Gojoseon–Han War

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Gojoseon-Han War
Date 109-108 BC
Location Liaodong Peninsula, Korean Peninsula, Bohai Sea
Result Decisive Han victory
Belligerents
Gojoseon kingdom Han empire
Commanders and leaders
King Ugeo 
Seong Gi 
Min. No In (POW)
Min. Han Eum (POW)
Min. Sam (POW)
Gen. Wang Gyeop (POW)
Yang Fu
Xun Zhi
Strength
Unknown About 50,000

The Gojoseon–Han War was a campaign launched by the Han empire against Wiman Joseon of the Gojoseon kingdom between 109 and 108 BC. It resulted in the fall of Gojoseon.

Background[edit]

Since the time that Wiman took the Gojoseon throne, relations between Han and Gojoseon had been deteriorating.[1] King Ugeo of Gojoseon interrupted direct contact with envoys sent by chiefs of various tribes on the Korean Peninsula to the Han empire, thus Emperor Wu of Han dispatched the emissary She He (涉何) to Gojoseon.[2] After an audience with the king, She He failed in securing the safe passage of the envoys.[2] While returning to his nation, She He killed Jang (長), an assistant of the Gojoseon king.[2] Due to this action, the king sent out troops to kill She He.[2] The direct pretext for war thus came when King Ugeo had the Han envoy executed, which had angered Emperor Wu considerably.[3] However, it is thought by modern historians that the initiation of war was also brought by the desire to remove the possibility that Gojoseon would ally with the Xiongnu against the Han or by the deteriorating relations between Han and Gojoseon when Wiman Joseon prevented trade between Chinbon and Han.[4]

Course of the war[edit]

In 109 BC, Emperor Wu launched a Han military campaign into Gojoseon.[5] Two forces—totaling about 50,000 troops led by Yang Fu (楊僕) and Xun Zhi (荀彘) respectively—set out from the Han empire to invade the kingdom.[6] A navy sailed from Qi (present-day Shandong Province) across the Bohai Sea towards Gojoseon, while an army marched through Liaodong and headed towards Wanggeom, the capital of Gojoseon.

In a series of unsuccessful attempts by the Han forces to take the city in the first year of the war, King Ugeo kept Wanggeom from the Han forces. Xun Zhi, having overall command by the Emperor Wu, imprisoned Yang Fu and unified the whole Han forces and the attacks became stronger. Wiman Joseon officials such as No In (朝鮮相 路人), Han Eum (相 韓陰), Sam (尼谿相 參), Wang Gyeop (王唊) insisted to surrender to Han. But King Ugeo disagreed. Eventually, in April of 108 BC, three of the ministers surrendered to Han and Sam later let King Ugeo be assassinated. Under the leadership of Minister Seong Gi (成己), Gojoseon people still struggled against Han. But, Seong Gi was also assassinated and the city finally fell to Han.

Aftermath[edit]

After the war, four Han commanderies were founded to administer the former Gojoseon territories,[1] namely Lelang, Xuantu, Zhenfan, and Lintun.[7] The most significant commandery was located in Lelang (near present-day Pyongyang),[3] which controlled the region until 313 AD.[5] The conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC by Han, ultimately led to the Proto-Three Kingdoms period of Korea.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sin 2006, 22−23.
  2. ^ a b c d Pai 2000, 142.
  3. ^ a b Pai 1992, 309.
  4. ^ Pai 2000, 144–145.
  5. ^ a b Matray 2005, 18.
  6. ^ Shim 2002, 301.
  7. ^ Pai 2000, 144.
  8. ^ West 2009, 412.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Matray, James Irving (2005). Korea divided: The thirty-eighth parallel and the Demilitarized Zone. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-7829-7. 
  • Pai, Hyung Il (1992). "Culture contact and culture change: The Korean Peninsula and its relations with the Han Dynasty commandery of Lelang". World Archaeology 23 (3). JSTOR 124765. 
  • Pai, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" origins: A critical review of archaeology, historiography, and racial myth in Korean state-formation theories. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-00244-9. 
  • Shim, Jae-Hoon (2002). "A new understanding of Kija Chosŏn as a historical anachronism". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 62 (2). JSTOR 4126600. 
  • Sin, Hyŏng-sik (2006). A brief history of Korea (2nd print ed.). Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press. ISBN 978-89-7300-619-9. 
  • West, Barbara A. (2009). Encyclopedia of the peoples of Asia and Oceania. New York: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-7109-8.