Fingal mac Gofraid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Godred Sitricson)
Jump to: navigation, search
An excerpt from folio 32v of the 13th century Chronicle of Mann. The text gives Gofraid's patronym in Latin: "Godredus filius Sytric rex Manniæ".[1]

Fingal mac Gofraid, and his father Gofraid mac Sitriuc (d. 1070), were late 11th century rulers of the Kingdom of the Isles. The men were likely members of the Uí Ímair, and possibly descendants of Amlaíb Cuarán, King of Dublin and Northumbria (d. 980).

In the first half of the 11th century, Amlaíb Cuarán's son, Sitric mac Amlaíb, King of Dublin, was driven from the kingship of Dublin by Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, a man who seems to have represented a rival branch of the Uí Ímair. Echmarcach appears to have eventually ruled a realm which spanned from Dublin to the Galloway, and from the Isle of Man (Mann) into the Hebrides. By the mid 11th century, Echmarcach's once expansive realm had eroded to successive conquests by Diarmait mac Máel na mBó, King of Leinster. After Echmarcach's expulsion from Mann, in 1061, Diarmait appears to have placed Gofraid on the island, as King of the Isles.

Gofraid ruled on Mann until his death, in 1070. His son, Fingal, succeeded to the kingship, and ruled for almost a decade. During his reign, Fingal fended off an attack upon Mann by men with Irish connections. In the later 1070s, Mann was conquered by Gofraid Crobán, a likely Uí Ímair kinsman, who had been welcomed to the island by Fingal's father about a decade before. It is unknown whether Fingal was overthrown by Gofraid Crobán, or if he had died beforehand. An obituary dated about a decade later, for a certain King of the Rhinns, may indicate that descendants of Fingal ruled territory in Galloway after the conquest. It is unknown whether or not this man ruled subordinately to Gofraid Crobán.

Gofraid mac Sitriuc[edit]

Gofraid's crossed-out patronym: "Godredum filium Sytric".[1] The corresponding marginal note, "Fingal", may refer to a place name rather than the personal name.[2]

In his first appearance within the Chronicle of Mann, the name of Gofraid's father is crossed-out, and the corresponding marginal note reads "Fingal". The chronicle's marginal notes tend to be geographical in nature, and Gofraid's patronym is not crossed-out in any other part.[2] Although the note may refer to a personal name,[3] it could well refer to the place name—to Fingal, a northern part of the Kingdom of Dublin. This may be evidence that Gofraid was native of the Kingdom of Dublin, and thus a recent arrival in the Isles.[2][note 1]

In the mid 11th century, Diarmait mac Máel na mBó, King of Leinster (d. 1072) extended his authority into Dublin and the Isles at the expense of Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin, the Rhinns, and the Isles (d. 1064). In 1052, the Annals of the Four Masters, the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach indicate that Diarmait conquered Dublin and assumed the kingship, forcing Echmarcach to flee "over the sea".[5] About ten years later, Echmarcach appears to have been driven from Mann, as the Annals of Tigernach state that the island was raided by Diarmait's son, Murchad (d. 1070), who received tribute and defeated a certain "Ragnall's son".[6] According to the 11th century chronicler Marianus Scotus, Echmarcach died in Rome, in 1065.[7][note 2] Within this obituary, Echmarcach is styled "King of the Rhinns",[7] which suggests that Echmarcach's once expansive sea-kingdom had gradually eroded to territory in Galloway only.[9][note 3]

Following the Leinster takeover of Mann, Diarmait appears to have placed Gofraid on the island as King of the Isles, under his own overlordship. Although he was almost certainly a member of the Uí Ímair, and must have been regarded as an acceptable ruler to the island's inhabitants, Gofraid does not appear to have been allied with his immediate predecessor, Echmarcach.[11] In fact, Gofraid's patronym may indicate that he was descended from Sitric, son of Amlaíb Cuarán;[12] or possibly from a like-named son of Glún Iairn, son of Amlaíb Cuarán.[13][note 4] Adding weight to a possible patrilineal-descent from Amlaíb Cuarán, is the fact that Diarmait is known to have allied himself with other such descendants. Furthermore, during the mid 11th century, Echmarcach may have represented a rival branch of the Uí Ímair—a branch which was in conflict with Diarmait and allied to his Uí Briain enemy, Donnchad mac Briain, King of Munster.[15]

According to the Chronicle of Mann, in the aftermath of the disastrous Battle of Stamford Bridge, Gofraid honourably welcomed Gofraid Crobán to his court on the Isle of Man (Mann).[16][note 5] The two Gofraids may well have been distant Uí Ímair kinsmen[18]—possibly both descendants of Amlaíb Cuarán.[2][note 6] The chronicle indicates that Gofraid mac Sitriuc died in about 1070,[19][note 7] after which his son, Fingal, succeeded to the kingship and may have ruled for as long as nine years.[21]

Possible familial-relationships between the two Gofraids[edit]

  Possible fathers of Gofraid mac Sitric
  Possible father Gofraid Crobán
 
 
 
 
Amlaíb Cuarán (d. 981)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sitric (d. 1042)
 
Aralt (d. 999)
 
Glún Iairn (d. 989)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ímar (d. 1054) Sitric

Fingal mac Gofraid[edit]

Fingal's rule came under threat in 1073. That year, the Annals of Ulster state that Mann was raided by a certain Sitric mac Amlaíb and two grandsons of Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland.[22] This repulsed-invasion, in which the three named men were slain, appears to have been connected to the conquest of Dublin by Brian Bóruma's grandson, Toirdelbach Ua Briain, King of Munster.[23] Following the takeover of Dublin, Toirdelbach handed this region over to a certain Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill.[24] This Gofraid appears to have been a cousin of Toirdelbach, and a brother of the slain Sitric.[23]

The identity of the Ragnall recorded in Echmarcach's patronym is uncertain.[25] One possibility is that this Ragnall was the grandfather recorded in patronym of Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill.[26] In 1087, the Annals of Ulster record a sea-borne attack upon Mann by "Ragnall's grandsons" and the "King of Ulaid's son", during which the said grandsons were slain.[27] These grandsons may have been brothers Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill, or possibly sons of Echmarcach.[28]


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ragnall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amlaíb
 
 
Echmarcach (d. 1064)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gofraid (d. 1075)
 
Sitric (d. 1073)
 
"Ragnall's grandsons" (d. 1087)

Gofraid Crobán[edit]

An excerpt from folio 30r of the Gaelic and Latin Annals of Inisfallen. The text reads in Gaelic "Macc Congail, rí na Rend, do marbad".[29] The annals were first composed in the 11th century and further supplemented into the 14th century.[30] The unknown annalist who recorded this entry was the third to work on the manuscript.[29]

Possibly in about 1075,[23] or 1079,[31] Gofraid Crobán conquered the Isle of Man. He appears to have drawn his power from the Hebrides,[32] and the chronicle states that it took him three sea-borne invasions before he was able to secure the island. In the third and final invasion, he snatched victory near Ramsey, when his reserves, hidden on in the wood of Skyhill, attacked the Manx army in the rear.[33][note 8] It is possible that he may have overthrown Fingal,[35] who may have been weakened by the Uí Briain assault only a few years before.[36] On the other hand, the chronicle does not betray any hint of animosity between the two men. The amiable relations between Gofraid Crobán and Fingal's father may suggest that, as long as Fingal lived his kingship was secure, and that it was only after his death that Gofraid Crobán attempted seize control.[21]

Possible descendants[edit]

An obituary within the Annals of Inisfallen, dated 1094, for one "Congal's son", styled "King of the Rhinns",[37] may be evidence that descendants of Fingal reigned in parts of Galloway. For example, the annalist could have confused the names Fingal and Congal. It is unknown whether this king ruled independently or subordinate to Gofraid Crobán,[21] although considering Gofraid Crobán's conquest of Dublin, it is very likely that the latter would have endeavoured to dominate the region.[38]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The English place name Fingal is derived from the Gaelic Fine Gall, which means "kindred of the foreigners". This place name referred to the people the Scandinavians of Dublin who ruled the region.[4]
  2. ^ The Annals of Inisfallen, the Annals of Loch Cé, and the Annals of Ulster indicate that Echmarcach died in 1064.[8]
  3. ^ The mediaeval Kingdom of the Rhinns would have likely included, not only the Rhinns of Galloway, but also the Machars. The kingdom thus stretched from the North Channel to Wigtown Bay, and would have likely encompassed an area similar to the modern boundaries of Wigtownshire.[10]
  4. ^ The only evidence of a son of Glún Iairn so-named comes from a 17th century source composed by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh. This particular Sitric may have been the unnamed son of Glún Iairn who is recorded to have killed Sitric mac Amlaíb's son, Gofraid, in 1036.[14] Note that Glún Iairn is a personal name, whereas Amlaíb Cuarán, Brian Bóruma, Gofraid Crobán, and Marianus Scotus consist of personal names (Amlaíb, Brian, Gofraid, Marianus) and bynames (Cuarán, Bóruma, Crobán, Scotus).
  5. ^ The chronicle dates the battle and Gofraid Crobán's arrival on Mann to 1047.[17] This has been recalibrated to 1066.
  6. ^ Gofraid Crobán's father may well have Ímar mac Arailt, grandson of Amlaíb Cuarán.
  7. ^ The chronicle dates this event to 1051.[20] This has been recalibrated to 1070.
  8. ^ The chronicle dates this event to 1075.[34]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Munch; Goss 1874: p. 50.
  2. ^ a b c d Hudson 2005: p. 171.
  3. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232 fn 40. See also Hudson 2005: p. 171.
  4. ^ Downham 2005: p. 170.
  5. ^ Hudson 2004. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 94. See also: M1052.8, "Annals of the Four Masters", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (11 September 2011 ed.), retrieved 12 June 2012 . See also: 1052.2, "The Annals of Tigernach", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (2 November 2010 ed.), retrieved 12 June 2012 . See also: 1052.8, "The Annals of Ulster", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (16 December 2009 ed.), retrieved 12 June 2012 .
  6. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 129. See also: Hudson 2004. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 100. See also: 1061.3, "The Annals of Tigernach", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (2 November 2010 ed.), retrieved 12 June 2012 .
  7. ^ a b Downham 2007: p. 171. See also: Hudson 2005: pp. 129, 138. See also: Duffy 1992: pp. 98–99. See also: Anderson 1922a: pp. 590–592 fn 2.
  8. ^ Downham 2007: p. 193.
  9. ^ Woolf 2007: p. 245. See also: Hudson 2005: p. 143. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 100.
  10. ^ Woolf 2007: p. 245. See also: Hudson 2005: p. 138.
  11. ^ Hudson 2005: pp. 171–172.
  12. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 231. See also: Hudson 2005: pp. 171–172.
  13. ^ Hudson 2005: pp. 171–172.
  14. ^ Hudson 2005: pp. 171–172.
  15. ^ Hudson 2005: pp. 171–172.
  16. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 171. See also: Anderson 1922b: pp. 13–15 fn 3. See also: Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 50–51.
  17. ^ Anderson 1922b: pp. 13–15 fn 3. See also: Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 50–51.
  18. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 171. See also: Woolf 2005: p. 100.
  19. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 172. See also: Anderson 1922b: p. 22. See also: Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 50–51.
  20. ^ Anderson 1922b: p. 22.
  21. ^ a b c Hudson 2005: p. 172.
  22. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232. See also: 1073.5, "The Annals of Ulster", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (16 December 2009 ed.), retrieved 2 June 2012 .
  23. ^ a b c Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232.
  24. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 102.
  25. ^ Woolf 2007: p. 246.
  26. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 130 fig. 4. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 102.
  27. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 233. See also: 1087.7, "The Annals of Ulster", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (16 December 2009 ed.), retrieved 21 June 2012 .
  28. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 233.
  29. ^ a b 1094.5, "Annals of Inisfallen", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (23 October 2010 ed.), retrieved 16 June 2012 .
  30. ^ Ó Corráin 2006: pp. 71–72.
  31. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 172. See also: Woolf 2005: pp. 100–101.
  32. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232. See also: Hudson 2005: p. 172.
  33. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 172. See also: Anderson 1922b: pp. 43–45. See also: Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 50–53.
  34. ^ Anderson 1922b: pp. 43–45. See also: Munch; Goss 1874: pp. 50–53.
  35. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 232. See also: Hudson 2005: p. 172. See also: Woolf 2005: pp. 100–101.
  36. ^ Oram 2000: p. 19.
  37. ^ Hudson 2005: p. 172. See also: Duffy 1992: p. 99 fn 32. See also: 1094.5, "Annals of Inisfallen", CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts (www.ucc.ie/celt) (16 February 2010 ed.), retrieved 4 June 2012 .
  38. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen 2005: p. 233.

References[edit]

Primary sources
Secondary sources