|Dragon Ball character|
|First appearance||Dragon Ball chapter #1: Bulma and Son Goku (1984)|
|Created by||Akira Toriyama|
See Voice actors
|Aliases||Kakarrot (birth name)
Zero (Harmony Gold dub)
Son Goku (孫 悟空 Son Gokū?), better known as simply Goku, is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Dragon Ball manga series written by Akira Toriyama. He is based on Sun Wukong, a main character in the classical Chinese novel Journey to the West. Goku is introduced in chapter #1 Bulma and Son Goku (ブルマと孫悟空 Buruma to Son Gokū?), originally published in Japan's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine on December 3, 1984, as an eccentric, monkey-tailed boy who practices martial arts and possesses superhuman strength. Goku is initially believed to be an Earthling, but is later revealed to be a member of an extraterrestrial warrior race called the Saiyans. He later discovers his birth name, Kakarrot (カカロット Kakarotto?).
In Dragon Ball, Goku trains himself in martial arts in his deceased grandfather's mountain home. He meets Bulma who is searching for the Dragon Balls. Bulma notices Goku's power and asks Goku to join her after explaining the legend of the wish-granting Dragon Balls. As Goku matures, he becomes one of the universe's mightiest warriors and protects his adopted home planet, Earth, from villains who wish to harm it. Goku is depicted as carefree and aloof when at ease but quickly serious and strategic-minded when fighting. Goku is able to concentrate his Ki and use it for devastatingly powerful energy-based attacks, the most prominent being his signature Kamehameha technique, in which Goku launches a blue energy blast from his palms.
As the protagonist, Goku appears in most of the episodes, films, television specials, and OVAs of the manga's anime adaptations Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT, as well as many of the franchise's video games. Due to the series' international popularity, Goku has become one of the most recognizable and iconic anime characters in the world. Outside the Dragon Ball franchise, Goku has made cameo appearances in Toriyama's self-parody series Neko Majin Z, has been the subject of other parodies, and has appeared in special events. Most Western audiences were introduced to the adult version of Goku appearing in the Dragon Ball Z anime, itself an adaptation of Dragon Ball manga volumes 17-42, as opposed to his initial child form, due to the limited success of the first series overseas. Goku's critical reception has been largely positive and he has been recognized as the greatest manga/anime character of all time.
Goku first appears as a monkey-tailed child adopted by the hermit Gohan. Before the series' narrative begins, he accidentally and unknowingly kills Gohan on a full-moon night when he temporarily transforms into the mighty Great Ape (a giant ape-like creature, which members of the saiyan race become as a result of blux waves given off by the full-moon). Living alone, Goku befriends teenage girl Bulma and joins her to find the seven Dragon Balls, which, when gathered, summon the wish-granting dragon Shenlong. They encounter the desert bandit Yamcha and two shapeshifters named Oolong and Puar, who also join their quest. Goku is later trained by the martial artist Kame-Sen'nin, alongside a Shaolin monk named Kuririn, who becomes his best friend. While participating in the Tenkaichi Budōkai (天下一武道会?, "Strongest Under the Heavens Martial Arts Tournament") that attracts the most powerful fighters in the world, Goku battles foes, later turned allies, such as Tenshinhan and Chaozu, as well as the Namekian Piccolo. After becoming the runner-up champion of the 21st and 22nd Tenkaichi Budōkais, Goku finally wins in the 23rd tournament with Piccolo's defeat, and marries Chi-Chi soon after.
Five years later, Goku meets his evil older brother Raditz and sacrifices himself to defeat Raditz after he learns about his heritage. Goku comes from a race of extraterrestrials called Saiyans (サイヤ人 Saiya-jin?), himself having been sent from their home planet to prepare Earth for sale on the intergalactic market by destroying all its life. While Gohan was taking care of him, Goku suffered a severe head injury and forgets his mission to conquer Earth. Goku faces enemies linked to his heritage, such as the Saiyan prince Vegeta, who eventually becomes an ally; and the galactic tyrant Freeza, who destroyed the Saiyan's home planet and nearly the entire race. This is the great battle where Goku becomes a Super Saiyan. After his battle with Freeza, Goku contracts a heart virus whereof the time-traveler Trunks warns him, but recovers after taking medicine provided by Trunks. Later, Goku trains his first son Gohan to be his successor and sacrifices himself again during the battle against the evil life-form Cell. Goku is temporarily resurrected on Earth seven years later and meets his second son Goten. Shortly after, he is drawn into a battle for the universe against the monster Majin Boo. Goku also battles Vegeta again after Vegeta falls under the control of the wizard Bobbidi. Eventually, Goku destroys Boo with a Genki-Dama attack. Ten years later, during another Tenkaichi Budōkai with fighters from all over the world, Goku meets Oob, Boo's human reincarnation, and leaves with him, intending to train him as the new protector of Earth.
Conception and creation
Goku, and Dragon Ball in general, evolved from one of Akira Toriyama's earlier one-shot series called Dragon Boy. In this story, the protagonist who looks a lot like Goku, Tanton, has a pair of wings. When Toriyama created Dragon Ball, he was inspired by Chinese author Wu Cheng'en's 16th century classical novel Journey to the West. The name Goku is the Japanese name of the monkey 孫悟空 (Sun Wukong), the central character of the novel. To be creative with the idea, Toriyama designed Goku as a human boy with a monkey's tail, rather than a complete simian, because the tail would give him a distinguishing feature. Similarly, in Journey to the West, Sun Wukong can assume human form, but retains his tail. He later stated that the tail was a pain to draw, hence why he had it get cut off early on. Toriyama did not initially plan to make Goku an alien, it was not until the introduction of fighters from other planets that he established him as a Saiyan. Goku was given the ability to teleport to any planet in seconds, so that Toriyama could increase the pace of the story.
Wanting Dragon Ball to have a Chinese appearance, Toriyama modeled Goku's gi (martial arts uniform) on the robes worn by the Shaolin monks of China. During the early chapters of the manga, Toriyama's editor, Kazuhiko Torishima, commented that Goku looked rather plain. Toriyama had given him simple clothes on purpose because it was a fighting manga, so to combat this he added several characters like Kame-Sen'nin and Kuririn, and created the Tenkaichi Budōkai to focus the storyline on fighting. To defy the assumption that Goku would win the tournaments, Toriyama made him lose the first and second but win the third. Toriyama also mentioned Torishima wanted Goku to form a relationship with Bulma but this was never applied to the series.
Toriyama's editor was initially against having Goku grow up, saying it was uncommon to have the protagonist drastically change in manga, however, he gave in when Toriyama threatened that he would not be able to continue the series if the character did not. Toriyama later stated he had him grow up as a means to make drawing the fight scenes easier. When Toriyama thought up the Super Saiyan concept, he felt the only way to show Goku's massive power up was to have him transform. Initially he was concerned that the facial expression looked like that of a villain, but felt since the transformation was brought about by anger it was acceptable. With the conclusion of the Cell arc, Gohan was intended to replace his father as protagonist, but Toriyama decided that Gohan was unsuitable for the role.
Dragon Ball GT Chief character designer Katsuyoshi Nakatsuru said he agonized over designing Super Saiyan 4 Goku, which was the idea of the show's producers, questioning whether it was necessary to go further with the transformations. Because Super Saiyan 4 is brought about while in a Saiyan's Ōzaru ("Great Ape") form, he made the hair more "wild" and covered Goku's body in red fur. There was only a single final draft of the character, although Nakatsuru did consider making the hair blonde, but ending up choosing black as it provides more contrast with the red fur.
Goku is usually recognized by his unique hairstyle, which does not change its length except in his Super Saiyan forms, wherein his changes in color and length according to the form he takes. This is explained by Vegeta to be a common characteristic of full-blooded Saiyans. Except in his Super Saiyan God state, Goku's hair color changes from black to golden after ascending to a Super Saiyan, and his irises change from black to turquoise. Goku prefers dressing in a dōgi uniform to show his devotion to Earth, instead of standard battle fatigues of his race; the only time he actually does wear these garments is during his training with Gohan before the Cell Games.
In his early childhood, Goku is introduced wearing a dark colored dōgi uniform with red wristbands and a white belt tied in a bow. Although, throughout the majority of the series, Goku is commonly seen wearing a red-orange dōgi uniform with a navy blue short-sleeved undershirt, blue wristbands, a blue belt tied in a knot, and striped boots. Goku also often wears the encircled kanji of his training masters on the front and back of this uniform; the first kanji being Kame-Sen'nin's, "kame" (亀?, meaning "turtle"); the second kanji being Kaiō-sama's, "kaio" (界王?, meaning "world king"); and the third being his own "Go" (悟?, meaning "wisdom" or "enlightenment"). Eventually, Goku stops wearing a kanji and replaces his knot-tied belt with a blue obi.
Goku is known for his cheerful, energetic personality and his love of competition, specifically sport fighting, and eating. He has remarkable intuition at seeing the good in others in spite of their actions, though his capacity for forgiving his enemies has occasionally been criticized as excessive; Goku, for the most part, only fights to win, and spares his enemies after defeating them only for them to attack him when his back is turned. His staggering power is simultaneously reined in and enhanced by his fierce loyalty and morality. Goku can also be very blunt, and not afraid to express his opinion in a discussion, such as when he questioned Krillin's marriage to Android 18. Despite his kind-hearted nature, Goku can feel incredible anger in cases of extreme turmoil, such as the death of a close friend/relative, or when someone murders many innocents needlessly. He has a simple, practical view of the world and is somewhat naive to the world around him. Because of this, many characters erroneously assume he is stupid, when, in fact, once he has a basic understanding of a concept, he learns very quickly. His most remarkable ability is his will to succeed, pushing himself beyond his limitations, and never giving up even when the odds are stacked against him.
Goku seems to think very little of his brother Raditz and late father, Bardock, believing them to be vicious, selfish beings like most other Saiyans; however, he never knew of his father's change of heart. Indeed, when he first learned of his Saiyan heritage, he rejected it out of horror and disgust at being from a race of vicious killers, though he ultimately embraced his heritage after hearing Vegeta's last words during the battle with Frieza on Namek, fighting him to avenge the loss of his race as well as all of the other innocents whom Frieza had killed. While Goku is ultimately kindhearted, forgiving, and unquestionably loyal to the side of good, and did not inherit any of the inherently evil traits of his heritage, his Saiyan bloodline and its traits for combat have played small or moderate role in his judgement. He chose to remain in space after Frieza's first defeat rather than return home soon, and did not come home to his family until two years later, when the restored Frieza was heading to Earth. When he trained Gohan and learned that his son had enough dormant power to destroy Cell, he chose not to train himself and his son for one more year, because rather than becoming strong enough to defeat Cell himself, he planned on sending his own son to fight the monster, gambling that Gohan would awaken his hidden power just in time during his struggling fight against Cell and ultimately win. He even went as far as giving a Senzu Bean to Cell so that Gohan gets a fair match against him, rather than a better chance to win and save the world. Also, after his death during the Cell Games, he chose not to be revived and return to his family to raise his still young son. Although he reasoned that Earth is repeatedly in danger because of Goku's enemies, and may become safer if he did not come back.
Goku also has an unfathomable appetite; not only does he eat at a rate that would be nearly impossible for a normal Human, but if he does not get any food, he becomes too weak to do almost anything. This weakness was never overcome, and almost got him killed against several enemies. On the flipside, however, Goku's love for food has gotten him out of trouble several times; for example, in the Tournament Saga, when put to sleep by Jackie Chun, Bulma was able to save his match by screaming to him that dinner was ready, to which Goku immediately woke up to break the count.
In the Japanese version of the entire Dragon Ball anime series and subsequent related media, Goku has been voiced by Masako Nozawa. Toriyama selected Nozawa upon hearing her audition sample, remarking that only Goku could sound like that. In most non-Japanese versions, different voice actors have been used for the child and adult forms of the character. In the numerous English versions, Goku is played by different actors because different companies produced the dubs, by reason of changes of ADR companies and recording studios, or due to actors quitting.
Goku's kid incarnation was voiced by Barbara Goodson in Harmony Gold's very brief English dub of Dragon Ball, Brianne Siddall provided the voice in Bandai's English release of the video game Final Bout, Saffron Henderson voiced him in Funimation's original dub of the first 13 episodes of Dragon Ball and the movie Curse of the Blood Rubies (produced in association with BLT Productions), Ceyli Delgadillo originally voiced him in the Funimation's in-house dub of the franchise's movies Sleeping Princess in Devil's Castle and Mystical Adventure dubbed before the series, Zoe Slusar voiced him in AB Groupe's English dub of Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball GT (produced in association with Blue Water Studios) for Canadian and European broadcast, Stephanie Nadolny in the entire Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball GT series, the movie The Path to Power, as well as various video games, and Colleen Clinkenbeard in flashbacks for Dragon Ball Z Kai and the movie Curse of the Blood Rubies.
Goku's adult incarnation has been voiced by Steven Blum in Bandai's English dub of the video game Final Bout, by Ian James Corlett in Funimation's dub of episodes 1-49 (1-37 edited) of Dragon Ball Z produced in association with Saban and Ocean Productions, by Peter Kelamis in Funimation's dub of episodes 50-67 (38-53 edited) of Dragon Ball Z produced in association with Saban and Ocean (as well as Geneon's dub of the movies Dead Zone, The World's Strongest and The Tree of Might (produced in association with Funimation and Ocean, and Westwood Media's dub of episodes 108-158 of Dragon Ball Z (produced in association with Ocean) for European and Canadian broadcast), by Kirby Morrow in Westwood Media's dub of episodes 159-291 of Dragon Ball Z (produced in association with Ocean) for European and Canadian broadcast, by Jeffrey Watson in AB Groupe's dub of Dragon Ball (produced in association with Blue Water Studios) for Canadian and European broadcast, by Jeremiah Yurk in AB Groupe's dub of Dragon Ball GT (produced in association with Blue Water) for Canadian and European broadcast, and consistently by Sean Schemmel in Funimation's in-house dub of the entire Dragon Ball franchise in the United States.
Through vigorous training, Goku has achieved many extraordinary abilities, like incredible super strength and durability. He also possesses super speed and reflexes. He can harness/manipulate supernatural energy known as Ki and exert powerful and devastating concussive beams of said energy.
As a child, Goku wields the Nyoi-bō (如意棒?, lit. "Mind Stick", renamed "Power Pole" in Funimation's English anime dub), a magic staff that extends and retracts on command, given to him by his Grandfather; but as he grows older and stronger, Goku eventually stops using the staff. Goku's first means of conveyance is a magic cloud called Kinto'un (筋斗雲 lit. "Somersault Cloud"?, renamed "Nimbus" in Funimation's English anime dub), given to him by Kame-Sen'nin in return for saving his pet sea turtle. After training with Kami, he learns to fly by virtue of the technique Bukū-jutsu (舞空術?, lit. "Air Dance Technique") and uses the cloud less frequently.
Goku's signature move is the Kamehameha (かめはめ波?, lit. "Turtle Destruction Wave"), a technique learned from Kame-Sen'nin. The Kamehameha is created when you concentrate all of your body's latent energy and focusing it at one point (it was usually concentrated at the palms of both of your hands). Kame-Sen'nin spent about 50 years to create the technique, but Goku performed a miniature version of the technique in his first try, which was enough to damage a car.
Another notable technique of Goku's, taught to him by Kaiō-sama, is the Kaiō-ken (界王拳?, lit. "World King Fist"), an attack that multiplies his Ki and strength for an instant, but can also strain his body afterwards, or could even kill him. Goku's most powerful attack is the Genki-Dama (元気玉?, "Spirit Bomb" in Funimation's anime dub), an energy sphere created by gathering Ki from surrounding animals, nature and humans, which he also learned from Kaiō-sama. Goku also learns a teleportation skill called Shunkan Idō (瞬間移動?, lit. "Instant Teleport", renamed "Instant Transmission" in Funimation's English anime dub), which he learned from the inhabitants of the planet Yardrat.
Goku is the only Saiyan in the series to achieve all known Saiyan transformations. In Dragon Ball, he can transform into a gigantic monkey-like creature called an Ōzaru (大猿?, lit. "Great Ape") when he stares at a full moon while possessing a Saiyan tail. Goku loses the ability to make this transformation when his friends cut off his tail. Although it grows back, Goku's tail is later permanently removed by Kami. Goku becomes the first Super Saiyan (超サイヤ人 Sūpā Saiya-jin?) in a thousand years; becoming enraged when Freeza kills Kuririn on the planet Namek. Each metamorphosis changes Goku's appearance and enormously enhances his abilities. After training to better control the 1st and 2nd Levels of Super Saiyan, the 3rd Super Saiyan form causes Goku to act in a much more serious manner.
Another ability Goku has is to fuse with others, so long as their power levels are equalized. In the Majin Boo arc, he uses the Potara Earrings presented to him by the Old Kaiō-shin, which results in a "perfect fusion", but it's a permanent fusion. Goku first attempts to fuse with Gohan, but this fails when the latter is absorbed by Boo, and so he persuades the newly arrived Vegeta to fuse with him, creating Vegito (ベジット Bejitto?, "Vegerot" in Viz Media's manga translation). In the film Fusion Reborn, the two use the Metamorese Fusion Dance, which creates Gogeta (ゴジータ Gojīta?), who sports slight visual differences from their previous merger.
Reception and legacy
Goku's character has been well received by publications for manga, anime and other media. Anime News Network noted Goku as a good source of comedy and remarked that after everything he experiences, he remains a naïve character. THEM Anime Reviews noted that Goku is not an omnipotent character in the first series, unlike Dragon Ball Z, and does not disappear for long periods of time between sagas. They also liked the way the series' depict his entire adventures, making him a good main character. Rationalmagic.com praised Goku's innocence as one of the funniest parts of the series. According to Julius Weideman, Goku's journey and ever-growing strength resulted in the character winning "the admiration of young boys everywhere.". Jason Thompson stated that unlike the "manly" heroes of other popular shōnen manga of the late 1980s and early 1990s, such as City Hunter and Fist of the North Star, Toriyama made his protagonist (Goku) cartoonish and small, thus starting a trend that Thompson says continues to this day. One Piece creator Eiichiro Oda and Naruto creator Masashi Kishimoto said that Goku inspired their main protagonists as well as series structure. Commenting on Goku's popularity, Kishimoto stated that when people hear the name "Son Goku", no longer do they think of the Journey to the West character, but instead Dragon Ball's protagonist comes to mind. Masako Nozawa, the Japanese voice actor who plays Goku, said that she liked young Goku with his tail because he was cute, and stated that the character was still the same even at the end of the series. Jackie Chan has gone on record stating that Goku is his favorite Dragon Ball character.
Goku was ranked number one in IGN's 2009 Top 25 Anime Characters of All Time and reappeared on the same list in 2014, however, on this occasion IGN ranked him as the third greatest anime character of all time, with Spike Spiegel and Shinji Ikari placed above him, saying that "He was, in many ways, a character that bucked the trends of his time and defined the direction of shonen manga/anime for decades." In Mania Entertainment's 10 Most Iconic Anime Heroes written by Thomas Zoth who commented that "Goku and Dragon Ball completely revolutionized shōnen manga." In a Newtype poll from March 2010, Goku was voted the fifth most popular male character from the 1980s. Goku ranked consistently high in the Anime Grand Prix poll in the category of "best male character" in the late 1980s and early 1990s, appearing seventeenth in the 1987 poll, fifteenth in the 1988 poll, second in the 1989 poll, fourth in the 1990 poll, third in the 1991 poll, fourth in the 1992 poll, thirteenth in 1993 poll, and twelfth in 1994 poll. In 2004, Goku was voted the most popular character in the series by Dragon Ball fans in Japan. In a 2005 The Daily Reader article entitled "The Greatest Geek Movie Heroes of All Time", Goku is the only animated character listed, and is ranked tenth. In a survey of 1,000 people, conducted by Oricon in 2007, Goku ranked first place as the "Strongest Manga character of all time." In the survey "Friendship" developed by rankingjapan.com, in which people chose which anime character they would like as a friend, Goku ranked fifth. In 2000, Goku placed third in an Animax poll of favorite anime characters.
The German rock band Son Goku takes their name from Goku. The band's lead singer Thomas D chose the name because Goku embodies the band's philosophy, saying he was "fascinated by Goku's naïveté and cheerfulness, yet, at the same time, a great warrior saving the world."
In 2010, a fiberglass statue of Goku was created by Chinese artist Edison Chen, with Chen's facial features instead of Goku's, as part of Chen's "I Hate You For Looking!" collection that was displayed at the "Treacherous Treis" exhibition. Rafael Nadal confessed that when he was a young boy, he would run home from school to watch Goku in his favorite Japanese anime, Dragon Ball. CNN released an article explaining how Goku was Nadal's childhood inspiration, and called Nadal "the Dragon Ball of tennis" due to his unorthodox style "from another planet."
Appearances in other media
In the anime-only sequel, Dragon Ball GT, Goku is transformed into a kid by an accidental wish made by his old enemy Pilaf using the Black Star Dragon Balls while Pilaf was about to wish to take over the world. Wearing a multi-colored dōgi that consists of a blue fold-over shirt, a white knot-tied belt, yellow pants, pink wristbands, white shinguards and black shoes and he also has a darker skin complexion. Goku, Trunks and his own granddaughter Pan travel the universe to search for the Black Star Dragon Balls and return them to Earth. Here, Goku defeats the evil Tuffle Baby, Super Android #17, and the evil Shadow Dragons. His final challenge is against Omega Shenron, who he destroys using the Genki-Dama. Goku leaves with the original form of Shenlong, but not before saying his goodbyes to his friends on Earth. He then appears 100 years later at the next martial arts tournament as an adult, where he watches a battle between Goku Jr., his descendant, and Vegeta Jr., Vegeta's descendant. An elderly Pan sees him, but he quickly departs.
Goku has appeared in various other media including an unofficial Taiwanese live-action film and an unofficial Korean live-action film. He was portrayed by Justin Chatwin in the 2009 20th Century Fox feature Dragonball Evolution. Goku has also appeared in almost every Dragon Ball licensed electronic video game, including crossover games such as Jump Super Stars and Jump Ultimate Stars. In 1992, Goku was featured in the interactive game Dragon Ball Z: Get Together! Goku World, in which Goku and his gang travel back in time to review events in the Dragon Ball timeline and interacts with his younger self. In 2006, Goku was featured in the Dragon Ball Z, One Piece and Naruto crossover game Battle Stadium D.O.N. In December 2007, Goku, Naruto Uzumaki and Monkey D. Luffy made guest appearances in avatar form in the MMORPG Second Life for a Jump Festa promotion titled Jumpland@Second Life. Goku also appears in the Dr. Slump and Arale-chan video game for the Nintendo DS.
Goku has been the subject of, and is mentioned in, various songs. "Son Goku Song" and "Gokū no Gokigen Jānī" feature Goku as a child singing about himself. During his adult years, the song "Aitsu wa Son Gokū" by Hironobu Kageyama, where Kageyama praises everything about Goku, and the duet "Ore-tachi no Energy" feature words spoken by the character. For the release of the single of the Dragonball Evolution international theme song "Rule", Toriyama supplied CD artwork of singer Ayumi Hamasaki dressed as Goku.
Goku has been used in Japanese public service announcements aimed at children. In June 1988, Goku and other Dragon Ball characters were featured in two PSA short films. The first, in which Goku is taught the importance of obeying traffic safety by others, is entitled The Goku Traffic Safety (悟空の交通安全 Gokū no Kōtsū Anzen?). The second is called The Goku Fire Fighting Regiment (悟空の消防隊 Gokū no Shōbō-tai?), in which he teaches two children the importance of fire safety.
Goku has made guest appearances in various Japanese television shows and manga. In 2005, Goku appeared in the Toriyama parody manga Neko Majin Z where he is the sensei of the main character Z. On September 15, 2006, in celebration of the 30th anniversary of Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Kōen-mae Hashutsujo, the special manga Super Kochikame (超こち亀 Chō Kochikame?) was released. The chapter entitled This is the Police Station in front of Dragon Park on Planet Namek (こちらナメック星ドラゴン公園前派出所 Kochira Namekku-sei Dragon Kōen-mae Hashutsujo?) has Ryotsu Kankichi travel to planet Namek and try to issue Freeza a citation and scold he and Goku for parking their ships illegally. Goku and other Dragon Ball characters join the cast of One Piece in the 2006 crossover manga Cross Epoch. He also appears in a single panel of Toriyama's 2013 manga Jaco the Galactic Patrolman, which is set before the events of Dragon Ball. The collected tankōbon volume of Jaco will feature bonus material depicting Goku's mother, Gine (ギネ?).
Goku has been the subject of various parodies. In the episode Career Day of Takeshi's Castle, known in the United States as MXC, the hosts Beat Takeshi and Sonomanma Higashi dressed as popular anime characters, one as Goku as a child, the other as Doraemon. Weekly Shōnen Jump's Gag Special 2005 issue, released on November 12, 2004, featured a Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo one-shot Dragon Ball parody manga, a retelling of the first fight between Goku and Vegeta. In chapter #179 of the Yakitate!! Japan manga, Kawachi executes a Genki-Dama parody called a Shinrai-Dama (信頼玉?, lit. "Trust Ball") on the character Katsuo.
Goku regularly appears on Fuji TV. In 2003, Goku appeared in the interactive feature Kyutai Panic Adventure! (球体パニックアドベンチャー! Kyūtai Panikku Adobenchā!?, "Orb Panic Adventure!"), which was featured exclusively at the Fuji TV headquarters in the Kyutai (orb) section. In this, Freeza attacks a visiting tourist, blasting the orb section free from the rest of the Fuji TV building. Goku fights Freeza over the real life aqua city of Odaiba. In 2004, a sequel called Kyūtai Panic Adventure Returns! (球体パニックアドベンチャーリターンズ! Kyūtai Panikku Adobenchā Ritānzu!?, "Orb Panic Adventure Returns!") was produced. On March 25, 2006, Goku and Freeza appeared in an original animated short film in the IQ Mirror Mistake 7 (ＩＱミラーまちがい７ Aikyū Mirā Machigai Nana?) segment of the Japanese game show IQ Supplement (IQサプリ IQ Sapuri?). On April 7, 2007, Goku and Fuji TV announcer Masaharu Miyake were commentators on the anime segment in the Nippon Ijin Taishō (日本偉人大賞?, "Japan Great Man Awards") titled Saikyō no Ijin ha Dare? (最強の偉人は誰？?, "Who is the Strongest Hero?"). The segment featured a special tournament to decide who was the greatest person in Japanese history. During the intermission, Goku promoted the coming release of R2 Dragon Ball DVDs.
Since the U.S. debut of Dragon Ball Z in 1996, Goku has appeared in American pop culture. He was featured in an issue of Wizard magazine in which he and Superman fought a hypothetical battle and won. Later, they fought in Screwattack's video show Death Battle and Superman won. In the Codename: Kids Next Door episode "Operation: R.E.P.O.R.T", Numbuh Four's version of the story is a parody of the Goku and Freeza's battle in Dragon Ball Z. Goku appears in Robot Chicken in a sketch entitled A Very Dragon Ball Z Christmas, where Goku and Gohan fight an evil Mrs. Claus with Santa's reindeer, in an attempt to save Christmas. The Saturday Night Live sketch TV Funhouse titled Kobayashi depicts real-life hot-dog-eating champion Takeru Kobayashi as able to transform into a Super Saiyan as he prepares to eat hot dogs; Goku appears briefly near the end. Goku is referenced in the song "Goku" by Soulja Boy Tell 'Em, where he brags that he looks and feels like Goku and a few other Dragon Ball related characters also including unrelated Pikachu. Goku appears in a parody of the film Moneyball on an episode of Mad entitled Money Ball Z, in which Billy Beane drafts Goku and a couple of other Dragon Ball characters into the Oakland A's.
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