Golden-cheeked warbler

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Golden-cheeked warbler
Dendroica chrysoparia1.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Parulidae
Genus: Setophaga
Species: S. chrysoparia
Binomial name
Setophaga chrysoparia
(Sclater & Salvin, 1861)

Dendroica chrysoparia Sclater & Salvin, 1861

The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia [formerly Dendroica chrysoparia]), also known as the gold finch of Texas, is an endangered species of bird that breeds in Central Texas, from Palo Pinto County southwestward along the eastern and southern edge of the Edwards Plateau to Kinney County. The golden-cheeked warbler is the only bird species with a breeding range confined to Texas.



Golden-cheeked warblers nest in ashe juniper and live oak trees in ravines and canyons. They use ashe juniper bark and spider webs to build their nests. Females lay three to four eggs. Warblers eat insects and spiders and the adult warbler can reach a length of 4.5 inches. They winter in southern Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.


The warbler is endangered, as many juniper and oak woodlands have been cleared to build houses, roads, and stores or to grow crops or grass for livestock. Other woodlands were flooded when large lakes were constructed.[2]

In fiction[edit]

Susan Wittig Albert uses the golden-cheeked warbler as a plot device in her 1992 novel Thyme of Death.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]


  • Harper SJ, Westervelt JD & Shapiro A-M. (2002). Management application of an agent-based model: Control of cowbirds at the landscape scale. In Gimblett, H Randy [Editor, Reprint Author] Integrating geographic information systems and agent-based modeling techniques for stimulating social and ecological processes:105-123, 2002. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 10016.
  • Ladd, C., and L. Gass. 1999. Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). In The Birds of North America, No. 420 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
  • Pulich, W. M. 1976. The Golden-cheeked Warbler. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Austin, TX. 172pp.
  • Shapiro A-MT, Harper SJ & Westervelt JD. (2004). The Fort Hood Avian Simulation Model-V: A spatially explicit population viability model for two endangered species. In Costanza, Robert [Editor, Reprint Author], Voinov, Alexey [Editor, Reprint Author] Landscape simulation modeling: A spatially explicit, dynamic approach:233-247, 2004. Springer-Verlag New York Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 10010-7858.


  • Reidy J.L. M.S. (2007). Golden-cheeked Warbler nest success and nest predators in urban and rural landscapes. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.
  • Lindsay DL. M.S. (2006). Genetic diversity of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia. University of Louisiana at Lafayette, United States, Louisiana.
  • Coldren CL. Ph.D. (1998). The effects of habitat fragmentation on the golden-cheeked warbler. Texas A&M University, United States, Texas.
  • Engels TM. Ph.D. (1995). The conservation biology of the golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). The University of Texas at Austin, United States, Texas.
  • Hsu S-L. Ph.D. (1999). A model of environmental compromise between regulators and landowners under the Endangered Species Act. University of California, Davis, United States, California.
  • Shaw DM. Ph.D. (1989). Applications of GIS and remote sensing for the characterization of habitat for threatened and endangered species. University of North Texas, United States, Texas.
  • Stake MM. M.S. (2003). Golden-cheeked warbler nest predators and factors affecting nest predation. University of Missouri - Columbia, United States, Missouri.


  • (1995). "Golden Cheeked Warbler" Discussed at Baylor During Academy. Baylor Business Review. vol 13, no 1. p. 17.
  • Academy of Natural Sciences of P. (1999). Golden-cheeked warbler: Dendroica chrysoparia. Birds of North America. vol 0, no 420. pp. 1–23.
  • Anders AD & Dearborn DC. (2004). Population trends of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler at Fort Hood, Texas, from 1992–2001. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 49, no 1. pp. 39–47.
  • Anders AD & Marshall MR. (2005). Increasing the accuracy of productivity and survival estimates in assessing landbird population status. Conservation Biology. vol 19, no 1. pp. 66–74.
  • Arnold KA. (2000). Texas. American Birds. vol 101, pp. 642–643.
  • Bocetti CI, Hatfield JS & Beardmore CJ. (1996). Some advice and guidelines for biologists interested in conducting population viability analyses. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. p. PART 2) 42, 1996.
  • Boice LP. (1998). Migratory bird conservation at Fort Hood. Endangered Species Update. vol 15, no 5. p. SS24.
  • Bolsinger JS. (2000). Use of two song categories by Golden-cheeked Warblers. Condor. vol 102, no 3. pp. 539–552.
  • Braun MJ, Braun DD & Terrill SB. (1986). Winter Records of the Golden-Cheeked Warbler Dendroica-Chrysoparia from Mexico. American Birds. vol 40, no 3. pp. 564–566.
  • Cathey K. (1997). The endangered birds of Balcones Canyonlands NWR. Endangered Species Update. vol 14, no 11-12. p. SS20.
  • David E. (2001). Extinction and blame. Orion. vol 20, no 3. p. 12.
  • Dearborn DC & Sanchez LL. (2001). Do Golden-cheeked Warblers select nest locations on the basis of patch vegetation?. Auk. vol 118, no 4. pp. 1052–1057.
  • DeBoer TS & Diamond DD. (2006). Predicting presence-absence of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Southwestern Naturalist. vol 51, no 2. pp. 181–190.
  • Dunham AE, Akcakaya HR & Bridges TS. (2006). Using scalar models for precautionary assessments of threatened species. Conservation Biology. vol 20, no 5. pp. 1499–1506.
  • Eisermann K & Schulz U. (2005). Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Revista de Biologia Tropical. vol 53, no 3-4. pp. 577–594.
  • Engels TM & Sexton CW. (1994). Negative correlation of blue jays and golden-cheeked warblers near an urbanizing area. Conservation Biology. vol 8, no 1. pp. 286–290.
  • Fox JA & Nino-Murcia A. (2004). Species conservation banking: A solution to the conservation-development conflict. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts. vol 89, no 164.
  • Gehlbach FR. (1967). New Records of Warblers in Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. vol 12, no 1. pp. 109–110.
  • Graber AE, Davis CA & Leslie DM, Jr. (2006). Golden-cheeked Warbler males participate in nest-site selection. Wilson Journal of Ornithology. vol 118, no 2. pp. 247–251.
  • Hunn E. (1973). Noteworthy Bird Observation from Chiapas Mexico. Condor. vol 75, no 4.
  • James SM. (2002). Bridging the gap between private landowners and conservationists. Conservation Biology. vol 16, no 1. pp. 269–271.
  • John HR, David K, Jeff D & Jorge Vega R. (2005). Factors Affecting Population Size in Texas' Golden-cheeked Warbler. Endangered Species Update. vol 22, no 3. p. 95.
  • Johnson KW, Johnson JE, Albert RO & Albert TR. (1988). Sightings of Golden-Cheeked Warblers Dendroica-Chrysoparia in Northeastern Mexico. Wilson Bulletin. vol 100, no 1. pp. 130–131.
  • Joseph ADA. (2003). Green laws threaten to surround Fort Hood. Human Events. vol 59, no 15. p. 5.
  • Kroll JC. (1980). Habitat Requirements of the Golden-Cheeked Warbler Dendroica-Chrysoparia Management Implications. Journal of Range Management. vol 33, no 1. pp. 60–65.
  • Lewis TJ, Ainley DG, Greenberg D & Greenberg R. (1974). A Golden-Cheeked Warbler on the Farallon Islands. Auk. vol 91, no 2. pp. 411–412.
  • Lockwood MW. (1996). Courtship behavior of Golden-cheeked Warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 108, no 3. pp. 591–592.
  • Lovette IJ & Hochachka WM. (2006). Simultaneous effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and competition on avian community structure. Ecology. p. S) S14-S28, JUL 2006.
  • Magness DR, Wilkins RN & Hejl SJ. (2006). Quantitative relationships among golden-cheeked warbler occurrence and landscape size, composition, and structure. Wildlife Society Bulletin. vol 34, no 2. pp. 473–479.
  • Mike MS & Paul MC. (2001). Removal of host nestlings and fecal sacs by Brown-headed Cowbirds. The Wilson Bulletin. vol 113, no 4. p. 456.
  • Ortego B. (2000). Summary of highest counts of individuals for the United States. American Birds. vol 101, pp. 661–666.
  • Perrigo G, Brundage R, Barth R, Damude N, Benesh C, Fogg C & Gower J. (1990). Spring Migration Corridor of Golden-Cheeked Warblers in Tamaulipas Mexico. American Birds. vol 44, no 1. pp. 28–31.
  • Petyk J. (2004). Predation of a Golden-cheeked Warbler nest by a Western Scrub-Jay. Wilson Bulletin. vol 116, no 3. pp. 269–271.
  • Pulich WM. (1969). Golden-Cheeked Warbler Threatened Bird of the Cedar-G Brakes Dendroica-Chrysoparia Ecology Conservation. National Parks Magazine. vol 43, no 258. pp. 10–12.
  • Quinn WJ & Penn JG. (2004). Quercus buckleyi overstory recruitment in undisturbed communities of central Texas. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts. vol 89, no 412.
  • Rappole JH, King DI & Barrow WC, Jr. (1999). Winter ecology of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler. Condor. vol 101, no 4. pp. 762–770.
  • Rappole JH, King DI & Diez J. (2003). Winter- vs. breeding-habitat limitation for an endangered avian migrant. Ecological Applications. vol 13, no 3. pp. 735–742.
  • Rappole JH, King DI & Leimgruber P. (2000). Winter habitat and distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Anim Conserv. vol 3, pp. 45–59.
  • Rising JD. (1988). Phenetic Relationships among the Warblers in the Dendroica-Virens Complex and a Record of Dendroica-Virens from Sonora Mexico. Wilson Bulletin. vol 100, no 2. pp. 312–316.
  • Shaw DM & Atkinson SF. (1990). An Introduction to the Use of Geographic Information Systems for Ornithological Research. Condor. vol 92, no 3. pp. 564–570.
  • Smeins FE & Moses ME. (1994). Temporal analysis of golden-cheeked warbler habitat fragmentation using remote sensing and GIS. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. vol 75, no 2 PART 2. pp. 213–214.
  • Stake MM. (2001). Predation by a Great Plains rat snake on an adult female Golden-cheeked Warbler. Wilson Bulletin. vol 113, no 4. pp. 460–461.
  • Stake MM & Cavanagh PM. (2001). Removal of host nestlings and fecal sacs by Brown-headed Cowbirds. Wilson Bulletin. vol 113, no 4. pp. 456–459.
  • Stake MM, Faaborg J & Thompson FR, III. (2004). Video identification of predators at Golden-cheeked Warbler nests. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 75, no 4. pp. 337–344.
  • Vidal RM, Macias-Caballero C & Duncan CD. (1994). The occurrence and ecology of the Golden-cheeked Warbler in the highlands of Northern Chiapas, Mexico. Condor. vol 96, no 3. pp. 684–691.