Golden Rose

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For the television award, see Rose d'Or.
Golden Rose by Giuseppe and Pietro Paolo Spagna. Rome, around 1818/19. Kept today in the Imperial Treasury in Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna.

The Golden Rose is a gold ornament, which popes of the Catholic Church have traditionally blessed annually. It is occasionally conferred as a token of reverence or affection. Recipients have included churches and sanctuaries, royalty, military figures, and governments.

Significance and symbolism[edit]

Golden Rose of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII to Rudolph III of Nidau, Earl of Neuchâtel

The rose is blessed on the fourth Sunday of Lent, Lætare Sunday (hence also known as Rose Sunday), when rose-coloured vestments and draperies substitute for the penitential purple, symbolizing hope and joy in the midst of Lenten solemnity. Throughout most of Lent, Catholics pray, fast, perform penance, and meditate upon the malice of sin and the terrible punishment it brings; Rose Sunday is an opportunity to look beyond Christ's death at Calvary and see Christ, the redeemer, risen in the first rays of the Easter sun, and rejoice. The shining golden flower shows forth Christ's majesty, appropriate because prophets called him "the flower of the field and the lily of the valleys."[1] Its fragrance, according to Pope Leo XIII "shows the sweet odor of Christ which should be widely diffused by His faithful followers" (Acta, vol. VI, 104), and the thorns and red tint refer to His Passion. See Isaiah 63:2: "Why then is thy apparel red, and thy garments like theirs that tread in the winepress?"

Many papal diplomas and papal sermons when conferring it have explained the rose's mystical significance. Innocent III said: "As Lætare Sunday, the day set apart for the function, represents love after hate, joy after sorrow, and fullness after hunger, so does the rose designate by its colour, odour and taste, love, joy and satiety respectively." and compared the rose to the flower referred to in Isaiah 11:1: "There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root."

History and development of the modern Rose[edit]

Workmanship[edit]

The blossom

Prior to the pontificate of Sixtus IV (1471–84) the Golden Rose consisted of a simple and single blossom made of pure gold and slightly tinted with red. Later, to embellish the ornament while still retaining the mystical symbolism, the gold was left untinted but rubies and afterwards many precious gems were placed in the heart of the rose or on its petals.

Pope Sixtus IV substituted in place of the single rose a thorny branch with leaves and many (ten or more) roses, the largest of which sprang from the top of the branch with smaller roses clustering around it. In the center of the principal rose was a tiny cup with a perforated cover, into which the pope poured musk and balsam to bless the rose. The whole ornament was of pure gold. This 'Sixtine' design was maintained but varied as to decoration, size, weight and value. Originally it was little over three inches in height, and was easily carried in pope's left hand as he blessed the multitude with his right hand, when passing in procession from the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (in Rome) to the Lateran Palace. Afterwards, especially when a vase and large pedestal became part of the ornament, a robust cleric was required to carry it, preceding the papal cross in the procession. The rose sent to Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick, wife of Joseph I, afterwards emperor, by Innocent XI, weighed twenty pounds and was almost eighteen inches high. It was in bouquet form, with three twisting branches that came together after many windings at the top of the stem, supporting a large rose and cluster of leaves.

Vase and pedestal

The vase and the pedestal supporting it have varied as to material, weight, and form. In the beginning they were made of gold; but afterward of silver heavily gilt with gold. The pedestal can be either triangular, quadrangular, or octangular, and is richly ornamented with various decorations and bas-reliefs. In addition to the customary inscription, the coat of arms of the pope who had the ornament made, and that of he who blessed and conferred it, are engraved on the pedestal.

Value of the ornament[edit]

Golden Rose from the Vatican Library.

The value of the rose varies according to the munificence of the pontiffs or the economic circumstances of the times. Father Baldassari, S.J. (De Rosa Mediana, p. 190) says that the rose conferred about the year 1650 cost five hundred dollars. The two roses sent by Pope Alexander VII were valued at eight and twelve hundred dollars respectively. Pope Clement IX sent the Queen of France one costing twelve hundred dollars, made of eight pounds of gold. The workmanship on this rose was exceedingly fine, for which the artificer received three hundred dollars. Innocent IX caused eight and one-half pounds of gold to be formed into a rose, which was further embellished with many sapphires, costing in all fourteen hundred dollars. In the 19th century not a few of the roses cost two thousand dollars and more.[2]

Origin[edit]

The custom of giving the rose supplanted the ancient practice of sending Catholic rulers the Golden Keys from St. Peter's Confessional, a custom introduced either by Pope Gregory II (716) or Pope Gregory III (740). A certain analogy exists between the rose and the keys: both are of pure gold blessed and bestowed by the pope upon illustrious Catholics, and also, both are somewhat reminiscent of a reliquary—the rose contains musk and balsam, the keys are filings from the Chair of St. Peter.

The exact date of the institution of the rose is unknown. According to some it is anterior to Charlemagne (742-814), according to others it had its origin at the end of the 12th century, but it certainly antedates the year 1050, since Pope Leo IX (1051) speaks of the rose as of an ancient institution at his time.

The custom, started when the popes moved to Avignon, of conferring the rose upon the most deserving prince at the papal court, continued after the papacy moved back to Rome. The prince would receive the rose from the pope in a solemn ceremony and be accompanied by the College of Cardinals from the papal palace to his residence. From the beginning of the seventeenth century, the rose was sent only to queens, princesses and eminent noblemen. Emperors, kings and princes were given a blessed sword and hat as a more suitable gift. However, if a deserving Catholic emperor, king or other great prince was present in Rome on Lætare Sunday, he would be presented with the rose.

The office of carrying and conferring the rose upon those living outside of Rome was given by the pope to cardinal legates a latere, nuncios, inter-nuncios and Apostolic ablegates. In 1895 a new office, called "Bearer of the Golden Rose" or "Keeper of the Golden Rose", destined for Members of Royal Houses (not hereditary), was instituted, and assigned to a secret chamberlain of sword and cloak participant, a rank within the Papal Household, but it has ceased to exist.

Blessing of the Rose[edit]

The earliest roses were not blessed; instead, blessing was introduced to render the ceremony more solemn and induce greater reverence for it on the part of the recipient. According to Cardinal Petra (Comment. in Constit. Apostolicas, III, 2, col. 1), Pope Innocent IV (1245–54) was the first to bless it. However, others claim that Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Alexander III (1159–81) or Pope Leo IX (1049–55) was the first. It is said that Leo IX, in 1051, obliged the monastery (nuns) of Bamberg in Franconia, to furnish a Golden Rose to be blessed and carried on Laetare Sunday each year (Theop. Raynaud, De rosa mediana a pontifice consecrata, IV, 413). Pope Benedict XIV attests that the ceremony of blessing originated at the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century. Catalanus, papal master of ceremonies, believes that even the earliest roses were anointed with musk and balsam, but the blessing with prayers, incense, and holy water had its inception later on, sometime before pontificate of Pope Julius II (1503–13). Currently, the pope blesses the rose every year, but it is not always a new and different rose; the old one is used until it has been given away.

Originally (before the papacy moved to Avignon) the rose was blessed in the Hall of Vestments (sacristy) in the palace where the pope was; but the solemn Mass and the donation of the rose took place in the Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (a figure, according to Pope Innocent III, of the heavenly Jerusalem). The blessing was followed by a solemn Mass sung either by the pope himself or the first Cardinal Priest. In the former case the rose was placed on a veil of rose-colored silk richly embroidered with gold; in the latter the pope held the rose in his hand, except while kneeling, or during the Introit, Confiteor, Elevation and the singing of "Laudemus in Domino". Rose in hand, the pope returned processionally to the Lateran Palace; the Prefect of Rome led his horse by the bridle and aided him in dismounting. Upon arrival, he gave the rose to the Prefect, as a recompense for these acts of respect and homage. Prior to 1305, the rose was given in Rome to no foreigner, except the Emperor on the day of his coronation. While residing at Avignon (1305–1375), the popes, unable to visit Roman churches and basilicas, performed many of their sacred functions, among them the blessing of the rose, in the private chapel of their palace (whence the origin of the Cappella Pontificia). On their return to Rome they (Sixtus V excepted) retained this custom.

The blessing of the rose now takes place in the Hall of Vestments (camera dei parimenti), and the solemn Mass in the papal chapel. The rose is placed on a table with lighted candles, and the pope, vested in alb and rose-colored stole and cope with precious mitre on his head, begins the ceremony with the usual versicles and the following poetical prayer:

"O God! by Whose word and power all things have been created, by Whose will all things are directed, we humbly beseech Thy Majesty, Who art the joy and gladness of all the faithful, that Thou wouldst deign in Thy fatherly love to bless and sanctify this rose, most delightful in odour and appearance, which we this day carry in sign of spiritual joy, in order that the people consecrated by Thee and delivered from the yoke of Babylonian slavery through the favour of Thine only-begotten Son, Who is the glory and exultation of the people of Israel and of that Jerusalem which is our Heavenly mother, may with sincere hearts show forth their joy. Wherefore, O Lord, on this day, when the Church exults in Thy name and manifests her joy by this sign [the rose], confer upon us through her true and perfect joy and accepting her devotion of today; do Thou remit sin, strengthen faith, increase piety, protect her in Thy mercy, drive away all things adverse to her and make her ways safe and prosperous, so that Thy Church, as the fruit of good works, may unite in giving forth the perfume of the ointment of that flower sprung from the root of Jesse and which is the mystical flower of the field and lily of the valleys, and remain happy without end in eternal glory together with all the saints."

The prayer finished, the pope puts incense (handed by the cardinal-deacon) into the censer and incenses the balsam and then the musk, and afterwards puts the balsam and powdered musk into the tiny cup in the heart of the principal rose. He then incenses the rose and sprinkles it with holy water. It is then given to the youngest cleric of the Camera, who carries it in front of the pope to the chapel, where it is placed on the altar at the foot of the cross upon a richly embroidered silk veil, where it remains during the Mass sung by the first cardinal-priest. After the Mass, the rose is carried in procession before the pope to the sacristy, where it is carefully put away in a place set apart for it, until bestowed upon some worthy personage.

Recipients[edit]

Golden Roses have been awarded to people - men, women, and one married couple - as well as to states and churches.

Until the sixteenth century Golden Roses were usually awarded to male sovereigns. From the sixteenth century onwards it became more common to award them to female sovereigns and to the wives of sovereigns. The last male to receive a Golden Rose was Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice, in 1759. The last female and the last sovereign to receive a Golden Rose was Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg in 1956.

Among the principal churches to which the rose has been presented are St. Peter's Basilica (five roses), the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (four roses),[3] and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (two roses).[4]

In the twentieth century Pope Pius X and Pope Benedict XV made no awards of the Golden Rose. Pope Pius XI revived the practice which was continued by Pope Pius XII. Pope John XXIII made no awards. Pope Paul VI (1963 - 1978) made five awards; Pope John Paul II (1978 - 2005) made nine awards; Pope Benedict XVI (2005 - 2013) made eighteen awards. Since Pope Paul VI, all Golden Roses have been awarded to churches; all of Pope Benedict XVI's awards were to Marian shrines. Pope Francis made his first award of the Golden Rose in November 2013.

Year Recipient Pope Type of recipient Geographical area of recipient Notes
1096 Fulk IV, Count of Anjou Pope Urban II man France [5]
1148 Alfonso VII, King of León and Castile Pope Eugene III man Spain
1163 Louis VII, King of France Pope Alexander III man France
1182 William I, King of Scots Pope Lucius III man Scotland
1227 Raimondo Orsini Pope Gregory IX man Italy [6]
1244 Church of Saint Juste, Lyon Pope Innocent IV church France [6]
1304 Church of San Domenico, Perugia Pope Benedict XI church Italy [6]
1348 Louis I, King of Naples Pope Clement VI man Italy
1348 Louis I, King of Hungary Pope Clement VI man Hungary [6]
1350 Niccolò Acciaioli Pope Innocent VI man Italy [6]
1362-70 Valdemar IV of Denmark Pope Urban V man Denmark [6]
1368 Joanna I, Queen of Naples Pope Urban V woman Italy [6]
1369 St. Peter's Basilica Pope Urban V church Italy [6]
1389 Raimondo Del Balzo Orsini Pope Urban V man Italy [6]
1391 Alberto d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Pope Boniface IX man Italy [6]
1393 Astorre da Bagnacavallo Pope Boniface IX man Italy [6]
1398 Ugolino III Trinci, Lord of Foligno Pope Boniface IX man Italy [6]
1410 Niccolò III d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Antipope Alexander V man Italy [7]
1411 Charles VI, King of France Antipope John XXIII man France [7]
1413 Luigi Alidosi, Lord of Imola Antipope John XXIII man Italy [7]
1415 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Antipope John XXIII man Germany [7]
1419 Republic of Florence Pope Martin V state Italy [7]
1420 Guidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino Pope Martin V man Italy [7]
1435 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Pope Eugene IV man Germany [7]
1444 Henry VI, King of England Pope Eugene IV man England
1448 Casimir IV, King of Poland Pope Nicholas V man Poland
1452 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Empress Eleonora Pope Nicholas V couple Germany received the day after they were crowned
1457 Charles VII, King of France Pope Callistus III man France
1482 Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg Pope Sixtus IV man Germany
1486 James III, King of Scotland Pope Innocent VIII man Scotland
1491 James IV, King of Scotland Pope Innocent VIII man Scotland
1493 Isabella I, Queen of Castile Pope Alexander VI woman Spain
1505 Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland Pope Julius II man Poland
1506 Manuel I, King of Portugal Pope Julius II man Portugal
1514 Manuel I, King of Portugal Pope Leo X man Portugal
1518 Frederick III, Elector of Saxony Pope Leo X man Germany
1512? Henry VIII, King of England Pope Julius II man England
1521? Henry VIII, King of England Pope Leo X man England
1524 Henry VIII, King of England Pope Clement VII man England
1537 Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua Pope Paul III man Italy [8] because of his kindness towards the Fathers of the Council of Trent
1543 Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara Pope Paul III man Italy [9]
1548 Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France Pope Paul III woman France [9]
1550 João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Pope Julius III man Portugal [9]
1551 Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Pope Julius III church Italy [9]
1555 Mary I, Queen of England Pope Paul IV woman England [9]
1557 María Enríquez de Toledo y Guzmán, Duchess of Alba Pope Paul IV woman Spain [9] wife of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
1560 Mary, Queen of Scots Pope Pius IV woman Scotland
1561 Anne, Queen of Bohemia Pope Pius IV woman Bohemia [9]
1564 Republic of Lucca Pope Pius IV state Italy [9]
1572 Charles IX, King of France Pope Gregory XIII man France given in commemoration of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1592 Henry IV, King of France and Navarre Pope Clement VIII man France
1598 Margaret, Queen of Spain Pope Clement VIII woman Spain received on the day she was married by proxy to Philip III, King of Spain
1607 Santa Maria sopra Minerva Pope Paul V church Italy [10]
1610 Sancta Sanctorum Pope Paul V church Italy [10]
1625 Henrietta Maria, Queen of England and Scotland Pope Urban VIII woman England and Scotland [10] received at Amiens
1626/7 Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany Pope Urban VIII man Italy [10]
1628 Maddalena, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany Pope Urban VIII woman Italy [10]
1630 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Pope Urban VIII woman Germany [10] later Empress Consort
1631 Taddeo Barberini, Prefect of Rome Pope Urban VIII man Italy [10] he was the pope's nephew
1634 St. Peter's Basilica Pope Urban VIII church Italy [10]
1635 Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria Pope Urban VIII woman Germany [11]
1649 Mariana, Queen of Spain Pope Innocent X woman Spain [12]
1651? Marie Louise, Queen of Poland Pope Innocent X woman Poland [12]
1654 Lucrezia, Duchess of Modena Pope Innocent X woman Italy [12]
1658 Siena Cathedral Pope Alexander VII church Italy [12] cathedral of the pope's hometown
1668 Maria Theresa, Queen of France Pope Alexander VII woman France for her infant son, the Dauphin, for whom the pope was godfather
1672 Elenor, Queen of Poland Pope Clement X woman Poland
1684 Marie Casimire Louise, Queen of Poland Pope Innocent XI woman Poland
1699 Wilhelmina Amalia, Empress of Holy Roman Empire Pope Innocent XII woman Germany
1701 Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain Pope Clement XI woman Spain
1726 Violante Beatrice, Grand Princess of Tuscany Pope Benedict XIII woman Italy [13]
1736 Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland Pope Clement XII woman Poland [14]
1759 Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice Pope Clement XIII man Italy
1776 Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen Pope Pius VI woman Austria
1784 Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma Pope Pius VI woman Italy
1790 Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples Pope Pius VI woman Italy
1819 Caroline Augusta, Empress of Austria Pope Leo XII woman Austria
1825 Maria Theresa, Queen Dowager of Sardinia Pope Leo XII woman Italy
1830 Cathedral of Cingoli Pope Pius VIII church Italy [15] cathedral of the pope's hometown
1832 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Pope Gregory XVI woman Austria [15] later Empress Consort of Austria
1833 St Mark's Basilica Pope Gregory XVI church Italy [15]
1842 Maria II, Queen of Portugal Pope Gregory XVI woman Portugal
1849 Princess Maria Pia of Savoy Pope Pius IX woman Italy given by her godfather on the day of her baptism; later Queen Consort of Portugal
1856 Eugenie, Empress of the French Pope Pius IX woman France
1868 Elisabeth, Empress of Austria Pope Pius IX woman Austria
1868 Isabella II, Queen of Spain Pope Pius IX woman Spain
1870 Sant'Antonio dei Portoghesi Pope Pius IX church Italy [16]
Sept. 1877 Our Lady of Lourdes Sanctuary Pope Pius IX shrine Portugal [17]
1886 Maria Christina, Queen Dowager of Spain Pope Leo XIII woman Spain
1888 Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Pope Leo XIII woman Brazil see Lei Áurea
1892 Amélie, Queen of Portugal Pope Leo XIII woman Portugal
1893 Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians Pope Leo XIII woman Belgium
1923 Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain Pope Pius XI woman Spain
1926 Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians Pope Pius XI woman Belgium
1930 Elena, Queen of Italy Pope Pius XI woman Italy [18]
1937 Elena, Queen of Italy Pope Pius XI woman Italy [19] in observance of her 40th wedding anniversary
1953 Se Cathedral Pope Pius XII church India [20] placed on the tomb of Saint Francis Xavier
1956 Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Pope Pius XII woman Luxembourg
1964 Church of the Nativity Pope Paul VI church Palestine [21]
1965 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Pope Paul VI shrine Portugal [22]
1966 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Pope Paul VI church Mexico [20]
1967 Basilica of Our Lady of Aparecida (now known as the "Old Basilica of Aparecida") Pope Paul VI church Brazil [20]
June 1979 Black Madonna of Częstochowa at Jasna Góra Monastery Pope John Paul II shrine Poland [23]
Sept. 1979 Our Lady of Knock Shrine Pope John Paul II shrine Ireland [24]
June 1982 Basilica of Our Lady of Luján Pope John Paul II shrine Argentina [25][26][27][28]
June 1987 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Kalwaria Pope John Paul II shrine Poland [29]
May 14, 1988 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Evangelization Pope John Paul II shrine Lima, Peru [30]
Dec. 2000 Holy House of Loreto Pope John Paul II shrine Italy [31]
Aug. 14, 2004 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes Pope John Paul II shrine France [32] Second award
Oct. 17, 2004 Saint Joseph's Oratory Pope John Paul II church Montreal, Canada

[33]

Dec. 2004 Our Lady of Sameiro Sanctuary Pope John Paul II shrine Braga, Portugal

[34]

2006 Black Madonna of Częstochowa at Jasna Góra Monastery Pope Benedict XVI shrine Poland [35]Second award
May 12, 2007 Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida ("New Basilica of Aparecida") Pope Benedict XVI shrine Brazil [36]
Sept. 8, 2007 Our Lady of Mariazell Basilica Pope Benedict XVI shrine Austria [37][38]
Apr. 9, 2008 Mother of Mercy Shrine Pope Benedict XVI shrine Altötting, Germany [39]
Apr. 16, 2008 Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception Pope Benedict XVI shrine Washington, USA [40]
May 17, 2008 Our Lady of Mercy Shrine Pope Benedict XVI shrine Savona, Italy [41]
May 18, 2008 Our Lady of Guardia Shrine Pope Benedict XVI shrine Genua, Italy [41]
Sept. 7, 2008 Shrine of Our Lady of Bonaria Pope Benedict XVI shrine Cagliary, Italy [41]
Oct. 19, 2008 Madonna of the Rosary Shrine Pope Benedict XVI shrine Pompei, Italy [42]

[43]

Apr. 28, 2009 Shrine of Our Lady of the Cross Pope Benedict XVI shrine Aquila, Italy after the earthquake [44]
May 2009 Shrine of Our Lady of Europe Pope Benedict XVI shrine Gibraltar [45][46]
Nov. 22, 2009 Basilica of Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza Pope Benedict XVI shrine Jaén, Spain [41]
2010 Cathedral Basilica of Nuestra Señora del Valle Pope Benedict XVI church Argentina [28][47]
Apr. 18, 2010 Shrine of Our Lady of Ta' Pinu Pope Benedict XVI shrine Malta [48]
May 12, 2010 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Pope Benedict XVI shrine Portugal Second award[49]

[50]

Aug. 23, 2010 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Valley Pope Benedict XVI shrine Catamarca, Argentina [51]
Nov. 13, 2010 Virgen of Socorro Pope Benedict XVI shrine Valencia, Venezuela [52]
May 15, 2011 Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel Pope Benedict XVI shrine Belgium

[53]

March 26, 2012 Basílica Santuario Nacional de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad Pope Benedict XVI church Cobre, Cuba [54][55]
Nov. 22, 2013 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Pope Francis shrine Mexico

[56] Second award

Sources[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.  [8] article "Golden Rose" by PMJ Rock, 1909.
  1. ^ Songs 2:1
  2. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, article "Golden Rose"
  3. ^ According to some sources, two of the four roses were given to the basilica proper and two to the chapel called Sancta Sanctorum.
  4. ^ http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/31st-january-1959/10/from-our-notebook
  5. ^ Gaetano Moroni, "Rosa d'Oro", Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (Venezia: Tipografia Emiliana, 1852), LIX, 116.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moroni, LIX, 125.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Moroni, LIX, 126.
  8. ^ Moroni, LIX, 130-31.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Moroni, LIX, 131.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Moroni, LIX, 135.
  11. ^ Moroni, LIX, 135-36.
  12. ^ a b c d Moroni, LIX, 136.
  13. ^ Young, G. F.: The Medici: Volume 2, E. P. Dutton and Company, 1920, p. 488
  14. ^ Rożek, M.: The Royal Cathedral at Wawel, Interpress, 1981, p. 158 and 165
  15. ^ a b c Moroni, LIX, 144.
  16. ^ Lodovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d'Italia dal principio dell'era volgare sino all'anno 1750 (Firenze: Leonardo Marchini, 1827), XXXIII, 33.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ "Pontiff Will Bless Golden Rose Today", New York Times (March 30, 1930): 25.
  19. ^ "Pope Blesses Gift for Queen Elena", New York Times (March 8, 1937): 12.
  20. ^ a b c Bernard Berthod and Pierre Blanchard, Trésors inconnus du Vatican: cérémonial et liturgie (Paris: Editions de l'Amateur, 2001), 300.
  21. ^ "Paul VI Starts Trip to the Holy Land", New York Times (January 4, 1964): 1.
  22. ^ "Pontiff Adjourns Vatican Council and Honors Mary", New York Times (November 22, 1964): 1.
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ [4]
  26. ^ Papal honors
  27. ^ Basílica Nacional Nuestra Señora de Luján
  28. ^ a b Rosa de Oro y los papas (Spanish)
  29. ^ (Polish)
  30. ^ [ http://www.arzobispadodelima.org/notas/2009/mayo/140509a.html]
  31. ^ http://visnews-en.blogspot.nl/2000/12/cardinal-places-golden-rose-in-marian.html
  32. ^ [ http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=1288 A Papal rose in tribute to the "Queen" of joy and sorrow]"
  33. ^ "Pope honors largest shrine to St. Joseph with Golden Rose"
  34. ^ [5]
  35. ^ http://robertaconnor.blogspot.nl/2011/05/fatima-golden-rose-benedict-and-escriva.html
  36. ^ http://www.marana-tha.net/wp/?p=442
  37. ^ (in German)
  38. ^ "Papst brachte "Goldene Rose" nach Mariazell" (in German). 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  39. ^ http://www.catholicculture.org/news/features/index.cfm?recnum=57728
  40. ^ http://www.nationalshrine.com/atf/cf/%257BB0534716-4524-407D-A065-B68C4BFCB4BE%257D/Facts%2520Figures%2520%2520Features%2520of%2520the%2520Basilica.pdf
  41. ^ a b c d http://popes-and-papacy.com/wordpress/the-golden-rose-more-information-directly-from-the-vatican/
  42. ^ [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/travels/2008/documents/trav_ben-xvi_pompei-program_20081019_en.html
  43. ^ Pastoral Visit to the Pontifical Shrine of Pompeii
  44. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2009/april/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20090428_sisma-laquila_sp.html
  45. ^ http://www.ourladyofeurope.net
  46. ^ It was conferred by Cardinal Jose Saraiva Martins, Prefect Emeritus of the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Pope Benedict XVI's special envoy [6] at the celebrations of the closure of the Jubilee to mark the 700th Anniversary of the veneration of Our Lady of Europe [7].
  47. ^ Basílica Nacional Nuestra Señora del Valle
  48. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2010/documents/hf_ben-xvi_reg_20100418_floriana_en.html
  49. ^ http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/fatima-shrine-receives-golden-rose
  50. ^ ZENIT - Fatima Shrine receives Golden Rose
  51. ^ http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/pope-sends-golden-rose-to-our-lady-in-argentina
  52. ^ http://m.authorstream.com/presentation/sandamichaela-2128223-golden-rose/
  53. ^ "Pauselijke en Internationale Erkenning voor Scherpenheuvel" (in Dutch). Kerknet. 15 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  54. ^ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/pope-to-place-golden-rose-before-patroness-of-cuba/
  55. ^ "Pope gives Golden Rose to sanctuary of the Virgen de la Caridad de Cobre". News.va. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  56. ^ "Pope Francis sends golden rose to Our Lady of Guadalupe". CNA. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013. 

External links[edit]