Goiânia

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Municipality of Goiânia
Municipality
Skyline of Goiânia, Top of left:Monument of tree races in Civic Square, Top of right:Vaca Brava Park and Setor Bueno business area, Middle of left:Jardim Zoological Park in Pedro Lovovico area, Middle of right:Monument in Ratinho Square, Bottom:Night view of downtown Goiânia in Setor Bueno area
Skyline of Goiânia, Top of left:Monument of tree races in Civic Square, Top of right:Vaca Brava Park and Setor Bueno business area, Middle of left:Jardim Zoological Park in Pedro Lovovico area, Middle of right:Monument in Ratinho Square, Bottom:Night view of downtown Goiânia in Setor Bueno area
Flag of Municipality of Goiânia
Flag
Official seal of Municipality of Goiânia
Seal
Location of Goiânia
Location of Goiânia
Municipality of Goiânia is located in Brazil
Municipality of Goiânia
Municipality of Goiânia
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 16°40′00″S 49°15′00″W / 16.66667°S 49.25000°W / -16.66667; -49.25000Coordinates: 16°40′00″S 49°15′00″W / 16.66667°S 49.25000°W / -16.66667; -49.25000
Country  Brazil
Region Central-West
State Bandeira de Goiás.svg Goiás
Founded October 24, 1933
Government
 • Mayor Paulo de Siqueira Garcia (PT)
Area
 • Municipality 789 km2 (305 sq mi)
 • Metro 739 km2 (285 sq mi)
Elevation 749 m (2,457 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Municipality 1,301,892 (12th)
 • Density 1,604/km2 (4,150/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,206,734 (10th)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code 74000-000
Area code(s) +55 62
Website Goiânia, Goiás

Goiânia (/ɡɔɪˈɑːniə/;[1] Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡojˈjɐ̃ɲɐ]) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Goiás. With a population of 1,301,892,[2] it is the second-largest city in the Central-Western Region and the 13th-largest in the country. Its metropolitan area has a total population of 2,063,744, making it the 11th-largest in Brazil.

Goiânia is a planned city founded on October 24, 1933 by then Governor Pedro Ludovico to serve as the new state capital and administrative center. Prior to this date, the state capital was the town of Goiás. Goiânia has the largest green area per inhabitant in Brazil, and the second-most in the world, after Edmonton, Canada.[3][4]

History[edit]

The idea of creating a new state capital had been bounced around from early on in the history of the state of Goiás. The first plan came from D. Marcos de Noronha who in 1753 wanted to establish the state capital in the municipality of Pirenópolis, then again in 1863 José Vieira Couto de Magalhães put forward a plan to move the capital to the edge of the river Araguaia.

The impetus behind the efforts to move the state capital was the need to locate it in accordance with the economic interests of the state. The first state capital, Vila Boa (today City of Goiás), had been chosen when the economy was based on gold extraction. Later, when cattle-raising and agriculture came to dominate the state's development, the old state capital was considered remote.

Legislators kept the idea of a change alive for a long time. In 1891, the constitutional delegates made the idea of the transfer of the capital official, including it in the constitution, ratifying it in 1898 and again in 1918.

Vaguely remembered until 1930, the idea of change became a reality during the government of Pedro Ludovico, who was the new governor appointed for the state of Goiás after the military revolt of 1930. In 1932, a commission was created to choose the place where the new capital would be built. In 1933 the commission decided on the present location and the foundation stone was laid.

The plan was for a city of 50,000 with the shape of a concentric radius – streets in the form of a spoke, with the Praça Cívica as the center, with the seats of the state and municipal government – The Palace of Emeralds and the Palace of Campinas.

In 1937, a decree was signed transferring the state capital from the Cidade de Goiás to Goiânia. The official inauguration only occurred in 1942 with the presence of the president of the republic, governors, and ministers.

The name, Goiânia, came about in 1933 after a contest was held by a local newspaper. Readers from all over the state contributed, with some of the most popular names being Petrônia, Americana, Petrolândia, Goianópolis, Goiânia, Bartolomeu Bueno, Campanha, Eldorado, Anhanguera, Liberdade, Goianésia, and Pátria Nova, among others. In 1935 Pedro Ludovico used the name Goiânia for the first time, signing a decree creating the municipality of Goiânia.

Art deco[edit]

Panorama of Goiânia.

The first buildings in this planned city, designed by Atílio Correia Lima, were inspired by Art Deco. The collection of buildings in the city is still representative, with a total of 22 of them listed as National Heritage. Mostly built in the 1940s and 1950s they have been recognized by the National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage. The 22 buildings and monuments are located both in the original center of Goiânia, as in the pioneering nucleus of Campinas, a town axisting prior to Goiânia. Due to lack of maintenance several of these buildings are in a state of disrepair.

Radiation incident[edit]

Goiânia at night.
Main article: Goiânia accident

On September 13, 1987, an old medical radiation source was scavenged from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, causing several deaths and many non-fatal cases of radiation poisoning.[5] Several city blocks had to be demolished due to the contamination.[5] The International Atomic Energy Agency report noted that city and state officials acted with remarkable speed to prevent injury to the population.[6]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

The city has a tropical wet and dry climate with an average temperature of 21.9 °C (71.4 °F). It has a wet season, from October to April, and a dry one, from May to September. Annual rainfall is around 1,520 mm (60 in).

The lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.5 °C (32.9 °F)[7] on July 18, 2000, in the suburbs. 1.2 °C (34.2 °F)[8] was the lowest recorded downtown, on July 9, 1938. However, such lows are very rare. Temperatures may fall below 8 °C (46 °F) every winter, mainly in the suburbs. The highest temperature ever recorded was 39.2 °C (102.6 °F) on October 17, 2007.

Climate data for Goiania (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.2
(95.4)
34.6
(94.3)
34.4
(93.9)
34.0
(93.2)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
33.3
(91.9)
36.2
(97.2)
38.4
(101.1)
36.8
(98.2)
36.2
(97.2)
35.4
(95.7)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
29.4
(84.9)
30.1
(86.2)
30.0
(86)
29.1
(84.4)
28.7
(83.7)
28.9
(84)
31.2
(88.2)
31.9
(89.4)
31.0
(87.8)
29.7
(85.5)
28.9
(84)
29.8
(85.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
23.6
(74.5)
22.2
(72)
20.9
(69.6)
20.9
(69.6)
23.0
(73.4)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
Average low °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
19.7
(67.5)
19.5
(67.1)
18.5
(65.3)
16.0
(60.8)
13.7
(56.7)
13.2
(55.8)
15.0
(59)
18.1
(64.6)
19.5
(67.1)
19.6
(67.3)
19.7
(67.5)
17.7
(63.9)
Record low °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
15.4
(59.7)
14.0
(57.2)
11.2
(52.2)
5.7
(42.3)
3.5
(38.3)
3.8
(38.8)
6.8
(44.2)
10.4
(50.7)
13.7
(56.7)
14.4
(57.9)
12.9
(55.2)
3.5
(38.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 266.8
(10.504)
214.8
(8.457)
206.8
(8.142)
118.9
(4.681)
35.9
(1.413)
9.2
(0.362)
6.6
(0.26)
13.2
(0.52)
45.4
(1.787)
166.9
(6.571)
219.0
(8.622)
267.9
(10.547)
1,571.4
(61.866)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18 15 15 8 4 1 1 2 5 12 16 19 116
 % humidity 75 76 74 71 65 60 53 47 53 65 73 76 65.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 183.8 156.9 203.1 229.0 249.7 269.0 286.8 281.2 212.3 188.2 174.2 172.6 2,606.7
Source: INMET[9]

Vegetation[edit]

The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. More than 1600 species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been identified in the cerrado ("Cerrado's Fauna", Costa et al., 1981), including 180 reptile species, 113 amphibians, 837 birds and 195 mammals (WWF). Among the invertebrates, the most notable are the termites and the leaf-cutter ants ("saúvas"). They are the main herbivores of the cerrado, important to consuming and decomposing of organic matter, as well as constituting an important food source to many other animal species.

Panorama of Goiânia.

Economy[edit]

Commerce in Goiânia.

While Goiânia's economy today is based on a variety of industries, the local economy's roots are found in the agricultural industry thriving in and around the city. The supply of agricultural equipment, tools, fertilizer and various other products make up a large portion of the city's economic activity.

People's Marketplace.

Second to agriculture is the vehicle sales and service industry. Repairs, sales and reconditioning of vehicles are widespread and visible in all areas of the city.

The third largest contributor to the economy is the governmental sector. As Goiânia is the state capital of Goiás, it is home to many federal and state governmental agencies that provide a large number of jobs to the population.

In recent years, modern telecommunications, along with its supporting industry, has begun to expand into Goiânia, and many large Brazilian companies have established offices in the city.

In addition, due to Goiânia being the state capital, it is home to countless private medical centers/clinics of all kinds.

In 2005, the GDP of the city was R$ 13,354,065.00.[10]

In the same year, the per capita income for the city was R$ 11,119.[11]

Demographics[edit]

The population of the municipality in 2011, according to the IBGE, was 1,302,001 inhabitants, being the most populous municipality in the state and 12th in Brazil. The main reason for the large population is in the vicinity of Goiania and Brasília, that spurred the growth of the city and the region between it and the federal capital, making the axis Brasília-Goiania 's third largest agglomeration in the country, bringing together about nine million people. The Metropolitan Area of Goiânia is currently the tenth largest agglomeration urban Brazil, with a population of 2,173,141 inhabitants. presents a population density of 782.5 inhabitants per 1 square kilometre (0.4 sq mi), being the largest of its state.

The Human Development Index Municipal (HDI) of Goiânia is considered high by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), its value being 0.832, the second largest of any state of Goiás (in 242 municipalities); third of all Midwest Region of Brazil (in 446) and 111 ° from all over Brazil (in 5507). Considering only the education, the index value is 0.933 (classified as very high), while Brazil's is 0.849. The longevity index is 0.751 (0.638 is Brazilian) and income is 0.813 (that of Brazil is 0.723). The city has most of the indicators high and similar to the national average according to UNDP. The literacy rate is 96.78% adult. The incidence of poverty, measured by the IBGE, is 3.64%, the lower the incidence of poverty is 2.92%, the top is 4.35% and subjective poverty incidence is 4.35%.

Social inequality[edit]

Among Brazil's metropolises, Goiânia has the lowest number of favelas according to data extracted from the 2010 census by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the IBGE.[12] The IBGE named seven areas within Goiânia as being "subnormal agglomerations", a government term for irregular housing.[13] In these locales however, most of the households do have electricity, water, and trash collection.[13] While perhaps not fitting the criteria of favelas, Goiânia does have several sectors of the city, particularly on the outskirts, that are low-income.[14]

Ethnicity and immigration[edit]

Goiânia is a multiracial city as the result of intense migration. The populace has intimate connection with the settlement of the interior of the Brazilian center-west, gradually attracted mainly by migrants from the interior of Goiás, and other regions in other states of Brazil. People came from diverse backgrounds, which contributed to the city had a mixed population, predominantly white and brown. According to the census of the IBGE 2010, in search of self-declaration, the population of Goiânia is composed of White (47.95%), Pardo (44.51%), Black (5.68%), Amerindian (0.16% ) and Asian (1.68%). In relation to another census conducted in 2000, there was a decrease of whites and Indians and an increase in brown, black and yellow. Initially, Goiânia was populated by migrants from the interior of Goiás Its creation was crucial to the population growth in the state, since Vila Boa, the ancient capital showed signs of declining population, is considered a setback for the state. The founding of Goiânia is now considered a fact of successful settlement of the Brazilian interior. Today, the population coming from Goiania is predominantly Minas Gerais, Bahia, Tocantins, Maranhão, São Paulo and Pará, respectively.[15]

Education[edit]

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools, with English and Spanish part of the official high school curriculum.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

BR-060 is the main road which links Goiânia and Brasília.
João Alves de Queiroz viaduct
Viaduct in the Latif Sebba Square

Goiânia is connected to the federal capital, Brasília, via a four-lane highway (BR-060), and to São Paulo via a two-lane highway (BR-153, which is being expanded to four lanes). The state of Goiás maintains the main artery roads (marked GO-xx) in and out of the capital, which are typically two-lane roads.

As Goiânia was a planned city when first created, the downtown cores (Setores Central/Oeste/Sul) are relatively easy to navigate. Along the years, the planned urban development was replaced by the typical Brazilian way of urban growth, i.e. pure laissez-faire. The social and urban demands were neglected.

Due to this lack of planning and reliable public transportation, Goiania is the metropolis with the highest number of cars per capita in the country; at present, there are 1,000,000 registered motor vehicles in the city. The many vehicles on the roads cause major congestion during peak times throughout the city.

Rail[edit]

The Railway line was closed in the 1970s, though the Art Deco station remains open to the public. Nowadays transportation of goods is carried out via the connecting highways.

Public transportation[edit]

All public transportation is via bus. Bus service in Goiânia is provided by several different transportation companies all working under the municipality. There is a bus system map the can be founded in RMTC site. Buses run on a predictable time schedule demonstrated in RMTC site. Goiania is the only city of South America that has the ITS technology of bus transport, but the buses are usually full. Unlike most Brazilian cities, there are no ticket collectors on the buses in Goiânia; all the fares are collected using magnetic paper cards and turnstiles. Passes are provided by SitPASS and can be purchased on the street from street vendors or in small shops throughout the city.

Anhanguera Avenue, is one of the largest/longest avenues in the city. It underwent major work in the late 1990s that created a dedicated bus lane for the entire length of the avenue, with stations every 1/2 Kilometer. The bus lanes, however, are located in the center of the avenue, giving it a distinct look. The fare to travel on the Anhanguera bus route is half of normal fare and all buses on this route are articulated buses.

The new contract[edit]

Under the new contract, firmed in 2009, many aspects of the public transportation are being changed:

  • The terminal stations are now placed under administration of the companies that are refurbishing them;
  • The buses are being equipped with GPS modules to solve the schedule problem and many other benefits, Adapted to give accessibility to disabled people, radios to give fast response on reroutes and other events, and other minor changes;
  • The introduction of the CityBus, a service of microbuses focused on give a choice to people of higher wealth to use the public transit system instead of their cars and to tourists who are visiting the city.
  • Changes on "Eixo Anhanguera" (Anhanguera axis) and it's terminals. It is unclear what changes that will be made, but one of the main issues under discussion is the much criticized change in fares; in future, a person that gets on a terminal from the axis to integrate with an inter-municipal metropolitan line will have to pay a complete fare.
  • A North-South axis is part of the project, but as of August/09 it has not been implemented yet
  • An Operational Control Center that will monitor the bus traffic through GPS.
  • A free number for users to call to know how much time is left before the next bus arrives is another part of project that has not yet been implemented.

Airports[edit]

Santa Genoveva Airport is located on the northeast side Goiânia, in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Currently six airlines fly out of Santa Genoveva Airport to several destinations in Brazil. With a nominal yearly capacity of 600 thousand passengers, in 2011 it handled 2,8 million passengers . With its new terminal, it will be able to handle up to 2 million users a year.

Currently construction is underway for a new airport terminal, but has been stalled and a new concurrence is being set to then restart the construction. The new expected date for inauguration is 2012.[16] Modernization work will soon get underway at Goiânia Airport current terminal to help to minimize the current overload problems.

Aeródromo Nacional de Aviação handles general aviation operations.

Security[edit]

Goiania is considered a safer city compared to most other state capitals within Brazil. The average yearly murder rate per year is under 450 persons per year according to the Goiás State Police. It was, however, found in a study in 2011 performed by a Mexican think tank — the Citizens' Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice - that Goiânia ranks as the 40th most dangerous city in the world [17]

The city of Goiania is patrolled and under the watch of the Goias Military Police, which is responsible for responding to crime and maintaining check points within the city and state. The Military Police are normally dressed in Military uniforms (Light Tan uniforms) while patrolling the city. The prosecution and investigations of crime and all administration issues are handled by the Civil police within the city (Policia Civil).

Within the City of Goiania traffic rules are enforced by the "AMT", whose members are traffic wardens with some minor police powers. This unit fall under the ownership of the city. Their responsibilities are to ensure road rules are enforced and attend to all accidents on the city streets.

Green areas[edit]

Goiânia.

Goiânia is home to a large number of skyscrapers dominating the center and one-floor family homes spreading out across the verdant tree-covered plain. Many of the streets are lined with tropical fruit trees and there are many parks with remnants of the original tropical vegetation. Thirty percent of the city area is planted in trees — 3.75 square kilometres (1.45 sq mi) of the 11 square kilometres (4.25 sq mi).

The most important of these parks are the Parque Zoológico, Parque Vaca Brava, Parque Ecológico, Bosque dos Buritis and Parque Areião. One of the biggest parks is the Bosque dos Buritís with an area of 140,000 square meters and containing many buriti palm trees, which have a yellow fruit. Parque Areião is home to monkeys native to the area. Almost all of the parks are surrounded by walking paths.

Goiânia is famous for being the ‘spring capital’ and was planned as a modern city, growing outside from the center. In the starting years this building plan worked well, but through the quick growth the plan was not followed to the letter, with the exception of the green areas, causing severe infrastructure problems in some areas, in particular with the public transport and healthcare systems.

In the Bosque dos Buritis is the Monument for World Peace, designed by Siron Franco. This monument contains a 7 meter high ampole with walls of glass and the soil of more than 50 countries from all over the world. Every year on World Environment Day there will be scattered soil of a new country added.

Another attraction is the Chico Mendes Botanic Garden), housing trees and flowers like bromelias, orchids, fruit trees and a lake.

Parque Zoológico[edit]

Vaca Brava Park of Goiânia.

Created in 1946, it contains over one thousand animals, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. Five streams have their source in the park, which, besides the Zoo itself, also contains the Horto Florestal and the Lago das Rosas (Lake of Roses). The park is located in the Setor Oeste, one of the richest and most beautiful residencial areas of Goiânia.

Buriti Park[edit]

Located in the center of the city this is Goiânia’s oldest green area. It has an area of 120,000 square meters. There is a running track and exercise area, that has pull up bars and situp benches with various inclines. There are three artificial lakes created by Buriti Stream. We can also find the Goiânia Art Museum and the Free Center of Arts. It houses a group of Marmosets and many turtles.

Vaca Brava Park[edit]

Vaca Brava Park

Vaca Brava Park, renamed Parque Sulivan Silvestre after Dr. Sulivan Silvestre de Oliveira. Every day at dawn hundreds of people begin their daily activities by walking or jogging along the sidewalk that encloses Parque Vaca Brava. It has an area of 18,000 square meters and contains a lake, a forest with native species and places for exercise. Vaca Brava (which could be roughly translated as Angry Cow) has become a symbol of the new thriving area of the Setor Bueno, which has flourished in the past decades and is now one of the most important zones of Goiânia.

Areião Park[edit]

The Areião is one of the biggest green areas of Goiânia. Located in a wealthy area, it is famous for its dense vegetation, full of monkeys. Besides the many trails, there is also a lake, a jogging route and many wooden buildings, including a small theater, consisting of a stage and many seats in the middle of a bamboo forest.

Cobra Veiga—center for snake research[edit]

Located in an area of 44,000.5 m2 (10.8728 acres), it has an infrastructure for 750 serpents of different species, in addition to a laboratory and a rodent house. Its main activities are the extraction of poison for medicinal purposes, research on behavior of serpents in captivity and the recuperation of degraded areas and the preservation of springs and their forest.

Leisure[edit]

The leisure options are diversified. There are many shopping malls. In sports there are numerous gyms, public and private. The city has a 45,000 capacity stadium: the Serra Dourada Stadium. Goiânia also has a racetrack (Ayrton Senna International Racetrack), a kart track and a horse racing track.

Sports[edit]

Goiânia has three football (soccer) clubs: Atlético Clube Goianiense, Goiás Esporte Clube and Vila Nova Futebol Clube. Goiás competes in the Série A. Atlético competes in the Série B and Vila Nova in Série C.

Museums[edit]

The most important museums are the Museu Antropológico da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Instituto Goiano de Pré-História e Antropologia, Fundação Museu de Ornitologia, Museu de Arte Contemporânea and Museu Zoroastro Artiaga. One interesting place is the so-called Memorial do Cerrado.

Rock scene[edit]

Goiânia is home to one of the most important rock scenes from Brazil[citation needed]. It has started in the early 1990s, with the creation of the first independent rock festivals in the city. Independent labels like Monstro Discos, Two Beers or Not Two Beers and Insetus flourished and have been crucial to support and broadcast the scene, which, due to the fact of being completely independent from the mainstream media, sometimes is not known even to native Goianienses.

The main styles are alternative or indie rock represented by bands like MQN, Black Drawing Chalks, Violins, Torn Birds, Hang The Superstars, Valentina, NEM, Fantasma de Agnes and Flores Indecentes; punk and hardcore by bands like Desastre, Vacilo, Resistentes, Descarga Negativa, Señores, Umbral and HC-137 and metal with bands like Ressonância Mórfica (unlike most metal bands they sing in archaic Portuguese), Spiritual Carnage,[18] Eternal Devastation and Hellphoria. There are currently two major independent festivals held in the city, Bananada (usually held in May) and Goiânia Noise (usually in December). It is interesting to notice that Goiânia, as the capital of a state that was rural until 3 decades ago, has been traditionally influenced by the sertanejo style, strongly connected with the countryside lifestyle. Though the sertanejo is still an icon of Goiás' culture, the rock scene is seen by some as a response to it and as the creator center of a goianiense legitimately culture, independent of the countryside culture. Goiânia is a leading center in the underground rock movement in Brazil.

Health[edit]

Goiânia is a national reference in several areas of medicine, especially ophthalmology, neurology, burn treatment, and leprosy.

Health data[edit]

  • Infant mortality rate: 21.30 in 1,000 live births (2000)
  • Hospitals: 60
  • Hospital beds: 6.037
  • Walk-in public health clinics: 667
  • Doctors in the public health system: 6,315 (2002)
  • Nurses in the public health system: 808
  • Dentists in the public health system: 659

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Goiania is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pronunciation of Goiânia at Dictionary.com
  2. ^ 2010 Census data for Goiás. IBGE.
  3. ^ (Portuguese) PEREIRA, Alberto. "Arborizada e planejada, Goiânia se destaca por parques e museus". Folha de S. Paulo. May 8, 2009.
  4. ^ (Portuguese) BIASETTO, Daniel and AMARO, Mariana. "As Cidades que são Numero". Veja. July 23, 2008.
  5. ^ a b "The Worst Nuclear Disasters". Time.
  6. ^ (page 1)
  7. ^ "CPTEC/INPE", Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. Plataformas de Coletas de Dados, Dados Históricos Meteorológicos.
  8. ^ "INMET", Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Gráficos Climatológicos. Período: 1931-1960.
  9. ^ "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  10. ^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Goiânia, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  11. ^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Goiânia, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  12. ^ Mergulhão, Alfredo (2011-12-22). "A metrópole com menos favelas" (in Portuguese). APPEGO. 
  13. ^ a b "Estudo do IBGE aponta 12 favelas em Goiás, 7 delas na capital do estado" (in Portuguese). G1 Goiás. 2011-12-21. 
  14. ^ Ferreira, Érica (2009-04-11). "Cidades - Capital tem 141 áreas semelhantes a favelas" (in Portuguese). Ministério Público do Estado de Goiás. 
  15. ^ Jornal O Hoje. "Goiânia 77 anos - Destino de migrantes" (in Portuguese). Goiânia - No Coração do Brasil. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  16. ^ Hojenoticia.co.br
  17. ^ "San Pedro Sula, la ciudad más violenta del mundo; Juárez, la segunda". Retrieved November 22, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Spiritual Carnage". Myspace.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  19. ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 

External links[edit]