Golden Dragon massacre

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Golden Dragon massacre
San Francisco Chinatown 1993 hires.jpg
1993 photo of Golden Dragon Restaurant.
Location 816 Washington Street, San Francisco, California, United States
Date Sunday, 4 September 1977
02:40 (PST)
Attack type
Mass murder, massacre
Weapons
Deaths 5
Non-fatal injuries
11
Perpetrators Members of the Joe Boys (Peter Ng, Curtis Tam, Chester Yu, Melvin Yu, Tom Yu)
Motive Rivalry between Joe Boys and Wah Ching gangs

The Golden Dragon massacre (traditional Chinese: 金龍大屠殺; simplified Chinese: 金龍大屠杀; pinyin: Jīnlóngdàtúshā; Jyutping: Gam1lung4daai6tou4saat3)[1] was a gang-related shooting attack that took place in San Francisco, California, on the 4th day of September 1977, inside the Golden Dragon Restaurant, located at 816 Washington Street in Chinatown. The five perpetrators, members of the Joe Boys, a Chinese youth gang, were attempting to kill members of the Wah Ching, a rival Chinatown gang. The attack left 5 people dead and 11 others injured, none of whom were gang members. The perpetrators were later convicted and sentenced in connection with the murders.

Motive[edit]

The attack was motivated by a longstanding feud between two rival Chinatown gangs, the Joe Boys and Wah Ching. The assassination attempt was retaliation for the death of Felix Huey 許非力, an aged 16-year-old Joe Boys member who was killed in a shootout with the Wah Ching in Chinatown's Ping Yuen (Peace Garden) housing project 平園住宅房屋大廈 on 4 July 1977.[2][3]

Shooting[edit]

At 02:00 hrs. (two in the morning) Pacific Standard Time on the day of Sunday, 4th of September 1977, Joe Boy gang member Tom Yu was informed by phone that members of the rival Wah Ching gang were present at the Golden Dragon restaurant in San Francisco's Chinatown 三藩市華埠金龍大酒樓. Chester Yu, Curtis Tam, Melvin Yu, and Peter Ng, all members of the Joe Boys (Chung Ching Yee) gang, took firearms and ammunition from a closet in a friend's home in Pacifica, where they had been staying during the weekend, and drove to the restaurant in a car stolen earlier that evening by Peter Cheung.[4] Forty minutes later, at 02:40, Chester Yu parked the stolen car near the Golden Dragon. Armed with a .45-caliber Commando Mark III rifle, two 12 gauge pump-action shotguns, and a .38-caliber revolver, Curtis Tam, Melvin Yu, and Peter Ng donned nylon stocking masks, and entered the restaurant, looking for members of the Wah Ching. About 100 people, many of whom were tourists, were present at the restaurant at the time of the shooting.[5]

According to Chester Yu, Ng had instructed Tam that he should fire a shot in the ceiling first so that "when the people panic and get down on the floor, we will decide who to shoot." Instead, without warning, the three randomly opened fire on the patrons inside the crowded restaurant, killing five people, including two tourists, and wounding eleven others, none of whom were gang members.[4] The intended targets, who were sitting at a table at the back of the restaurant, were not injured. Up to ten members of the Wah Ching, including their leader Michael Louie, ducked under tables during the gunfire.[6][5] Triad member Raymond Kwok Chow, then 17 years old, was among those who survived the attack. Yu then drove the shooters back to the house in Pacifica.[4][7][8]

The shooting lasted less than sixty seconds.[3]

Victims[edit]

The five fatalities at the restaurant:[6]

  • Denise Louie 雷典禮, 20s
  • Calvin M. Fong 方凱文, 18
  • Paul Wada 和田保羅, 25
  • Fong Wang 王豐, 48, a Taiwanese waiter at the Golden Dragon 台灣人籍企枱員在金龍大酒樓
  • Donald Quan 君唐勞, 20

Arrests and convictions[edit]

Curtis Tam was the first person to be arrested for his involvement in the attack, in March 1978. Tam, an immigrant from Hong Kong, was 18 years old and was attending Galileo High School during the time of his arrest.[5][9]

The weapons used in the attack were recovered by police from San Francisco Bay in April 1978.[10][11]

Five men from the Joe Boys were eventually arrested and convicted for the massacre, with three of them still serving prison sentences as of 2013. The perpetrators involved with the murders are Curtis Tam, Melvin Yu, Peter Ng, Chester Yu, and Tom Yu.[12] On 5 September 1978, Curtis Tam was convicted of five counts of second degree murder and 11 counts of assault.[9] In September 1978, Melvin Yu was convicted of five counts of first degree murder and 11 counts of assault.[13] Tom Yu was convicted of five counts of first degree murder, eleven counts of assault by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury, one count of conspiracy to commit murder, and one count of conspiracy to commit assault with a deadly weapon. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in state prison.[4]

Aftermath[edit]

An ex-Joe Boys member, Bill Lee, wrote about the killings and his life as a Joe Boys gangster in his book, Chinese Playground: A Memoir.

The Golden Dragon Massacre led to the establishment of the San Francisco Police Department's Asian Gang Task Force.[14]

The Golden Dragon restaurant continued operation shortly after the massacre, but was closed in January 2006 after a failed health inspection. The restaurant also owed a year's worth of paychecks to its employees.[15][16] It was reopened as the Imperial Palace Restaurant 皇宮大酒樓.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Golden Dragon Massacre
  2. ^ Trial Set in Golden Dragon Deaths, Associated Press, July 31, 1978.
  3. ^ a b Gangland - Deadly Triangle, Gangland
  4. ^ a b c d "People v. Yu (1983) 143 Cal.App.3d 358 , 191 Cal.Rptr. 859". Court of Appeals of California. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c Make First Arrest in Golden Dragon Massacre of 1977, UPI, March 24, 1978.
  6. ^ a b S.F. Chinatown massacre victims were all just innocent bystanders, UPI, September 6, 1977.
  7. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl (14 September 1995). "COLUMN ONE : School's Out for Convicts : Taxpayers have stopped paying for inmates' college degrees in a backlash against prison reform. Corrections officials decry the loss of a powerful rehabilitation tool.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Golden Dragon massacre". San Bernardino County Sun. 27 August 1978. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Chinese immigrant guilty in murders, Associated Press, 7 September 1978.
  10. ^ Mullen, Kevin J. "The Golden Dragon Restaurant Massacre". 
  11. ^ "People v. Szeto , 29 Cal.3d 20". Supreme Court of California. 11 February 1981. 
  12. ^ "3 Accused in California In Killing of 5 in Chinatown". New York Times. 22 April 1978. Retrieved February 2014. 
  13. ^ Massacre Suspect Convicted, Associated Press, 26 September 1978.
  14. ^ Gang Task Force, San Francisco Chronicle, 17 September 2007.
  15. ^ Workers Want Pay From Dragon, San Francisco Chronicle, 11 May 2006.
  16. ^ Long-overdue Paychecks, San Francisco Chronicle, 25 March 2005.
  17. ^ Golden Dragon Closes and owes a million..., San Francisco Chronicle, 7 October 2006.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°47′42.6″N 122°24′24.8″W / 37.795167°N 122.406889°W / 37.795167; -122.406889