Goguryeo at its height in 476.
(37 BC – 3 AD)
(Part of Old Korean)
|Religion||Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Korean shamanism|
|-||391–413||Gwanggaeto the Great|
|-||Introduction of Buddhism||372|
|-||Campaigns of Gwanggaeto the Great||391–413|
|-||Fall of Pyongyang||668 AD|
|-||est.||3,500,000 (at the time of its fall at 668 AD)|
|Today part of|| South Korea
Koguryo (Hangul: 고구려; Hanja: 高句麗, Korean pronunciation: [koɡuɾjʌ]) was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the present-day northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, and southern reaches of Russia's Primorsky Krai.
Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula and was also associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China and Japan.
The Samguk Sagi, a 12th-century Goryeo text, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BC by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, although there is archaeological and textual evidence that suggests Goguryeo culture was in existence since the 2nd century BC around the fall of Gojoseon, an earlier nation which also occupied southern Manchuria and northern Korea.
Goguryeo was a major dynasty in Northeast Asia, until it was defeated by a Silla-Tang alliance in 668 AD. After its defeat, its territory was divided among Unified Silla, Balhae, and the Tang dynasty.
Founding of Goguryeo (c. 37 BC) 
Goguryeo tomb mural.
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According to the 12th century Samguk Sagi and the 13th century Samguk Yusa, a prince from the kingdom of Buyeo, named Jumong, fled after a power struggle with other princes of the Buyeo court and founded the Goguryeo state in 37 BC in a region called Jolbon Buyeo, usually thought to be located in the middle Yalu and T'ung-chia river basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. Some scholars believe that Goguryeo may have been founded in the 2nd century BC. In the geographic monographs of the Han Shu, the word Goguryeo or "高句麗" was first mentioned in 113 BC as a region under the jurisdiction of the Xuantu commandery. In the Old Book of Tang, it is recorded that Emperor Taizong of Tang refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old.
However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old and New Histories of Tang, the Samguk Sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BC or "middle" 1st century BC\ foundation date for Goguryeo. Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo. The first mention of Goguryeo as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes would be a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo revolt in 12 AD, during which they broke away from Xuantu influence. Whether or not this revolt was an attempt to restore a previously-held sovereignty (which would imply a somewhat older founding date for Goguryeo) or an establishment of a new, independent entity is unclear.
At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of Buyeo and Yemaek people, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms. The San Guo Zhi, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", states that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke the same language.
Jumong and the foundation myth 
The earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th century. Stele of Great King Gwanggaeto. Jumong is often said to be the Korean transcription of the hanja as 朱蒙 (Jumong, 주몽), 鄒牟(Chumo, 추모), or 仲牟 (Jungmo, 중모).
The Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo and daughter of the river deity Habaek. The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa paints additional detail and names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Hae Mosu who is described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." The river god chased Yuhwa away to Ubal river (우발수, 優渤水) due to pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of King Geumwa of Dongbuyeo.
Jumong was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Eventually, Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, and Jumong was forced to leave Dongbuyeo. The Stele and later Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from Northern Buyeo and the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong eventually made it to the Jolbon Buyeo confederacy, where he married So Seo-no, daughter of its ruler. He subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country.
A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk Sagi, says that So Seo-no was the daughter of Yeon Ta-bal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. However, the same source officially states that the king of Jolbon Buyeo gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Dongbuyeo, in marriage. She gave her husband, Jumong financial support in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms.
Jumong's given surname was "Hae" (解), the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samguk Yusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" (高), in conscious reflection of his divine parentage. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu (비류국, 沸流國) in 36 BC, Haeng-in (행인국, 荇人國) in 33 BC, and North Okjeo in 28 BC.
Centralization and early expansion (mid-1st century AD) 
Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and rapidly expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of king Taejo of Goguryeo in 53 AD, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology; Goguryeo controlled territory in what is currently central and southern Manchuria and northern Korea which are both very mountainous and lacking in arable land. Upon centralizing, Goguryeo might have been unable to harness enough resources from the region to feed its population and thus, following historical pastoralist tendencies, would have sought to raid and exploit neighboring societies for their land and resources. Aggressive military activities may have also aided expansion, allowing Goguryeo to exact tribute from their tribal neighbors and dominate them politically and economically.
Taejo conquered the Okjeo tribes of what is now northeastern Korea as well as the Eastern Ye and other tribes in Southeastern Manchuria and Northern Korea. From the increase of resources and manpower that these subjugated tribes gave him, Taejo led Goguryeo in attacking Han China's commanderies of Lelang, Xuantu, and Liaodong in the Korean and Liaodong peninsulas, becoming fully independent from the Han commanderies.
Generally, Taejo allowed the conquered tribes to retain their chieftains, but required them to report to governors who were related to Goguryeo's royal line; tribes under Goguryeo's jurisdiction were expected to provide heavy tribute. Taejo and his successors channeled these increased resources to continuing Goguryeo's expansion to the north and west. New laws regulated peasants and the aristocracy, as tribal leaders continued to be absorbed into the central aristocracy. Royal succession changed from fraternal to patrilineal, stabilizing the royal court.
The expanding Goguryeo kingdom soon entered into direct military contact with the Liaodong commandery to its west. Pressure from Liadong forced Goguryeo to move their capital in the Hun River valley to the Yalu River valley near Mt. Hwando.
Goguryeo-Wei War (244 AD) 
As Gogeryeo consolidated its power, it proceeded to act to conquer the territories on the northern Korean peninsula which were under Chinese rule. Goguryeo initiated the Goguryeo–Wei Wars in 242, trying to cut off Chinese access to its territories in Korea by attempting to take a Chinese fort. However, the Chinese Wei state responded by invading and defeated Goguryeo. Hwando was destroyed in revenge by the Chinese Wei forces in 244.
In the chaos following the fall of the Han Dynasty, the former Han commanderies had broken free of control and were ruled by various independent warlords. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created Wei Dynasty of China and sent tribute in 220. In 238, Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with the Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery.
When Liaodong was finally conquered by Wei, cooperation between Wei and Goguryeo fell apart and Goguryeo attacked the western edges of Liaodong, which incited a Wei counterattack in 244. On this occasion, Wei reached and destroyed the Goguryeo capital at Hwando. It is said that the King Dongcheon, with his army destroyed, fled for a while to the Okjeo tribes in the east.
Revival and further expansion (300 to 390) 
The Wei armies thought they had destroyed Goguryeo and soon left the area. However, in only 70 years, Goguryeo rebuilt their capital Hwando Mountain Fortress and again began to raid the Liaodong, Lelang and Xuantu commandaries. As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong peninsula, the last Chinese commandery at Lelang was conquered and absorbed by Micheon of Goguryeo in 313, bringing the northern part of the Korean peninsula into the fold. This conquest resulted in the end of Chinese rule over territory in the northern Korean peninsula, which had spanned 400 years.
From that point on, until the 7th century, territorial control of the peninsula would be contested primarily by the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
The expansion met temporary setbacks when in winter 342, Xianbei, ruled by the Murong clan, attacked Goguryeo's capital, and entering its capital Hwando and forcing its King Gogukwon to flee for a while. The Xianbei used the Goguryeo people for slave labor. Puyŏ was also destroyed by the Xianbei in 346, the Korean peninsula also became subject to Xianbei migration. In 371, when King Geunchogo of Baekje sacked one of Goguryeo's largest cities, Pyongyang, and killed King Gogukwon of Goguryeo in the Battle of Chiyang.
Turning to domestic stability and the unification of various conquered tribes, Sosurim of Goguryeo proclaimed new laws, embraced Buddhism as the national religion in 372, and established a national educational institute called the Taehak (태학, 太學). Due to the defeats that Goguryeo had suffered at the hands of Former Yan and Baekje, Sosurim also instituted military reforms aimed at preventing such defeats in the future.
Zenith of Goguryeo's Power (391 to 531 AD) 
|Monarchs of Korea
Gwanggaetto is said to have conquered 64 walled cities and 1,400 villages from campaigns against Khitan and Baekje, destroyed Later Yan and took the entire Liaodong Peninsula in 404. He also annexed Buyeo practically, and expended to the territory of Mohe tribes in north, subjugated Baekje, contributed to the dissolution of the Gaya confederacy, annexed Wa (Japan) overseas and coerced Silla into agreeing to become a protectorate through the Goguryeo–Yamato War. In doing so, he brought about a loose unification of the Korean peninsula that lasted about 50 years. By the end of his reign, Goguryeo had achieved undisputed control of southern Manchuria, and the northern and central regions of the Korean Peninsula.
During this period, Goguryeo territory included three fourths of the Korean peninsula, including what is now Seoul, and much of southern Manchuria and the southeastern end of Russian maritime province. Gwanggaeto instituted the reign name of "Yeongnak", thus signifying his belief that he was on an equal footing with the major Chinese dynasties.
King Jangsu ascended to the throne in 413 and moved the capital to Pyongyang in 427, which is evidence of the intensifying rivalries between Goguryeo and the other two peninsular kingdoms of Baekje and Silla to its south. Jangsu, like his father, continued Goguryeo's territorial expansion into Manchuria and reached the eastern Songhua River. Goguryeo expanded its sphere of influence to Didouyu (지두우, 地豆于) located in eastern Mongolia with Rouran during his reign.
- King Jangsu changed official name of Goguryeo, to Goryeo. But it was used in combination with Goguryeo.
During the reign of Munja, Goguryeo completely annexed Buyeo, signifying Goguryeo's furthest-ever expansion north, while continuing its strong influence over the kingdoms of Silla and Baekje, and also over Malgal and Khitan tribes.
Internal strife (531 to 551) 
Goguryeo reached its zenith in the 6th century. After this, however, it began a steady decline. Anjang was assassinated, and succeeded by his brother Anwon, during whose reign aristocratic factionalism increased. A political schism deepened as two factions advocated different princes for succession, until the eight year-old Yang-won was finally crowned. But the power struggle was never resolved definitively, as renegade magistrates with private armies appointed themselves de facto rulers of their areas of control.
Taking advantage of Goguryeo's internal struggle, a nomadic group called the Tuchueh attacked Goguryeo's northern castles in the 550s and conquered some of Goguryeo's northern lands. Weakening Goguryeo even more, as civil war continued among feudal lords over royal succession, Baekje and Silla allied to attack Goguryeo from the south in 551.
Conflicts of the late 6th and 7th centuries 
In the late 6th and early 7th centuries, Goguryeo was often in conflict with the Sui and Tang Dynasties of China. Its relations with Baekje and Silla were complex and alternated between alliances and enmity. A neighbor in the northwest were the Eastern Göktürk (a khanate in northwestern China and near Mongolia) which was a nominal ally of Goguryeo.
Goguryeo's loss of the Han River Valley 
In 551 AD, Baekje and Silla entered into an alliance to attack Goguryeo and conquer the Han River valley, an important strategic area close to the center of the peninsula and a very rich agricultural region. After Baekje exhausted themselves with a series of costly assaults on Goguryeo fortifications, Silla troops, arriving on the pretense of offering assistance, attacked and took possession of the entire Han River valley in 553. Incensed by this betrayal, Baekje's King Seong in the following year launched a retaliatory strike against Silla's western border but was captured and killed.
The war, along the middle of the Korean peninsula, had very important consequences. It effectively made Baekje the weakest player on the Korean peninsula and gave Silla an important resource and population rich area as a base for expansion. Conversely, it denied Goguryeo the use of the area, which weakened the kingdom. It also gave Silla direct access to the Yellow Sea, opening up trade and diplomatic access to the Chinese dynasties and accelerating Silla's adoption of Chinese culture. Thus, Silla could rely less on Goguryeo for elements of civilization and could get culture and technology directly from China. This increasing tilt of Silla to China would result in an alliance that would prove disastrous for Goguryeo in the late 7th century.
Goguryeo-Sui Wars 
Goguryeo's expansion conflicted with the Sui Dynasty and increased tensions. Goguryeo military offensives in the western Liaoxi region provoked the Sui and resulted in the first of the Goguryeo-Sui Wars in 598. In this campaign, as with those that followed in 612, 613, and 614, Sui was unsuccessful in overrunning Goguryeo, but did gain minor concessions and promises of submission that were never fulfilled.
Sui's most disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo was in 612, in which Sui, according to the History of the Sui Dynasty, mobilized 30 Division armies, about 1,133,800 combat troops. Pinned along Goguryeo's line of fortifications on the Liao river, a detachment of nine division armies, about 305,000 troops, bypassed the main defensive lines and headed towards the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang to link up with Sui naval forces, who had reinforcements and supplies.
However, Goguryeo was able to defeat the Sui navy, thus when the Sui's nine division armies finally reached Pyongyang, they didn't have the supplies for a lengthy siege. Sui troops retreated, but General Eulji Mundeok led the Goguryeo troops to victory by luring them into an ambush outside of Pyongyang. At the Battle of Salsu River, Goguryeo soldiers released water from a dam, which split the Sui army and cut off their escape route. Of the original 305,000 soldiers, only 2,700 escaped to Sui China.
The 613 and 614 campaigns were aborted after launch—the 613 campaign was terminated when the Sui general Yang Xuangan rebelled against Emperor Yang of Sui, while the 614 campaign was terminated after Goguryeo offered surrender and returned Husi Zheng (斛斯政), a defecting Sui general who had fled to Goguryeo, Emperor Yang later had Husi executed. Emperor Yang planned another attack on Goguryeo in 615, but due to Sui's deteroriating internal state he was never able to launch it. Sui was weakened due to rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule. They could not attack further because the provinces in the Sui heartland would not send logistical support.
The wars depleted the national treasury of the Sui and after revolts and political strife, the Sui Dynasty disintegrated in 618. However, the wars also exhausted Goguryeo's strength and its power declined.
Goguryeo-Tang War and Silla-Tang alliance 
||This article appears to contradict the article Emperor Taizong of Tang. (December 2011)|
In the winter 642, King Yeongnyu was apprehensive about his general Yeon Gaesomun and was plotting with his other officials to kill Yeon. When Yeon received the news, he started a coup and killed the king and the high level officials. He declared King Yeongnyu's nephew Go Jang as the King, while taking power himself with the title of Dae Mangniji (대막리지, 大莫離支, Generalissimo). He increased tensions between Tang and Goguryeo, as Yeon took an increasingly provocative stance against Tang. When Emperor Taizong of Tang received the news, there were suggestions that an attack be launched against Goguryeo, suggestions that Emperor Taizong initially declined.
By summer 645, Goguryeo was attacked by Tang Chinese army personally lead by Taizong. Tang forces had captured Yodong (遼東, in modern Liaoyang, Liaoning), and had captured a number of Goguryeo fortresses to clear a path to Pyongyang. Ansi (安市, in modern Anshan, Liaoning) was the last fortress that would clear the Liaoning peninsula of significant defensive works and was promptly put under siege. However, the capable defense put up by Ansi's commanding general (whose name is controversial but traditionally is believed to be Yang Manchun) stymied Tang forces and, in late fall, with winter fast approaching and his supplies running low, Emperor Taizong withdrew. The campaign was unsuccessful for the Tang Chinese, failing to capture fortified Ansi after long time siege. After Tang Taizong's death in 649, Tang armies were again sent to conquer Goguryeo in 661 and 662, but could not overcome the successful defense led by Yeon Gaesomun and was not able to conquer Goguryeo, although the Tang attacks inflicted substantial losses.
Goguryeo's ally in the southwest, Baekje, fell to the Silla-Tang alliance in 660; the victorious allies continued their assault on Goguryeo for the next eight years.
In summer 666, Yeon Gaesomun died and was initially succeeded as Dae Mangniji by his oldest son Yeon Namsaeng. As Yeon Namsaeng subsequently carried out a tour of Goguryeo territory, however, rumors began to spread both that Yeon Namsaeng was going to kill his younger brothers Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan, whom he had left in charge at Pyongyang, and that Yeon Namgeon and Yeon Namsan were planning to rebel against Yeon Namsaeng. When Yeon Namsaeng subsequently sent officials close to him back to Pyongyang to try to spy on the situation, Yeon Namgeon arrested them and declared himself Dae Mangniji, attacking his brother. Yeon Namsaeng sent his son Gwon Saseong (泉獻誠), as Yeon Namsaeng changed his family name from Yeon (淵) to Gwon (泉) observe naming taboo for Emperor Gaozu, to Tang to seek aid. Emperor Gaozong of Tang saw this as the opportunity and he sent an army to attack and destroy Goguryeo.
In 667, Chinese army crossed the Liao River and captured Sinseong (新城, in modern Fushun, Liaoning). The Tang forces thereafter fought off counterattacks by Yeon Namgeon and joined forces with Yeon Namsaeng, although they were initially unable to cross the Yalu River. In spring 668, Li Ji turned his attention to Goguryeo's northern cities, capturing the important city of Buyeo (扶餘, in modern Siping, Jilin). In fall 668, he crossed the Yalu River and put Pyongyang under siege in concert with the Silla army.
Yeon Namsan and King Bojang surrendered, and while Yeon Namgeon continued to resist in the inner city, his general, the Buddhist monk Shin Seong (信誠) turned against him and surrendered the inner city to Tang forces. Yeon Namgeon tried to commit suicide, but was seized and treated. This was the end of Goguryeo, and Tang annexed Goguryeo into its territory, with Xue Rengui being put initially in charge of former Goguryeo territory as protector general.
However, there was much resistance to Tang rule (fanned by Silla, which was displeased that Tang did not give it Goguryeo or Baekje's territory), and in 669, following Emperor Gaozong's order, a part of the Goguryeo people were forced to move to the region between the Yangtze River and the Huai River, as well as the regions south of the Qinling Mountains and west of Chang'an, only leaving old and weak inhabitants in the original land.
Silla thus unified most of the Korean peninsula in 668, but the kingdom's reliance on China's Tang Dynasty had its price. Tang set up the Protectorate General to Pacify the East, governed by Xue Rengui, but faced increasing problems ruling the former inhabitants of Goguryeo, as well as Silla's resistance to Tang's remaining presence on the Korean Peninsula. Silla had to forcibly resist the imposition of Chinese rule over the entire peninsula, which lead to the Silla–Tang Wars, but their own strength did not extend beyond the Taedong River.
Revival movements 
After the fall of Goguryeo in 668, many Goguryeo people rebelled against the Tang and Silla by starting Goguryeo revival movements. Among these were Geom Mojam, Dae Jung-sang, and several famous generals. The Tang Dynasty tried but failed to establish several commanderies to rule over the area.
In 677, Tang crowned former king Bojang as the "King of Joseon" and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. However, King Bojang continued to foment rebellions against Tang in an attempt to revive Goguryeo, organizing Goguryeo refugees and allying with the Mohe tribes. He was eventually exiled to Szechuan in 681, and died the following year.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was installed by the Tang government to rule and keep control over the former territories of the fallen Goguryeo. It was first put under the control of Tang General Xue Rengui, but was later replaced by King Bojang due the negative responses of the Goguryeo people. Bojang was sent into exile for assisting Goguryeo revival movements, but was succeeded by his descendants. Go Jang's descendants declared independence from the Tang during the time at which An Shi Rebellion and Yi Jeonggi's rebellion in Shandong, China. The Protectorate General to Pacify the East was renamed "Lesser Goguryeo" until its eventual absorption into Balhae under the reign of King Seon of Balhae.
Geom Mojam and Anseung rose briefly at Hanseong, but failed, when Anseung surrendered to Silla. Go Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam, and defected to Silla, where he was given a small amount of land to rule over. There, Anseung established the Kingdom of Bodeok, incited a rebellion, which was promptly crushed by King Sinmun. Anseung was then forced to reside in the Silla capital, given a Silla bride and had to adopt the Silla Royal surname of "Kim."
Dae Jung-sang and his son Dae Joyeong, both former Goguryeo generals, regained most of Goguryeo's northern land after its downfall in 668, established the kingdom Great Jin, which was renamed to Balhae after the death of Dae Jung-sang. To the south of Balhae, Silla controlled the Korean peninsula south of the Taedong River, and Manchuria (present-day northeastern China) was conquered by Balhae. Balhae considered itself (particularly in diplomatic correspondence with Japan) the successor state to Goguryeo.
In the early 10th century, Gung-ye, a rebel general, established Taebong, later renamed to Hu-Goguryeo ("Later Goguryeo"), which briefly rose in rebellion against Silla. Taebong also considered itself to be a successor of Goguryeo, as did Goryeo, the state that replaced Silla to rule the unified Korean peninsula.
The unified military of Goguryeo was actually a conglomerate of combined local garrisons and private militia. Military positions were hereditary, and there is no evidence of uniform structure or chain of command. A centralized military command structure was not instituted until the Goryeo Dynasty. Most likely in times of war manpower was hastily conscripted from local populace, and a standing army of Goguryeo of about 50,000 remained extant at any time.
A Tang treatise of 668 records a total of 675,000 displaced personnel and 176 military garrisons after the surrender of King Bojang.
Every man in Goguryeo was required to serve in the military, or could avoid conscription by paying extra grain tax.
Archeological finds over Gukne(국내성) and in the tombs of neighboring kingdoms found spiked iron bronze sandals about 11 cm long. They were probably used for military applications.
The main projectile weapon used in Goguryeo was the bow. The bows were modified to be more composite and increase throwing ability on par with crossbows. To a lesser extent, stone-throwing machines and crossbows were also used. Polearms, used against the cavalry and in open order, were mostly spears. Two types of swords were used by Goguryeo warriors. The first was a shorter double-edged variant mostly used for throwing. The other was longer single-edged sword with minimal hilt and ring pommel, of obvious eastern han influence. The helmets were similar to helmets used by Central Asian peoples, decorated with wings, leathers and horsetails. The shield was the main protection, which covered most of the soldier's body. These cavalry were called Gaemamusa (개마무사, 鎧馬武士), loosely translated as "Iron Horse Warriors".
The most common form of the Goguryeo fortress was one made in the shape of the moon, located between a river and its tributary. Ditches and ground walls between the shores formed an extra defense line. The walls were made from huge stone blocks fixed with clay, and even Chinese artillery had difficulty to break through them. Walls were surrounded by a ditch to prevent an underground attack, and equipped with guard towers. All fortresses had sources of water and enough equipment for a protracted siege. If rivers and mountains were absent, extra defense lines were added.
For more information on fortification, see Cheolli Jangseong (천리장성).
Two hunts per year, led by the king himself, maneuvers exercises, hunt-maneuvers and parades were conducted to give the Goguryeo soldier a high level of individual training.
There were five armies in the capital, mostly cavalry that were personally led by the king, numbering approximately 12,500. Military units varied in number from 21,000 to 36,000 soldiers, were located in the provinces, and were led by the governors. Military colonies near the boundaries consisted mostly of soldiers and peasants. There were also private armies held by aristocrats. This system allowed Goguryeo to maintain and utilize an army of 50,000 without added expense, and 300,000 through large mobilization in special cases.
Goguryeo units were divided according to major weapons: spearmen, axemen, archers composed of those on foot and horseback, and heavy cavalry that included armored and heavy spear divisions. Other groups like the catapult units, wall-climbers, and storm units were part of the special units and were added to the common. The advantage of this functional division is highly specialized combat units, while the disadvantage is that it was impossible for one unit to make complex, tactical actions.
The military formation had the general and his staff with guards in the middle of the army. The archers were defended by axemen. In front of the general were the main infantry forces, and on the flanks were rows of heavy cavalry ready to counterattack in case of a flank attack by the enemy. In the very front and rear was the light cavalry, used for intelligence, pursuit, and for weakening the enemy's strike. Around the main troops were small groups of heavy cavalrymen and infantry. Each unit was prepared to defend the other by providing mutual support.
Goguryeo implemented a strategy of active defense based on cities. Besides the walled cities and fortified camps, this active defense system used small units of light cavalry to continuously harass the enemy, de-blockade units and strong reserves, consisting of the best soldiers, to strike hard at the end.
Goguryeo also employed military intelligence and special tactics as an important part of the strategy. Goguryeo was good at disinformation, such as sending only stone spearheads as tribute to the Chinese court when they were in the Iron Age. Goguryeo had developed its system of espionage. One of the most famous spies, Baekseok, mentioned in the Samguk yusa, was able to infiltrate the Hwarangs of Silla.
The culture of Goguryeo was shaped by its climate, religion, and the tense society that people dealt with due to the numerous wars Goguryeo waged. Not much is known about Goguryeo culture, as many records have been lost.
The inhabitants of Goguryeo wore a predecessor of the modern hanbok, just as the other cultures of the three kingdoms. There are murals and artifacts that depict dancers wearing elaborate white dresses.
Festivals and pastimes 
Common pastimes among Goguryeo people were drinking, singing, or dancing. Games such as wrestling attracted curious spectators.
Every October, the Dongmaeng Festival was held. The Dongmaeng Festival was practiced to worship the gods. The ceremonies were followed by huge celebratory feasts, games, and other activities. Often, the king performed rites to his ancestors.
Hunting was a male activity and also served as an appropriate means to train young men for the military. Hunting parties rode on horses and hunted deer and other game with bows-and-arrows. Archery contests also occurred.
Goguryeo people worshipped ancestors and considered them to be supernatural. Jumong, the founder of Goguryeo, was worshipped and respected among the people. There was even a temple in Pyeongyang dedicated to Jumong. At the annual Dongmaeng Festival, a religious rite was performed for Jumong, ancestors, and gods.
Mythical beasts and animals were also considered to be sacred in Goguryeo. The phoenix and dragon were both worshipped, while the Samjogo, the three-legged crow that represented the sun, was considered the most powerful of the three. Paintings of mythical beasts exist in Goguryeo king tombs today.
They also believed in the 'Sasin', who were 4 mythical animals. Chungryong (blue dragon) guarded the east, baek-ho (white tiger) guarded the west, jujak (red phoenix (bird)) guarded the south, and hyunmu (black turtle (sometimes with snakes for a tail)) guarded the north. These mythical animals are similar to the Azure Dragon, Vermilion Bird, White Tiger (Chinese astronomy), and Black Tortoise of the Four Symbols (Chinese constellation).
Buddhism was first introduced to Goguryeo in 372. The government recognized and encouraged the teachings of Buddhism and many monasteries and shrines were created during Goguryeo's rule, making Goguryeo the first kingdom in the region to adopt Buddhism. However, Buddhism was much more popular in Silla and Baekje, which Goguryeo passed Buddhism to.
Goguryeo art, preserved largely in tomb paintings, is noted for the vigour of its imagery. Finely detailed art can be seen in Goguryeo tombs and other murals. Many of the art pieces has an original style of painting.
Remains of walled towns, fortresses, palaces, tombs, and artifacts have been found in North Korea and Manchuria, including ancient paintings in a Goguryeo tomb complex in Pyongyang. Some ruins are also still visible in present-day China, for example at Wǔ Nǚ Shān, suspected to be the site of Jolbon fortress, near Huanren in Liaoning province on the present border with North Korea. Ji'an is also home to a large collection of Goguryeo era tombs, including what Chinese scholars consider to be the tombs of kings Gwanggaeto and his son Jangsu, as well as perhaps the best-known Goguryeo artifact, the Gwanggaeto Stele, which is one of the primary sources for pre-5th century Goguryeo history.
World Heritage Site 
The modern English name "Korea" derives from the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), which itself took one of the various names which Goguryeo had used in diplomatic language with its neighbours. Goguryeo is also referred to as Goryeo after 520 AD in Chinese and Japanese historical and diplomatic sources.
There have been some academic attempts to reconstruct the Goguryeo words based on the fragments of toponyms, recorded in the Samguk Sagi, of the areas once possessed by Goguryeo. However, the reliability of the toponyms as linguistic evidence is still in dispute. Some linguists propose the so-called "Buyeo languages" family that includes the languages of Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje. Chinese records also suggest that the languages of Goguryeo, Buyeo, East Okjeo, and Gojoseon were similar, while Goguryeo language differed from that of Malgal (Mohe).
Modern politics 
The Chinese government's attempted characterization of Goguryeo as a possible regional Chinese power in recent times has received heated criticisms from both North Korea and South Korea, as well as most scholars of Goguryeo history. including Chinese scholars
The Chinese government's attempted revision of Goguryeo history, in an attempt to recharacterize it as a Chinese provincial state rather than an independent Korean kingdom, has received international criticism for making a flawed and politically motivated rewriting of history, including from prominent Goguryeo experts such as Mark Byington. Some Chinese historians, particularly revisionists working for the Chinese government, have been accused of conceiving of ancient China in terms of the territorial bounds of the modern Chinese state, which, he claimed, is a view unsupported by historical evidence.
Online discussion regarding this topic has increased. The Internet has provided a platform for a broadening participation in the discussion of Goguryeo in both South Korea and China. Thomas Chase points out that despite the growing online discussion on this subject, this has not led to a more objective treatment of this history, nor a more critical evaluation of its relationship to national identity.
See also 
- Cheolli Jangseong
- History of Korea
- Later Goguryeo
- List of Korea-related topics
- Military history of Korea
- Silla–Tang Wars
- 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, its History and Legacy" 2003 PhD dissertation for the department of East Asian History, Harvard University, p. 234'
- 'Daniel Kane, postdoctoral student, Korean History Department, University of Hawaii, personal web site http://www2.hawaii.edu/~dkane/Puyo.htm
- 'Christopher I. Beckwith, "Koguryo, The Language Of Japan's Continental Relatives", 2004 Brill Academic Publishers, page 33'
- 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, its History and Legacy", p. 194'
- See, e.g., Samguk Sagi, vol. 13.
- 'Mark E. Byington, "A History of the Puyo State, its History and Legacy", p. 233'
- 《三国史记》：“三十三年 春正月 立王子无恤为太子 委以军国之事 秋八月 王命乌伊・摩离 领兵二万 西伐梁貊 灭其国 进兵袭取汉高句丽县”
- Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. In Pacific Northeast Asia in Prehistory: Hunter-fisher-gatherers, Farmers, and Sociopolitical Elites, edited by C. Melvin Aikens and Song Nai Rhee, pp. 191–196. WSU Press, Pullman ISBN 0-87422-092-0.
- De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 7–11
- De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, Editors, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 24–25
- Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", Yonsei University Press, p. 45
- Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", p. 46
- Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (Korean)
- Doosan Encyclopedia Online (Korean)
- Ilyon, "Samguk Yusa", p. 46–47
- 《三国史记》：“六年 秋八月 神雀集宫庭 冬十月 王命乌伊扶芬奴 伐太白山东南人国 取其地为城邑。十年 秋九月 鸾集于王台 冬十一月 王命扶尉 伐北沃沮灭之 以其地为城邑”
- (MyGoguryeo Unknown year)
- 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 22'
- 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 24'
- 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 36'
- 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 22-23'
- Charles Roger Tennant (1996). A history of Korea (illustrated ed.). Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. Retrieved 2012 February ninth. "capital on the middle reaches of the Yalu near the modern Chinese town of Ji'an, calling it 'Hwando'. By developing both their iron weapons and their political organization, they had reached a stage where in the turmoil that accompanied the break-up of the Han empire they were able to threaten the Chinese colonies now under the nominal control of the"
- Charles Roger Tennant (1996). A history of Korea (illustrated ed.). Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. Retrieved 2012 February ninth. "Wei. In 242, under King Tongch'ŏn, they attacked a Chinese fortress near the mouth of the Yalu in an attempt to cut the land route across Liao, in return for which the Wei invaded them in 244 and sacked Hwando."
- 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press, page 23'
- 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 20
- Charles Roger Tennant (1996). A history of Korea (illustrated ed.). Kegan Paul ㅏ. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. Retrieved 2012 February ninth. "Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provive cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon"
- Charles Roger Tennant (1996). A history of Korea (illustrated ed.). Kegan Paul International. p. 22. ISBN 0-7103-0532-X. Retrieved 2012 February ninth. "Soon after, the Wei fell to the Jin and Koguryŏ grew stronger, until in 313 they finally succeeded in occupying Lelang and bringing to an end the 400 years of China's presence in the peninsula, a period sufficient to ensure that for the next 1,500 it would remain firmly within the sphere of its culture. After the fall of the Jin in 316, the proto-Mongol Xianbei occupied the North of China, of which the Murong clan took the Shandong area, moved up to the Liao, and in 341 sacked and burned the Koguryŏ capital at Hwando. They took away some thousands of prisoners to provive cheap labour to build more walls of their own, and in 346 went on to wreak even greater destruction on Puyŏ, hastening what seems to have been a continuing migration of its people into the north-eastern area of the peninsula, but Koguryŏ, though temporarily weakened, would soon"
- Encyclopedia of World History, Vol I, P464 Three Kingdoms, Korea, Edited by Marsha E. Ackermann, Michael J. Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur, Mark F. Whitters, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
- 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 38
- 'William E. Henthorn', "A History of Korea", 1971 Macmillan Publishing Co., page 34
- Szczepanski,Kallie.(2011). Inscription from Gwanggaeto the Great's Stele Retrieved from September 18, 2011 from <http://asianhistory.about.com/od/northkorea/a/Inscription-From-Gwanggaeto-The-Greats-Stele.htm>
- De Bary, Theodore and Peter H. Lee, "Sources of Korean Tradition", p. 25–26
- 'Ki-Baik Lee', "A New History of Korea", 1984 Harvard University Press, page 36
- Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 198, 199, 200, 201
- Samguk Sagi, vol. 22.
- The Pride History of Korea
- (ScienceView Unknown year)
- History of Ssireum, Korea Ssireum Research Institute
- Historical Background Of Taekwondo Korea Taekwondo Association
- The Origin of Taekwondo, The World Taekwondo Federation
- Brown 2006, p. 18
- ‘고구려’와 ‘고려’는 같은 나라였다
- 고구려란 이름
- Fan Ye, Book of the Later Han, volume 85; the Dongyi Liezhuan
- Wei Shou, Book of Wei, volume 100; the Liezhuan 88, the Wuji
- Li Dashi, History of Northern Dynasties, volume 94; the Liezhuan 82, the Wuji
- Bae, Young-dae; Min-a Lee (2004-09-16). "Korea finds some allies in Goguryeo history spat". Joongang Ilbo. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- China shock for South Korea By Bruce Klingner. Asia Times
- "About the Korea Institute". Korea Institute. Retrieved 2007-05-28.
- "Korean-Russian academia jointly respond to Northeast Project" (in Korean). Naver. 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- "Chinese Scholar Slams Co-opting Korean History". Chosun Ilbo. 2006-09-13. Archived from the original on 2006-10-19. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- Bae, Young-dae; Min-a Lee (2004-09-16). "Korea finds some allies in Goguryeo history spat". Joongang Ilbo. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- China's Nationalism Warps Koguryo History. The Korea Times
- Byington, Mark (2004-01-01). "Koguryo part of China?". Koreanstudies mailing list. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- Chase, Thomas (2011). "Nationalism on the Net: Online discussion of Goguryeo history in China and South Korea". China Information 25 (1): 61–82. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
Further reading 
- Byeon, Tae-seop (1999), 韓國史通論(Outline of Korean history), 4th ed, Unknown Publisher, ISBN 89-445-9101-6
- US Library of Congress, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), South Korea:The Three Kingdom Periods, Unknown Publisher
- Metropolitan Museum, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), Korea, 1-500 A.D) Korea, 1-500AD, Unknown Publisher
- Yonson, Ahn (2006), Korea China Textbook War. What's It All About?, History News Network
- Ramzy, Austin (2004-08-16), Rewriting History, Time Magazine, retrieved 2010-05-03
- Klingner, Bruce (2004), China Shock for South Korea, Asia Time
- Shin, Hyoung-Sik (2003), History of Koguryo, Ewha Womans University Press, South Korea
- Lee, Wha (Unknown Year), Forgotten Glory of Koguryo, Kimsoft.com
- Brown, John (2006), China, Japan, Korea. Culture and Custom, BookSurge Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4196-4893-9
- Beckwith, Christopher I. (August 2003), "Ancient Koguryo, Old Koguryo, and the Relationship of Japanese to Korean" (PDF), 13th Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference, Michigan State University, retrieved 2006-03-12
[Note: The work "Sasse, Werner. 1976. Das Glossar Kogury o˙-pang o˙n im Kyerim-yusa" cited in this article actually is "Werner Sasse, Das Glossar Koryo-pangon im Kyerim-yusa" :-)]
- Britannica, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), Koguryo, Britannica Encyclopedia
- Columbia Encyclopedia, Unknown Author (2005), Korea, Bartleby.com, retrieved 2007-03-12
- CIA World Factbook (2007), Korea, South, CIA, retrieved 2007-04-27
- Sun, Jinji (2004a), Dongbei minzu yuanliu (The Ethnic Origin of the Northeast), Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
- Sun, Jinji (1986), Zhongguo Gaogoulishi yanjiu kaifang fanrong de liunian (Six Years of Opening and Prosperity of Koguryo History Research), Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
- Sun, Jinji (2004b), Renmin jiaoyu chubanshe lishixi (History Department of People's Education Press), Zhongguo lishi (Chinese History) II, Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe
- MyGoguryeo, Unknown (Unknown Year), The Pride History of Korea, MyGoguryeo.net (WWW)
- Byington, Mark (2004a), Koguryo Part of China?, Koreanstudies mailing list (WWW)
- Byington, Mark (2004b), The War of Words Between South Korea and China Over An Ancient Kingdom: Why Both Sides Are Misguided, History News Network (WWW)
- Chase, Thomas (2011), "Nationalism on the Net: Online discussion of Goguryeo history in China and South Korea", China Information 25 (1): 61–82
- ScienceView, Unknown Author (Unknown Year), Cultural Development of the Three Kingdoms, ScienceView (WWW)
- Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. In Pacific Northeast Asia in Prehistory: Hunter-fisher-gatherers, Farmers, and Sociopolitical Elites, edited by C. Melvin Aikens and Song Nai Rhee, pp. 191–196. WSU Press, Pullman ISBN 0-87422-092-0.
- Asmolov, V. Konstantin. (1992). The System of Military Activity of Koguryo, Korea Journal, v. 32.2, 103–116, 1992.
- Jeon Ho-tae Goguryeo: In Search of Its Culture and History. Hollym.
- (English) Encyclopaedia Britannica
- (English) Encarta (Archived 2009-10-31)
- (English) Columbia Encyclopedia
- (Korean) Information about the ancient kingdom
- (English) Goguryeo of Korea