Golovin–Sivtsev table

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Golovin–Sivtsev Table

In 1923, Soviet ophthalmologists Sergei Golovin and D. A. Sivtsev developed the table for testing visual acuity,[1] that was used in the USSR and as of 2008 is still used in some post-Soviet states. This table is called Golovin–Sivtsev Table (Russian: Таблица Головина-Сивцева).[2]

It consists of two parts, 12 rows each, at the left of each row the distance D (in meters) from which person with visual acuity value 1.0 can read the row is indicated. At the right the value V shows minimum visual acuity value that person should have to be able to read the row from 5 meters distance. Rows visual acuity values represent the 0.1–2.0 range.[3]

The left part contained Cyrillic letters Ш, Б, М, Н, К, Ы, И in a definite order, with width of each character equal to its height, and the size of a first row character being 70 mm, in the second row it was 35 mm, and 7 mm in the last row. Right part of the table contained Landolt C symbols.


  1. ^ (Russian) Refraction and acuity
  2. ^ (Russian) Golovin–Sivtsev Table for determining the visual acuity
  3. ^ (Russian) Some information on Golovin–Sivtsev Table — that website as a whole doesn't seem to be reliable, but it seems to present reliable information on Golovin-Sivtsev Table dimensions