of the Hungarian Chamber, and confidant of Empress Maria Theresa (1740–1780). The construction began around 1733, under the direction of András Mayerhoffer (1690–1771) a Salzburg builder.

The Palace has a double U shape, and is surrounded by an enormous park. The building underwent several enlargements and modifications during the 18th century, its present shape was established in the time of the third generation of the Grassalkovich family. By then the building had 8 wings, and – besides the residential part – it contained a church, a theatre, a riding-hall, a hothouse, a greenhouse for flowers and an orangery.

After the male side of the Grassalkovich family died out in 1841, the Palace had several owners, and in 1867 it was bought for the Crown. The decision of Parliament designated it the resting residence of the Hungarian Monarch. This state lasted until 1918, thus Francis Joseph (1867–1916) and later Charles IV and the royal family spent several months in Gödöllő every year.

During this period the Palace became the symbol of independent Hungarian statehood, and, as a residential centre it had a political significance of it own. It was Empress Elisabeth (1837–1898) who specially loved staying in Gödöllő, where the Hungarian personnel and neighbourhood of the Palace always warmly welcomed her. Following her tragic death, a memorial park adjoining the upper-garden was built.

The period of the royal decades also brought their enlargements and modifications. The suites were made more comfortable, a marble stable and cart-house were built. The riding hall was remodelled.

Between the two world wars the Palace served as the residence for Regent Miklós Horthy. No significant building took place during this period, apart from an air-raid shelter in the southern front garden. After 1945 the Palace, like many other buildings in Hungary, fell into decay.

Soviet and Hungarian troops used the building, some of the beautifully decorated rooms were used for an Old People's Home, and the park was divided into smaller plots of land.

The beginning of rehabilitation and preservation[edit]

The Palace from the Royal Park

The protection of the Palace as a historical monument started in 1981, when the National Board for Monuments launched its Palace project. The most important tasks of preservation began in 1986 and were completed in the end of 1991. During this time the Palace was partly emptied. By 1990 the Soviet troops left the southern wing, then the Old People's Home was closed down.

During this time the roof of the riding-hall and the stable-wing was reconstructed, the façade of the building was renovated, as well as the trussing of the central wings and the double cupola. Research was carried out in the archives and in the building, and thus the different building periods of the monument were defined. Painted walls and rooms were uncovered which revealed the splendour of the 18–19th centuries. Architectural structures were discovered, and so were the different structures of the park.

The Reconstructed Quarters[edit]

Grassalkovich-kastély (7051. számú műemlék) 2.jpg

The utilisation of the main front wings of the Palace was designed as a clear and well-developed architectural project. The first floor's 23 rooms (nearly 1000 sq. m.) accommodate the interior exhibition. The emphasis was laid on the revival of the atmosphere of the royal period and the introduction of the time of the Grassalkovich family.

Reconstruction is the principle of the interiors completed so far creating the state as it was around the 1880s. One of the most striking features of the Empress Elisabeth Exhibition is its historical accuracy.

The painted lobby and the Grand Hall on the first floor are also used for various programmes, with a link to the programme organisation and gastronomic activity unit on the ground floor. Right before the double drive there is a car park for the visitors, suitable for 60 cars and 5 buses at a time. The visitor service units and the connected infrastructure are situated on the ground floor: cloak-room, ticket office, tourist information centre, toilets (also for the disabled), payphone, etc. Various retail units are found on the northern side: a souvenir centre, photo studio, while on the southern side there is a coffee shop and several function rooms. The northern front garden, at the main façade with its so-called Italian bastions and walkways was reconstructed with historical authenticity in 1998. The cheerful inner court is a resting place, where various outdoor programmes are held. The 26-hectare English park, which is open to the public every year, was declared a nature reserve in 1998. Its botanical curiosities are much appreciated by the visitors. Riding competitions are held in the park annually.

Main Square[edit]

The House of Arts, Gödöllő
Main Square

Gödöllő's main square, Szabadság Tér (Liberty Square), is reached with a short walk from the suburban train (HEV) stop of the same name. Its sights are: right from Dózsa György road: the Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Reformed Church (9 Liberty square), Town Hall (7 Liberty square), the World Peace Gong (right-hand of Town Hall), Hamvay Mansion (5 Liberty square), Gödöllő Town Museum (5 Liberty square), town market and the Pelican Well (5 Liberty square).

As a part of the New Hungary Development Plan, the town's main square has been completely renovated, with working completed in 2011, in an attempt to restore the atmosphere of the town to that for which it was known prior to the Socialist Party's building programme, which demolished much of the town centre to make way for blocks of flats. As part of the renovation, the square has been pedestrianised, forty-six Secession era-style street lights added, and a singing fountain is being built in front of the Reformed Church.

Reformed Church[edit]

Reformed Church

The baroque style Reformed Church, built in 1745 is an onion dome church with a beautifully simple façade. The building process was patronized; the money and the plot for the church was donated by Antal Grassalkovich I who demolished a Reformed Church built in 1657 at the site of the present Royal Castle. The new baroque church was consecrated in 1745. The church was renovated several times during history: in 1912 the complete painted and carved wooden ceiling and the chancel were changed into concrete. The prang in 1945 affected the church seriously and the renovation processes took very long. The renovation of the tower was finished in 1993.

World Peace Gong[edit]

World Peace Gong
Royal Waiting Room

The World Peace Gong on the Szabadság (Liberty) square is the fifth in the world and the first and only European peace gong which was given by Indonesia as a present and a symbol of world wide friendship to the town of Gödöllő. The gong, a symbol of fraternity, shows the flags of all the countries, the symbols of all the religions and the maps of the oceans of the Earth. It was created by the World Peace Committee as a memento for the bomb attack in Bali in 2002. The Gong was offered to Gödöllő in 2007 as an acknowledgement of advances in civilization, technology and economy as well as the peaceful social circumstances in Gödöllő. The Gong weighs 150 kg; it is a 2m diameter bronze circle relic, the work of Djuyoto Suntani, an Indonesian sculptor. The gong was inaugurated on 2 May 2007. The story of the gong is engraved in the small plaque in front and the park around it is populated with shrub species typically found in the Tropics. The gong remains in excellent condition, apart from the scratching out, prior to 2009, of the Israeli flag.

Hamvay Mansion[edit]

The mansion, a one-story characteristic baroque building in the town center recalls Gödöllő's baroque era with its typical yellow color, the wrought-iron lamps, and the inner garden with its arcade. Ferenc Hamvay, landed lord of Gödöllő, built this mansion (a ground level building at the time) in 1662. In the 18th century it was rebuilt and became a one story building when Antal Grassalkovich I made it a guesthouse. Then it fulfilled a number of functions: for example, Gödöllő's first pharmacy was opened in it in 1814. Some of the ceiling decorations in the interiors of the ground floor are probably left from that time. In the 19th century it became the hotel bearing the name of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary. From this time on the hotel was the venue for numerous cultural and artistic events like theatre performances, it hosted a casino and a number of balls in its Ball Room. The Commemorative Room arranged in 1927 in the school operating in the building until 1988 is home to a collection of souvenirs of Gödöllő's history and cultural life. Later on in 1978 another collection on local history was exhibited, the successor of which came to be the Town Museum Gödöllő. The Hamvay Mansion and the market in its garden were renovated in 1998–99; the works were awarded numerous national and international prizes.

Town Market[edit]

The modern town market is a lively place. Open on weekday mornings through to the early afternoon, it includes outdoor and indoor stands selling fresh produce, flowers, and local craft work, with some stall holders wearing traditional dress. The market has several cafes and a bar.

The Pelican Well[edit]

At the main entrance to the town market stands the Pelican Well; it includes a design featuring a pelican that feeds its young with its own blood.

Climate[edit]

The town has a temperate, transitional climate – somewhere between the mild, snowy weather of Transdanubia, the variable continental climate and the almost sub-Mediterranean weather of the south.

Climate data for Gödöllő
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
25.4
(77.7)
30.2
(86.4)
34.0
(93.2)
39.5
(103.1)
40.7
(105.3)
39.4
(102.9)
35.2
(95.4)
30.8
(87.4)
22.6
(72.7)
19.3
(66.7)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.2
(50.4)
16.3
(61.3)
21.4
(70.5)
24.4
(75.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.0
(78.8)
22.1
(71.8)
16.1
(61)
8.1
(46.6)
3.1
(37.6)
15.0
(59)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
1.1
(34)
5.6
(42.1)
11.1
(52)
15.9
(60.6)
19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
20.2
(68.4)
16.4
(61.5)
11.0
(51.8)
4.8
(40.6)
0.4
(32.7)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.7
(35.1)
6.3
(43.3)
10.8
(51.4)
13.9
(57)
15.4
(59.7)
14.9
(58.8)
11.5
(52.7)
6.7
(44.1)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
6.3
(43.3)
Record low °C (°F) −25.6
(−14.1)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−15.1
(4.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.0
(37.4)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
−3.1
(26.4)
−9.5
(14.9)
−16.4
(2.5)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−25.6
(−14.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 38.5
(1.516)
36.7
(1.445)
37.4
(1.472)
47.2
(1.858)
64.5
(2.539)
69.8
(2.748)
50.4
(1.984)
49.5
(1.949)
42.7
(1.681)
46.9
(1.846)
59.9
(2.358)
49.3
(1.941)
592.8
(23.339)
Avg. precipitation days 7 6 6 6 8 8 7 6 5 5 7 7 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55 84 137 182 230 248 274 255 197 156 67 48 1,933
Source: www.met.hu[9]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Gödöllő is twinned with:

City Coat of Arms Country Since
Giessen[10] Wappen Gießen.svg Germany Germany 1988
Forssa Forssan vaakuna.svg Finland Finland 1990
Miercurea-Ciuc Coa Romania Town Csíkszereda.svg Romania Romania 1990
Берегове – Berehove Beregsz.png Ukraine Ukraine 1991
Wageningen Coat of arms of Wageningen.svg Netherlands Netherlands 1992
Сента – Senta COA Senta.png Serbia Serbia 1994
Dunajská Streda Dunajská Streda - erb.svg Slovakia Slovakia 1994
Laxenburg AUT Laxenburg COA.jpg Austria Austria 1997
Turnhout Turnhout.jpg Belgium Belgium 1999
Hillerød Hillerøds våben.png Denmark Denmark
Żywiec[11] POL Żywiec COA.svg Poland Poland 2002
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Zhangzhou China China 2013

Education[edit]

The Boy Scout, a statue erected in Gödöllő, Hungary to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the 1933 World Jamboree.

Nurseries[edit]

  • 1st Nursery (Palotakert)
  • 2nd Nursery (Kossuth Lajos Street)
  • 3rd Nursery (Premontrei Road)

Kindergartens[edit]

Municipal Kindergartens[edit]

  • Martinovics utcai Óvoda
  • Szent János utcai Óvoda
  • Kazinczy körúti Óvoda
  • Palotakerti Óvoda
  • Tisza utcai Óvoda
  • Táncsics Mihály úti Óvoda
  • Egyetem téri Óvoda
  • Zöld Óvoda

Public Kindergartens[edit]

  • Játékkuckó Magánóvoda
  • Gödöllő Szabad Waldorf Óvoda
  • Stefi Néni Óvodája
  • Tudásfa Tanoda Alapítványi Óvoda
  • Mókus Odú Gyermekóvoda

Elementary Schools[edit]

Municipal Schools[edit]

  • Erkel Ferenc Elementary School
  • Hajós Alfréd Elementary School
  • Damjanich János Elementary School
  • Petőfi Sándor Elementary School
  • Montágh Imre Elementary School, Special Vocational School and Vocational School of Advanced Skills

Church and Public Elementary Schools[edit]

  • Szent Imre Catholic Elementary School
  • Gödöllői Waldorf Elementary School and Secondary Grammar School and Primary Art School

Secondary Schools[edit]

Municipal Secondary Schools[edit]

  • Török Ignác Secondary Grammar School
  • Madách Imre Secondary School, Vocational School and College

Church and Public Secondary Schools[edit]

  • Gödöllői Premontrei Szent Norbert Secondary Grammar School and Church Music Secondary School and College
  • Gödöllői Református Líceum Secondary Grammar School and College
  • Gödöllői Waldorf Elementary School and Secondary Grammar School and Primary Art School

Other Educational Institutions[edit]

  • Frédéric Chopin Music School
  • Summer Day
  • Educational Advisory
  • Institute for School and Speech Therapy
  • Single Teaching Field Service

Szent István University[edit]

The main building of the university's faculty of Mechanical Engineering
The main entrance of the University
The University

The university headquarters are located in the picturesque Gödöllő, but altogether nine faculties and an institution accept students in Budapest, Jászberény, Békéscsaba, Szarvas and Gyula. Most of the schools in Szent István University have one or even two-century long histories. SZIU is Hungary's largest agricultural higher educational institution.

More than 18,000 students study in the seven campuses of the university. In addition to conventional agricultural and environmental sciences, Szent Istvan University offers courses in veterinary medicine, environmental sciences, mechanical engineering, economy and social sciences, architecture, water supply management, medical sciences as well as applied arts.

Amerigo Tot's "The Apotheosis of the Nucleus"[edit]

Amerigo Tot is a sculptor of Hungarian origin. His copper relief created on an imposing 120 square metres entitled "The Apotheosis of the Nucleus" can be seen in the University Hall of the Faculty of Technical Studies. "I wanted to show the apotheosis of the nucleus in copper...The nucleus, he said, is a general thought. It is the grain for the plant and the beginning for biology as well.' Theoretically grain and soil and woman go together..." said Tot about the theoretical background of the relief. His work was originally designed for the gate of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. The first design was ready in 1970 but, due to a series of historical events it was only inaugurated in 1983 in the presence of the artist, who was by then seriously ill.

Museum of Agricultural Machinery[edit]

The museum hosts the second largest collection of agricultural machinery in the world. On its 6,000 square meters it is home to a collection of more than 2,000 agricultural machines that are still working. Six exhibitions introduce agricultural machinery and curiosities in the history of agricultural techniques. The visitor will be introduced the 2.5 million year-old history of food acquisition and production through some models reconstructed with the help of original designs and machines. It is a true adventure of understanding mankind's tough fight for the daily bread. The exhibitions show the development of the machines from very early times like wind, water and steam powered agricultural machines to modern ones used today. Some 200 agricultural models show the development of food producing machinery together with documentation on the technical history of the respective time. Hungaricums (traditional Hungarian food types) are on display here: more than 300 types of food introduce the traditional food of Hungarians arranged in a thematic order according to regions. The complete history of Hungarian agricultural production is explained in an exhibition in which the visitor can see soil cultivating machines, plant cultivating machines and those for animal husbandry used by the ploughmen in earlier times to modern machines used today.

Geography[edit]

A flower in the Gödöllő Arborétum
The Elisabeth Park
The Brook Rákos

Gödöllő is located at 47°36′00″N 19°22′00″E / 47.60000°N 19.36667°E / 47.60000; 19.36667.

According to the 2010 census, the city has a total area of 61.98 square kilometres (23.93 sq mi). 58.36 square kilometres (22.53 sq mi) of it is land and 1.4 square kilometres (0.54 sq mi) of it (2.25%) is water.

Gödöllő is bordered on the south by the town of Isaszeg, on the east through the forest by the village of Domony, on the west through the other forest by the town of Kerepes, and on the north by Szada.

The Arboretum of Gödöllő, called Franz Joseph Arboretum in the beginning, was established in 1902 on 190 hectares (469ac) of land; the installation completed in 1914. Before World War II, it was considered as the most significant arboretum in Hungary. The city began to expand it in 1960, and today operates 350 hectares (864ac). 90% of the forest is for research purposes and the other 10% is a park. This area is also home to the city's museum of beekeeping (Méhészeti Múzeum).

Parks[edit]

Compared to the size of the city, it has many parks, but there are only 4 large.

  • Erzsébet Park (Park of Empress Elisabeth of Austria)
  • Kastély Park (Park of the Palace)
  • Alsó Park (Downtown Park)
  • Egyetemi Park (University Park)

Hills of Gödöllő[edit]

Hills of Gödöllő

The Hills of Gödöllő is a small-region in Pest county, from the east of Budapest to the River Galga. To the north the Cserhát, to the south and to the east the Alföld and finally to the west the River Danube and the Hills of Buda borders it. As a big landscape it is part of the Északi-középhegység, but its form is rather a transition between mountains and plains.

The average height of 150 to 250 m (492 to 820 ft)) above sea level hills are mostly covered with sand and loess. The highest point of this small-reigon is Margita in Szada with its 345 m (1,132 ft). There is a watershed which also extends through Margita and runs to Albertirsa. From this line, to the west brooks streams into the Danube and to the east into the River Galga which goes into the Tisza.

The most common forest-compositions are maple-oak forest, and lime-oak forest. These forest patches are separated by loess-covered moorlands. Perhaps the most well-known swampy area is the Merzse-mocsár which is located on the edge of Budapest's XVII. district. Significant wildlife can be found here (deer, roe deer, boar), as well as the birdlife is also valuable (pheasant, eagle). Very common bird species are european bee-eater, black woodpecker, green woodpecker, kingfisher, honey buzzard,[disambiguation needed] eurasian hobby, saker falcon.

A smaller region of the Hills became protected in the summer of 1990. The "Gödöllői Dombvidék Tájvédelmi Körzetet" (Hills of Gödöllő Conservation Area) was established here.

Gödöllő written in 'rovásírás'
Gödöllő's place in Hungary
Railroads and roads in Hungary
Closer cities and towns County Distance Direction
Budapest Budapest 30.0 km (18.6 mi) Southwest
Dunakeszi Pest 27.3 km (17.0 mi) West
Szentendre Pest 33.6 km (20.9 mi) West
Vác Pest 26.7 km (16.6 mi) Northwest
Veresegyház Pest 8.3 km (5.2 mi) North
Hatvan Heves 33.2 km (20.6 mi) East
Gyöngyös Heves 54.2 km (33.7 mi) East
Vecsés Pest 30.6 km (19.0 mi) South
Further Cities County, Oblast or State Country Distance Direction
Wien Wien Austria Austria 274.6 km (170.6 mi) West
Bratislava Bratislava Slovakia Slovakia 231.7 km (144.0 mi) West
Győr Győr-Moson-Sopron Hungary Hungary 155.5 km (96.6 mi) West
Banská Bystrica Banská Bystrica Slovakia Slovakia 187.6 km (116.6 mi) North
Košice Košice Slovakia Slovakia 233.6 km (145.2 mi) Northeast
Miskolc Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Hungary Hungary 157.9 km (98.1 mi) East
Uzhhorod Zakarpattia Ukraine Ukraine 304.8 km (189.4 mi) East
Satu Mare Satu Mare Romania Romania 313.5 km (194.8 mi) East
Debrecen Hajdú-Bihar Hungary Hungary 207.0 km (128.6 mi) East
Oradea Bihor Romania Romania 282.2 km (175.4 mi) East
Arad Arad Romania Romania 284.0 km (176.5 mi) Southeast
Szeged Csongrád Hungary Hungary 184.3 km (114.5 mi) South
Belgrade Belgrade Serbia Serbia 379.5 km (235.8 mi) South
Pécs Baranya Hungary Hungary 275.2 km (171.0 mi) Southwest
Zagreb Zagreb Croatia Croatia 376.8 km (234.1 mi) Southwest

Demographics[edit]

Historical Populations
Year Pop. ±%
1785 720 —    
1900 5,893 +718.5%
1960 17,693 +200.2%
1990 28,195 +59.4%
1995 28,931 +2.6%
2000 30,440 +5.2%
2002 31,263 +2.7%
2004 31,705 +1.4%
2006 32,081 +1.2%
2008 32,907 +2.6%
2010 33,901 +3.0%
2011 34,396 +1.5%

The town's population has grown significantly since the 1990s. Many people move away from the capital city, Budapest, and settle in Gödöllő.[1]

Ethnicity[edit]

The following table shows the ethnic distribution of Gödöllő in the 2001 census.

All Hungarians Gypsies Germans Slovaks Ukrainians Poles Romanians Others
100% 94.4% 1.1% 0.6% 0.4% 0.1% 0.05% 0.04% 3.31%

In the town Gypsy, Greek, Polish, German and Ruthenian minority formed government.

Religion[edit]

The following table shows the religious distribution of Gödöllő in the 2001 census.

All Roman Catholics Atheists Calvinists Lutherans Greek Catholics Others Unknown
100% 52.0% 15.3% 14.8% 3.1% 1.2% 1.5% 12.1%

Municipality[edit]

Maria-statue on the Szabadság Square

Between 1990 and 2010, representatives were elected from 14 constituencies into the representative body, and another 9 people got in from a compensation list, which consisted of a total 23 people. The amended legislation in 2010 reduced the number of constituencies to 10, the number of obtainable seats from the compensation list to 4, so the new council contains 14 people.

The Mayor has two deputies, who are elected from the representatives.

The city has established several business organizations which are providing public services, such as district heating networks, the city market, and the House of Arts, furthermore the public catering, waste management and general urban management tasks.

Mayors[edit]

  • Dr. György Gémesi (1990–)

Before the End of Communism[edit]

Council presidents[edit]

  • István Papp (1983–1990)
  • György Ritecz (1982–1983)
  • János Benedek (1971–1982)
  • Dr. Tibor Galicz (1967–1971)
  • Dr. József Gyetvai(1966–1967)

Neighborhoods[edit]

The parts of the town
  1. Town Center
  2. Antalhegy
  3. Blaha
  4. Csanak
  5. Haraszt
  6. Kertváros
  7. Királytelep
  8. Máriabesnyő
  9. Alvég
  10. Fenyves
  11. Nagyfenyves
  12. Egyetem (University), Fácános
  13. Incső
  14. Marikatelep

Residents[edit]

Plaque for Sándor Petőfi
Plaque for Géza Ottlik
Plaque for Lajos Kossuth in the Kossuth street
Plaque for the martyrs of the '56 revolution from Gödöllő

In Cinema[edit]

Media[edit]


Gallery[edit]

Transportation[edit]

The M3 motorway near Gödöllő
old station of HÉV on the main square

Transportation hub, because of the 3 main road and the M3 motorway cuts through the city, and the M31 motorway connects them with the eastern section of the M0 ring road. In addition, there are minor roads running from the town to Vác, Pécel and Jászberény.

The Budapest-Sátoraljaújhely-rail line is also affected, as well as the BKV H8, suburban train terminal is located here.

Gödöllő has nine local bus lines and is a common stop for long-distance buses.

Motorways[edit]

Railways[edit]

  • Budapest-Hatvan railway line
  • The suburban railway of Gödöllő (HÉV)

Airport[edit]

Gödöllő has a small sport airport.

Shopping[edit]

Downtown Gödöllő contains a collection of restaurants, shops, and cafés, not to mention a couple of museums.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "MAGYARORSZÁG HELYSÉGNÉVTÁRA, 2012". Ksh.hu. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  2. ^ Lew Orans (24 December 1996). "Bela's Story: Scouting in Hungary, 1925–1937". Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  3. ^ "Jamboree 1933 (Encampment Map)". Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  4. ^ "Komt de Jamboree 1937 in Ons Land?". Het Vaderland: staat-en letterkundig nieuwsblad (in Dutch). 12 October 1935. Retrieved 2010-08-27. 
  5. ^ Pribich, Kurt (2004). Logbuch der Pfadfinderverbände in Österreich (in German). Vienna: Pfadfinder-Gilde-Österreichs. p. 104. 
  6. ^ World Organisation of the Scout Movement. "World Scout Jamborees History". Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Spector, Shmuel (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 0814793568. 
  8. ^ a b c Braham, Randolph L (1981). The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. New York City: Columbia University Press. p. 675. 
  9. ^ "Monthly Averages for Gödöllő, Hungary (based on data from 1901–2010)". Hungarian Meteorological Service. Retrieved 2010-06-04. [dead link]
  10. ^ "Gießen: Städtepartnerschaften" [Giessen: Twin towns] (in German). Stadt Gießen. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  11. ^ "Internetowy Serwis Miejski". zywiec.pl. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 

External links[edit]