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Goitrogenic drugs and chemicals
Chemicals that have been shown to have goitrogenic effects include:
- Sulfadimethoxine, propylthiouracil, potassium perchlorate, and iopanoic acid.
- Some oxazolidines such as goitrin.
- Thiocyanate overload in Central Africa, especially if also in conjunction with selenium deficiency. Reliance on cassava as a carbohydrate provides a source of thiocyanate in some areas.
- Ions such as thiocyanate and perchlorate decrease iodide uptake by competitive inhibition and, as a consequence of reduced thyroxine and triiodothyronine secretion by the gland, cause, at low doses, an increased release of thyrotropin (by reduced negative feedback), which then stimulates the gland.
- Amiodarone inhibits peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine; also interferes with thyroid hormone action.
- Lithium inhibits thyroid hormone release.
- Phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin induce metabolic degradation of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
- Cassava and cabbage both due to the foods containing thiocyanate[dead link]
- Soybeans (and soybean products such as tofu, soybean oil, soy flour, soy lecithin)
- Pine nuts
- Flax seed, flax seed contains cyanide which transforms into thiocyanate inside the body leading to hypothyroid syndrome.
- Bamboo shoots
- Sweet potatoes
- Vegetables in the genus Brassica 
Despite being generally a stimulant, caffeine acts on thyroid function as a suppressant. One study on rats suggested that very high levels of caffeine in conjunction with a lack of iodine may promote the formation of thyroid cancers.
Foods stimulating thyroid tissue
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- Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7. 8th edition.
- National Toxicology, Program (2001). "Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate (CAS No. 68603-42-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies)". National Toxicology Program technical report series 479: 5–226. PMID 12571684.
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