The golden-mantled howler (Alouatta palliata palliata) is a subspecies of the mantled howler, A. palliata. It ranges throughout much of Central America, in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and possibly Panama. The range limits between the golden-mantled howler and the Ecuadorian mantled howler are not entirely clear. The Ecuadorian mantled howler replaces the golden-mantled howler in either extreme eastern Costa Rica or western Panama. The golden-mantled howler differs from the Ecuadorian mantled howler primarily by being darker, with a mantle that is more rufous than yellowish. The golden-mantled howler differs from the Mexican howler monkey primarily in aspects of skull morphology.
^ abcdRylands, Groves, Mittermeier, Cortes-Ortiz & Hines (2006). "Taxonomy and Distributions of Mesoamerican Primates". In Estrada, A.; Garber, P.A.; Pavelka, M.S.M.; Luecke, L. New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates. p. 50. ISBN978-0-387-25854-6.