Goji, goji berry or wolfberry is the fruit of Lycium barbarum (Chinese: 寧夏枸杞 pinyin: níngxià gǒuqǐ) and Lycium chinense (Chinese: 枸杞 pinyin: gǒuqǐ), two closely related species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (which also includes the potato, tomato, eggplant, deadly nightshade, chili pepper, and tobacco). The two species are native to Asia.
- 1 Description
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Significance
- 4 Cultivation
- 5 Uses
- 6 Nutrient content
- 7 Marketing
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2009)|
Wolfberry species are deciduous woody perennial plants, growing 1–3 m high. L. chinense is grown in the south of China and tends to be somewhat shorter, while L. barbarum is grown in the north, primarily in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and tends to be somewhat taller.
Leaves and flowers
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Wolfberry leaves form on the shoot either in an alternating arrangement or in bundles of up to three, each having either a lanceolate (shaped like a spearhead longer than it is wide) or ovate (egg-like) shape. Leaf dimensions are 7.0 cm wide by 3.5 cm broad with blunted or rounded tips.
The flowers grow in groups of one to three in the leaf axils. The calyx (eventually ruptured by the growing berry) consists of bell-shaped or tubular sepals forming short, triangular lobes. The corollae are lavender or light purple, 9–14 mm wide with five or six lobes shorter than the tube. The stamens are structured with filaments longer than the anthers. The anthers are longitudinally dehiscent.
In the Northern Hemisphere, flowering occurs from June through September and berry maturation from August to October, depending on the latitude, altitude, and climate.
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These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1–2 cm in diameter. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing 10–60 tiny yellow seeds that are compressed with a curved embryo. The berries ripen from July to October in the Northern Hemisphere.
Lycium, the genus name, is derived from the ancient southern Anatolian region of Lycia (Λυκία). The fruit is known in pharmacological references as Lycii fructus, which is Latin for "Lycium fruit".
"Wolfberry", a commonly used English name, has unknown origin, perhaps resulting from the Mandarin root, gou, meaning wolf[dubious ]  or confusion over the genus name, Lycium, which resembles lycos, the Greek word for wolf.
In the English-speaking world, the name "goji berry" has been used since the early 21st century. The word "goji" is an approximation of the pronunciation of gǒuqǐ, the name for L. chinense in several Chinese dialects, including Hokkien and Shanghainese. This name possibly derives from the same roots as the Persian language term gojeh which means "plum/berry".
Since the early 21st century, interest has increased for wolfberries for their novelty and nutrient value. They have been termed a superfruit, which has led to a profusion of consumer products. In traditional medicine, the whole fruit or its extracts have numerous implied health effects[which?] which remain scientifically unconfirmed as of 2014.
The majority of commercially produced wolfberries come from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of north-central China and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of western China, where they are grown on plantations totaling 200,000 acres. In Zhongning County, Ningxia, wolfberry plantations typically range between 40 and 400 hectares (100–1000 acres or 500–6000 mu) in area. As of 2005, over 10 million mu have been planted with wolfberries in Ningxia.
Cultivated along the fertile aggradational floodplains of the Yellow River for more than 600 years, Ningxia wolfberries have earned a reputation throughout Asia for premium quality sometimes described commercially as "red diamonds". Government releases of annual wolfberry production, premium fruit grades, and export are based on yields from Ningxia, the region recognized with
- The largest annual harvest in China, accounting for 39% (13 million kg, 2001) of the nation's total yield of wolfberries, estimated at approximately 33 million kg (72 million lb) in 2001
- Formation of an industrial association of growers, processors, marketers, and scholars of wolfberry cultivation to promote the berry's commercial and export potential
- The nation's only source of therapeutic grade ("superior-grade") wolfberries used by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine
In addition, commercial volumes of wolfberries grow in the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei. When ripe, the oblong, red berries are tender and must be picked carefully or shaken from the vine into trays to avoid spoiling. The fruits are preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.
Wolfberries are celebrated each August in Ningxia with an annual festival coinciding with the berry harvest. Originally held in Ningxia's capital, Yinchuan, the festival has been based since 2000 in Zhongning County, an important center of wolfberry cultivation for the region. As Ningxia's borders merge with three deserts, wolfberries are also planted to control erosion and reclaim irrigable soils from desertification.
China, the main supplier of wolfberry products in the world, had total exports generating US$120 million in 2004. This production derived from 82,000 ha farmed nationwide, yielding 95,000 tons of wolfberries, which has increased from larger acreages cultivated in recent years.
Pesticide and fungicide use
Organochlorine pesticides are conventionally used in commercial wolfberry cultivation to mitigate destruction of the delicate berries by insects. Since the early 21st century, high levels of insecticide residues (including fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and acetamiprid) and fungicide residues (such as triadimenol and isoprothiolane), have been detected by the United States Food and Drug Administration in some imported wolfberries and wolfberry products of Chinese origin, leading to the seizure of these products.
On June 18, 2007, the UK Food Standards Agency stated a significant history exists of the fruit being consumed in Europe before 1997, and has removed it from the Novel Foods list. It is now legal to sell the wolfberry in the UK as a food as reported by the Food Standards Agency, though with concerns over marketing claims over potential health benefits.
Importation of mature plants
Importation of wolfberry plants into the United Kingdom from most countries outside Europe is illegal, due to the possibility they could be vectors of diseases attacking Solanaceae crops, such as potato or tomato.
Canada and United States
During the first decade of the 21st century, farmers in Canada and the United States began cultivating goji on a commercial scale to meet potential markets for fresh berries, juice, and processed products.
Wolfberries are usually sold in open boxes and small packages in dried form.
As a food, dried wolfberries are traditionally cooked before consumption. Dried wolfberries are often added to rice congee and almond jelly, as well as used in Chinese tonic soups, in combination with chicken or pork, vegetables, and other herbs such as wild yam, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula, and licorice root. The berries are also boiled as a herbal tea, often along with chrysanthemum flowers and/or red jujubes, or with tea, and packaged teas are also available.
Goji is the subject of research to determine if it has any useful medicinal properties; although it is not toxic, a lack of clinical evidence and poor quality control in the manufacture of Goji products means it cannot currently be recommended for medicinal use.
Two published case reports described elderly women who experienced increased bleeding, expressed as an elevated INR, after drinking quantities of wolfberry tisane. Further in vitro testing revealed that the tea inhibited warfarin metabolism, providing evidence for possible interaction between warfarin and undefined wolfberry phytochemicals.
Atropine, a toxic alkaloid found in other members of the Solanaceae family, occurs naturally in wolfberry fruit. The atropine concentrations of berries from China and Thailand was tested and found to be variable, with a maximum content of 19 ppb, well below a toxic level. However, misidentified or adulterated samples with higher atropine levels may explain earlier, much higher, measurements.
Potentially harmful interactions may occur if wolfberry is consumed while taking other medications, such as those metabolised by the cytochrome P450 liver enzymes. Such drugs include warfarin, or drugs for diabetes or hypertension.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
Micronutrients and phytochemicals
Wolfberries contain many nutrients and phytochemicals, including:
- 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals
- 18 amino acids
- 6 vitamins
- 8 polysaccharides and 6 monosaccharides
- 5 unsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
- beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols
- 5 carotenoids, including beta-carotene and zeaxanthin (below), lutein, lycopene and cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll
- numerous phenolic pigments (phenols) associated with antioxidant properties
Select examples given below are for 100 g of dried berries:
- Calcium - 112 mg, providing about 8–10% of the dietary reference intake (DRI)
- Potassium - 1,132 mg, giving about 24% of the DRI
- Iron - 9 mg (100% DRI)
- Zinc - 2 mg (18% DRI)
- Selenium - 50 micrograms (91% DRI)
- Riboflavin (vitamin B2) 1.3 mg, 100% of DRI
- Vitamin C - 29 to 148 mg (respectively, 32% and 163% DRI)
Wolfberries also contain numerous phytochemicals for which no DRI values have been established. These phytochemicals are present in goji berries:
- Beta-carotene 7 mg/100 g dried fruit
- Zeaxanthin - from 2.4 to 82.4 mg per 100 g to 200 mg per 100 grams. The higher values would make wolfberry one of the richest edible plant sources known for zeaxanthin content. Up to 77% of total carotenoids present in wolfberry exist as zeaxanthin.
- Polysaccharides - proteoglycan polysaccharides are a major constituent of wolfberries, representing up to 31% of pulp weight.
Since the early 21st century, the dried fruit has been marketed in the West as a health food, often accompanied by scientifically unsupported claims regarding its purported health benefits. The level of vitamin C is comparable to many citrus fruits and strawberries.
Companies marketing the berries often also include the unsupported myth that a Chinese man named Li Qing Yuen, who was said to have consumed wolfberries daily, lived to the age of 256 years (1677–1933).
Commercial products marketed outside Asia
Other wolfberry consumer applications include:
Commercial suppliers have processed wolfberry as
- An additive for manufacturing
- Juice concentrate
- Whole fruit purée
- Pulp powders
- Whole or ground seeds
Marketing claims under scrutiny in Europe
In February 2007, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) of the United Kingdom, an advisor for food safety to the European Food Safety Authority of the European Union (EU), published an inquiry to retailers and health food stores requesting evidence of significant use of wolfberries in Europe before 1997. Information from this period would document a safety history and evaluate how "novel" the berries are in the EU, affecting their authorization status for sale.
Proponents hoped this review would provide important safeguards for consumers by checking whether new foods are suitable for the whole population, including people with food allergies. Opponents, though, feared it would limit consumer choice and protect monopolistic interests rather than the public. Food safety in the EU relies importantly on a scientific basis for label information on foods like wolfberries that may be claimed to furnish health benefits.
Marketing claims under scrutiny in Canada and the United States
By one specific example in the CBC interview, Earl Mindell (then working for direct-marketing company FreeLife International, Inc.) falsely claimed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York had completed clinical studies showing that use of wolfberry juice would prevent 75% of human breast cancer cases.
During 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed two goji juice distributors on notice with warning letters about marketing claims. These statements were in violation of the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act [21 USC/321 (g)(1)] because they "establish the product as a drug intended for use in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease" when wolfberries or juice have had no such scientific evaluation. Additionally stated by the FDA, the goji juice was "not generally recognized as safe and effective for the referenced conditions" and therefore must be treated as a "new drug" under Section 21(p) of the Act. New drugs may not be legally marketed in the United States without prior approval of the FDA.
On May 29, 2009, a class action lawsuit was filed against FreeLife in the United States District Court of Arizona. This lawsuit alleges false claims, misrepresentations, false and deceptive advertising and other issues regarding FreeLife’s Himalayan Goji Juice, GoChi, and TaiSlim products. This lawsuit seeks remedies for consumers who have purchased these products over the past several years.
- Gouqi jiu
- List of culinary fruits
- List of dried foods
- Sea buckthorn – another medicinal plant that somewhat resembles Wolfberry
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|Look up wolfberry or 枸杞子 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lycium barbarum.|
- Flora of China citation for L. barbarum
- Flora of China citation for L. chinense
- United States Department of Agriculture
- Plants For A Future database
- Montana plant life.org