Gods (Marvel Comics)

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Several characters in many Marvel Comics stories have been referred to as gods. Generally, however, only those belonging to two specific types are considered to be the "true" gods. Other worlds besides Earth also have their own gods, with different origins.

Elder Gods[edit]

The first kind of gods, known now as the Elder Gods, were created when the being called The Demiurge spread part of its essence over the Earth. They included Gaea, Chthon, Set and Oshtur. All but Gaea the Earth Goddess, and Oshtur the Bird Goddess of the Sky (who departed Earth to explore the cosmos and other dimensions) degenerated into demons when they realized they could increase their personal power by consuming their brethren. Set the Serpent God was the first of the Elder Gods to degenerate into a demonic being and commit murder. Gaea "mated" with the Demiurge to produce Atum/Demogorge the God-Eater, who killed or drove off all of the others (As revealed in Thor Annual #10). Many of these Elder Gods have been heavily influenced by the works of Robert E. Howard and H.P. Lovecraft. For instance, the version of Set that has appeared in Marvel was created by Howard as part of the Hyborian Age featuring Conan the Barbarian. Marvel acquired the rights to Howard's work in the early 1970s and used the Hyborian Age to further expand Earth's history, setting it in prehistoric times. Many of the Elder Gods were monstrous in size and appearance, often appearing in guises horrifying to humans. For instance, Set was depicted as a massive, multi-headed demonic serpent, though he could alter his form to whatever he chose.

New Gods[edit]

The second kind of gods are human-like beings from other dimensions who are immortal and super-strong, and usually have individual magical powers as well, but are not usually as powerful as the Elder Gods. Some of the Skyfathers of the various groups, such as Odin and Zeus, have demonstrated power on the level of the Elder Gods. They are divided into separate pantheons and are or were worshiped on Earth for thousands of years, though the cosmic entities called The Celestials forced them to limit their contact with humanity 1000 years ago. As a result most modern humans do not believe in their existence anymore. Most are based on actual myths but some are original characters. Their origin is not clear, though Gaea has claimed to have been the Mother Goddess of each pantheon, under a different identity for each; however, some of the Skyfathers also seem to have simply "emerged" somehow from primordial chaos or nothingness into their own divine realms, only encountering Gaea later in the Earth realm and siring more gods with her, as in the case of the pantheons of the Kami, and the Yazatas.

It should be noted that Marvel Comics does not closely follow the actual mythology of these figures, often distorting characters, familial relationships and real-world history, in order to create licensed characters.[1]

Council of Godheads[edit]

The leaders of the various pantheons (or their representatives) occasionally meet to discuss matters that may affect them. The group was organized by Odin, Vishnu, and Zeus. The first time they met (known so far) was approximately 1000 years ago when the Celestials visited Earth for the third time. The Celestials demanded that the gods stop interfering in human affairs or they would close the portals between Earth and the gods' home dimensions. Overpowered by the Celestials, the godheads agreed, but began making plans to fight them when they returned 1000 years later to judge humanity. The Asgardians would attack first using The Destroyer as a weapon. This plan was kept secret from most other gods. Gaea and the female rulers of each pantheon also met to discuss a more peaceful solution. They decided to choose twelve humans who would represent the best qualities of the human race, make them immortal, and present them to the Celestials as proof of humanity's worth; these would be known as the Young Gods. This plan was also kept secret.

A few years ago, the Celestials did return, and not long after, the Destroyer, powered by the souls of all Asgardians (except Thor, who arrived late to the battle), and armed with the gigantic Odinsword, attacked the Celestials but was swiftly destroyed, leaving the Asgardians' spirits scattered. Gaea appeared with the Young Gods, and the Celestials accepted them, judged in favor of humanity, and left Earth, taking the Young Gods with them. Gaea then told Thor he could revive the Asgardians with a portion of each pantheon's essence. Each godhead willingly gave their part, except the Hindu ones (who are ruled by the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) who voted on the matter and decided that a new Asgardian race would eventually be born. This caused an angry Thor to fight Shiva (or Indra posing as Shiva, this isn't clear) and won, causing him to change his vote and gaining Thor their essence. Thor then revived the Asgardians with it. (Thor vol. 1 #300-301)

Their next meeting came when four gods of the dead tried to join their infernal realms together to increase their powers; this awakened the Demogorge, who, thinking the time for the current gods to die had come, absorbed them. Discovering this, Odin convened the Council to discuss Demogorge's threat, and they decided to send a team of gods from different pantheons (Thor, Indra, Shango, Tawa, Horus, Quetzalcoatl, and Apollo) to fight Demogorge. He absorbed them all as well, but Thor's spirit forced Demogorge to restore all the absorbed deities, in exchange for the Death Gods restoring the barriers between their realms. (Thor Annual #10)

The Council met again during the events caused by the Infinity Gauntlet, as well as those caused by the Heart of the Infinite, but were mostly ineffectual against both menaces.

The Council also tested Thor to see if he was worthy of taking Odin's place in the group after his death, but Thor failed one of the tests when he provided food to a starving people instead of teaching them how to gain more by themselves. (Thor vol. 2 #61)

During the Secret Invasion story line, the Council of Godheads came together when Athena told them of the upcoming Skrull invasion.

During the Chaos War story line, the Council of Godheads came together when it came under the threat of Amatsu-Mikaboshi and his enslaved space gods. Hercules was tricked into showing Amatsu-Mikaboshi the way to the Council of Godheads, from there he was able to access all the divine realms.

Depiction[edit]

Most of the various gods who have appeared within Marvel titles are portrayed as being generally human in appearance, though many are highly skilled metamorphs who can alter their appearances to extraordinary degrees. Due to their prominent shapeshifting powers, some gods usually manifest themselves with bizarre appearances. For instance, Horus, the Heliopolitan sun god, is often depicted with the body of a man and the head of a falcon while many members of the Hindu pantheon are depicted with a broad variety of skin pigmentations and multiple sets of arms. Most of the various pantheons are depicted as being functionally immortal in the sense that they no longer age after reaching adulthood, though a few of them do continue to age at an extraordinarily slow rate. All of the gods have superhuman physical attributes of strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, resistance to injury and healing at variable degrees. Many of them can manipulate great amounts of mystical energy for a number of purposes including projecting powerful beams of concussive force, heat, teleportation, temporary augmentation of their physical capabilities, granting superhuman powers to mortals & inanimate objects, etc. In each pantheon, individual gods have specific roles or dominance over broad aspects of existence ranging from the mundane to the extraordinary including occupation, geographic location, emotions, elements, physical characteristics, living creatures, etc., though isn't at all uncommon for the gods to be the patron of multiple aspects of existence, as perceived by their worshipers though their powers aren't influenced by those perceptions or beliefs. The perceived role of a god or goddess often coincides with aspects of their powers, personality or personal interest. For instance, the Olympian god Poseidon, who is usually referred to in the comics by his Roman name of Neptune, is the patron god of the sea because some of his most prominent abilities involve oceanic elements such as commanding sea life, various water manipulating abilities, affecting the tides, generating immense storms, etc. and because he is still actively worshipped by the ocean dwelling Atlanteans while the Annunaki Nergal has control over pestilence & diseases as befitting a god of death. As within the legends and beliefs of the cultures their worshipers, each pantheon has at least one individual vastly more powerful than the other members of their respective tribes and this individual or individuals are recognized as the rulers. Within each pantheon, the most powerful, and thereby the ruler or rulers, are male. Most, but not all, of these rulers are generally associated with the sky or "Heaven" as these locations are higher than anything else or are viewed as gods of creation itself. As a result, a more uncommon title for these specific beings, which include the likes of Zeus of the Olympians, Odin of the Asgardians, Manitou of the Manidoog and Brahma of the Daevas, is Skyfather.

Of the various god pantheons who have been worshipped in human history, Marvel's depictions are almost always limited to the Norse and Greco-Roman gods due, in part, to western culture's greater familiarity with them and an abundance of various stories and archaeological evidence preserved through the ages, which is not the case for some other races of gods. Another reason is that some of these pantheons are still actively worshipped in the real world in significant numbers, such as the Aboriginal gods of Australia and Hindu gods of India, and Marvel wishes to avoid potentially offending followers of these faiths. This became unofficial policy after Marvel's depiction of a battle between Thor and Shiva in 1980.[2] In this battle, Thor defeated Shiva and this offended various readers that actively practiced Hinduism since Shiva is one of the principle and most prominent of the Hindu deities.[3] As a result, this battle itself was later retconned and stated to have been Indra posing as Shiva.[4] While these active pantheons have been depicted, their appearances have since almost always been as cameos rather than as any sort of active participants in battles.

For various deities, writers have exercised variable degrees of creative license. In some cases, this is due to a lack of consistent information, or little information at all, to draw upon when depicting various individual gods or pantheons. Other examples of artistic license include extending the known time of worship, conflicting with the true times of worship within the real world, of various pantheons or individual gods, due to Marvel incorporating the Hyborian Age into Earth's prehistoric times, and the creation of original characters with godly heritage, such as the hero/adventurer Snowbird. Also, some pantheons contain vastly more members than have been depicted by Marvel, so most of those included are usually the most well known or important among the cultures who worship or worshipped them. Another example of writers exercising artistic license involves altering the various roles assigned to deities in ancient myths, sometimes overly emphasizing or deemphasizing their importance. For instance, in Norse mythology, Heimdall is among the most revered of the gods and is credited with creating social classes with some scholars theorizing he was viewed as the physical manifestation of Yggdrasil itself as well as being the guardian of the Bifrost. However, Marvel's portrayal generally limits him as the sentry of the Bifrost and is usually a supporting character of relatively minor importance.

List of known Marvel gods[edit]

Aboriginal Gods[edit]

Worshipped by the Aboriginal people of Australia from approximately 8000 BC into modern times.

  • Altjira - God of the Dreamtime
  • Baiame - God of Creation
  • Daramulum - God of the Sky and Weather
  • Gnowee - Goddess of the Sun
  • Julunggul - Goddess of Fertility
  • Mamaragan - God of Lightning
  • Marmoo - God of Evil
  • Narahdarn = God of Death

Ahau (Mayan Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Mayans of Southern Mexico and Northern Central America from 1800 BC to the 1500s AD.

  • Ahpuch - God of the Dead
  • Buluc Chabtan - God of War
  • Camazotz - God of Darkness
  • Chaac - God of Rain and Lightning
  • Kukulkan - God of the Wind
  • Hunab Ku - God of the Sky
  • Itzamna - God of the Sun
  • Ixchel - Goddess of the Moon
  • Wayep - God of Mischief

Akua (Polynesian Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Polynesian peoples of the Central and Southern Pacific Ocean from 1600 BC into modern times.

  • B'ngudja - God of Sharks
  • Haumea - Goddess of Childbirth
  • Kanaloa - God of the Sea
  • Kane Milohai - God of Light
  • Ku - God of War
  • Lono - God of Agriculture and Peace
  • Namaka - Goddess of the Sea
  • Papa - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea.)
  • Pele - Goddess of Volcanoes
  • Poliahu - Goddess of Snow
  • Ragni - God of the Sky
  • Whiro - God of Death and Evil

Amatsu-Kami (Japanese Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by Japanese inhabitants as early as 10,000 BC into modern times, though Shinto ceased to be Japan's state religion in 1945.

  • Amaterasu - Goddess of the Sun
  • Ame-No-Mi-Kumari - Goddess of Water
  • Bishamon - God of War and Fortune
  • Hotei - God of Joy and Laughter
  • Inari - God of Rice and Prosperity
  • Izanagi - God of the Sky
  • Izanami - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea.)
  • Kaminari - Goddess of Thunder and Lightning
  • Kagutsuchi - God of Fire
  • Mikaboshi - God of Evil
  • Susanoo - God of the Sea and Storm
  • Tsukuyomi - God of the Moon

Annunaki (Mesopotamian Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the peoples of pre-Cataclysmic Atlantis and Valusia circa 19,000 BC, through several Hyborian Age nations and ultimately achieving prominence among the Sumerians, Assyrians and Babylonians in Mesopotamia until 500 AD.

  • Anu - God of Heaven
  • Ba'al - God of Storms and Fertility
  • Dagon - God of Wind and Air
  • Eriskegal - Goddess of the Dead
  • Inanna - Goddess of Love and War
  • Marduk - God of Judgment
  • Martu - God of Drought, Oaths and the Steppe
  • Nergal - God of Death and Pestilence
  • Ningal - God of Metal and Smelting
  • Ninhursag - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea.)
  • Saja - God of Messengers
  • Tammuz - God of Shepherds and Fertility

Apu (Incan Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Incas in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Colombia from 2000 BC to the 1500s AD.

  • Catequil - God of Thunder and Lightning
  • Chasca - Goddess of the Dawn and Twilight
  • Inti - God of the Sun
  • Kon - God of the Wind and Rain
  • Mama Cocha - Goddess of the Sea
  • Mama Quilla - Goddess of the Moon
  • Pachamama - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea.)
  • Supay - God of Death
  • Urcuchillay - God of Animals
  • Viracocha - God of the Sky

Asgardians (Norse Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the peoples of Scandinavia, Germania, and parts of Britain & Gaul from 1000 BC to about 1100 AD, though some may have been worshipped as early as 8000 BC.

Main article: Asgard (comics)

Home: Asgard

  • Amora/EnchantressOriginal creation of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby with no association in actual Norse myth.
  • Balder - God of Light and Purity
  • Buri/Tiwaz - Patriarch of the Asgardians
  • Frigga - Goddess of Marriage and Childbirth
  • Frey - God of the Sun, Rain and The Harvest
  • Freya - Goddess of Love, Beauty and Fertility
  • Heimdall - God of Protection and Sentinel of the Gates of Asgard
  • Hela - Goddess of Death
  • Hermod - God of Messengers and Speed
  • Hoder - God of Night, Winter and Snow
  • Idunn - Goddess of Immortality
  • Jord - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea.)
  • Karnilla - Queen of Nornheim; Goddess of MagicOriginal creation of Stan lee and Jack Kirby with no association in actual Norse myth.
  • Loki - God of Mischief and Evil
  • Mimir - God of Knowledge and Wisdom
  • Njord - God of the Sea, Winds and Storms
  • Odin - God of the Sky, Knowledge and Death
  • Sigyn - Goddess of Fidelity
  • Sif - Shieldmaiden of Asgard; Goddess of War and The Hunt
  • Thor - God of Thunder and Lightning
  • Tyr - God of War
  • Valkyrie - Shieldmaiden of Asgard; Leader of the Valkyrior
  • Vidar - God of the Hunt
  • Volla - Goddess of Prophecy
  • The Warriors Three Fandral, Hogun and Volstagg: Original creations of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby with no association in actual Norse myth.

Daevas (Indian Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the peoples of the Indian subcontinent from as early as 2000 BC into modern times.

  • Aditi - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Brahma - God of Creation and Magic
  • Ganesh - God of Wisdom
  • Indra - God of Thunder
  • Kali-Ma - Goddess of Death and Destruction
  • Maya - Goddess of Dreams and Illusions
  • Ratri - Goddess of Love and Night
  • Shiva - God of Destruction and Rebirth
  • Vishnu - God of Preservation and Protection
  • Yama - God of Death

Dievas (Slavic Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Slavic peoples of Central & Eastern Europe and the Balkans from as early as 700 BC to the 900s AD.

  • Dazhbog - God of Light
  • Lada - Goddess of Youth and Beauty
  • Laima - Goddess of Fate and Prosperity
  • Marzanna - Goddess of Witchcraft
  • Milda - Goddess of Love and Freedom
  • Perun - God of Thunder
  • Saule - Goddess of the Sun
  • Stribog - God of the Sky and Wind
  • Svantovit - God of War and Fertility
  • Svarozvich - God of Fire
  • Svarog - God of the Sun, Sky, Rain and Fire
  • Veles - God of the Underworld, Magic and Trickery

Diwatas (Philippine Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago from 4000 BC to the 1500s AD.

  • Aman Sinaya - Goddess of the Sea
  • Amihan - God of Wind
  • Anitun - Goddess of Wind, Lightning and Rain
  • Apo Laki - God of War and the Sun
  • Aswang - God of Evil
  • Bathala - God of the Sky
  • Mayari - Goddess of the Moon
  • Tala - Goddess of the Stars

Heliopolitans/Ennead (Egyptian Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the inhabitants of the Nile River valley as early as 10,000 BC to the 400s AD.

  • Anubis - God of Funerals and Mummification
  • Bast - God of Pleasure, Poetry, Music and Dancing
  • Bes - God of Luck and Probability; Protector of Households
  • Geb - God of Earth, Fertility and the Harvest
  • Horus - God of the Sky and Sun
  • Isis - Goddess of Fertility
  • Khonshu - God of the Moon and Vengeance
  • Neith - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Nut - Goddess of the Sky
  • Osiris - God of the Dead
  • Sekhmet - God of War
  • Seth - God of Death and Evil
  • Sobek - God of Crocodiles and Rivers
  • Thoth - God of Wisdom

Inua (Inuit Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Inuit and other Eskimo shamanistic cultures from 10,000 BC into modern times.

  • Hodiak - God of the Sky
  • Kadlu - Goddess of Lightning
  • Negafok - God of Cold Weather
  • Nanuq - God of Polar Bears
  • Narya (AKA Snowbird) - Goddess of Nature and Animals
  • Nelvanna - Goddess of the Northern Lights
  • Sedna - Goddess of the Sea and Death
  • Tekkeitsertok - God of the Hunt and Caribou
  • Turoq/Shaper - God of Change

Jumala (Finnish Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Finno-Urgic and Sami peoples of Northern Europe from 500 BC to the 1200s AD.

  • Ahti - God of the Sea and Fishing
  • Akka - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Äkräs - God of Fertility
  • Ilmarinen God of Metal, Invention and the Forge
  • Nyyrikki - God of the Hunt
  • Tapio - God of the Forest
  • Tuoni - God of the Underworld
  • Ukko - God of the Sky
  • Vammatar - Goddess of Pain, Disease and Suffering

Manidoog (Native American Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by various Native American tribes of North America from 1200 BC into modern times.

  • Calumet - God of the Hobowaken (AKA Peace Pipe)
  • Coyote/Nanabozho - God of Mischief
  • Gitche Manitou - God of the Sky and Heaven
  • Haokah - God of Thunder
  • Hotamintanio/Maasewe - God of War
  • Iktomi - God of Trickery
  • Nokomis - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Owayodata/Nayenezghani - God of the Hunt
  • Tawa - God of the Sun
  • Tomazooma - God of Kinship and Storytelling

Olympians (Greek & Roman Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by civilizations centered on or around the Mediterranean, Agean, Ionian, Tyrrhenian and Ligurian seas such as Greece, the Macedonian Empire, the Roman Empire and parts of Egypt and Turkey from 2500 BC to the 500s AD, though some may have been worshipped as early as 10,000 BC.

Skrull Gods[edit]

  • Kly'bn
  • Sl'gur't

Tenger (Mongolian & Turkic Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by Mongol and Turkic cultures of Central Asia from the 700s AD into modern times, though Erlik, at least, was worshipped by various nations of the Hyborian Age.

  • Ay - Goddess of the Moon
  • Erlik - God of Death and Evil
  • Koyash - God of the Sun
  • Kuara - God of Thunder
  • Tengri - God of the Sky
  • Ulgen - God of Light
  • Vaat - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)

Teteoh (Aztec Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Aztecs of Central Mexico from the 500s AD to the 1500s AD, though some members may have been worshipped as early as 10,000 BC.

  • Chalchiuhtlique - Goddess of Water
  • Coatlicue - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Huitzilopochtli - God of the Sun
  • Mictlantecuhtli - God of the Dead
  • Ozomatli - God of Music and Dancing
  • Quetzalcoatl - God of the Sky
  • Tezcatlipoca - God of War
  • Tláloc - God of Storms
  • Xipe Totec - God of Agriculture and Sacrifice
  • Xochiquetzal - Goddess of Flowers and Fertility
  • Xolotl - God of Fire

Tuatha Da Dannan (Celtic Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Celts of the British Isles from 2000 BC to 500 AD, though a number of them may have been worshiped during the Hyborian Age.

Home: Avalon

  • Angus - God of Youth
  • Anpao - God of Death
  • Arawn - God of the Dead and the Underworld
  • Badb - Goddess of War
  • Boann - Goddess of Rivers
  • Bodb Derg - God of War
  • Brigit - Goddess of Wisdom
  • Caber - God of Speed and BardsAn original creation of Tom De Falco with no actual connection to Celtic mythology.
  • Cerridwen - Goddess of Witchcraft
  • Cernunnos- God of the Hunt, Harvest and Fertility
  • Dagda - God of Magic, Wisdom and Heaven
  • Danu - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Fuamnach - Goddess of Marriage
  • Gwynn - God of Springtime
  • Leir - God of Lightning and the Spear
  • Lugh - God of Heroes and the Sun
  • Morrigan - Goddess of War and Death
  • Nuada - God of Warriors
  • Taranis - God of Thunder and the Elements

Vodu (African Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the peoples of the West African nations of Benin & Nigeria, the Caribbean countries of Hati & Cuba, and small areas of the southern United States & Central America from the 1100s AD into modern times.

  • Anansi - God of Wisdom and Trickery
  • Avlekete - Goddess of the Sea
  • Buluku - God of the Sky
  • Dam-Ayido/Damballah - God of the Dead and Serpents
  • Eleggua/Eschu - God of Communication and Crossroads
  • Ezili/Oshun - Goddess of Love
  • Ghekre - God of Judgment and Gorillas
  • Legba - God of Gateways
  • Lusa - God of the Sun
  • Mahu - Goddess of the Moon
  • Nyambe Ogun - God of War, Iron and Artisans
  • Sagbata/Baron Samedi - God of Death and Disease
  • Shango - God of Thunder and Lightning

Xian (Chinese Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the Chinese culture from as early as 2000 BC into modern times.

  • Guan Yu - God of War
  • Hou-Tou - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Kui Xing - God of Exams and Paperwork
  • Lei Gong - God of Thunder
  • Nezha - God of Mischief
  • Shou-Hsing - God of Health and Longevity
  • Tian-Mu - Goddess of Lightning
  • Xi Wangmu - Goddess of Immortality
  • Yen-Lo Wang - God of Death
  • Yu-Huang - God of Heaven
  • Zhu Rong - God of Fire

Yazatas (Zoroastrian Gods)[edit]

Worshipped by the peoples of the Persian/Iranian plateau, Central Asia and parts of India from 1000 BC into modern times, though the god Mithra was worshipped by many nations as "Mitra" during the Hyborian Age.

  • Ahura Mazda - God of Creation
  • Ahriman - God of Evil
  • Ametertat - Goddess of Vegetation
  • Armaiti - Goddess of Earth (one of the many forms and names used by Gaea)
  • Asha - God of Fire
  • Atar - God of Fire
  • Haurvatat - Goddess of Water
  • Kshathra Vairya - God of Metal
  • Mithra/Mitra - God of Light and Justice
  • Vohu Manah - God of Animals and the Wilderness

"Other" Gods[edit]

Several beings have either claimed to be gods, or were mistaken for gods. These include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Guide to the Mythological Universe," Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.angelfire.com/planet/mythguide/faq.html
  2. ^ Thor vol. 1 #301 (Nov. 1980)
  3. ^ http://marvunapp.com/Appendix/shiva1.htm
  4. ^ http://www.marvunapp.com/Appendix4/indrathor.htm

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]