|Born||Antônio Gonçalves Dias
August 10, 1823
Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil
|Died||November 3, 1864
Shores of Guimarães, Maranhão, Brazil
|Alma mater||University of Coimbra|
|Notable work(s)||I-Juca-Pirama, Os Timbiras, "Canção do exílio"|
|Influenced by||Almeida Garrett, Alexandre Herculano, António Feliciano de Castilho, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|
|Spouse(s)||Olímpia Carolina da Costa|
|Parents||João Manuel Gonçalves Dias
|Relatives||Teófilo Dias (nephew)|
Antônio Gonçalves Dias (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu gõˈsaɫviʒ ˈdʒiɐs]; August 10, 1823 — November 3, 1864) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, playwright, ethnographer, lawyer and linguist. A major exponent of the Brazilian Romanticism and of the literary tradition known as "Indianism", he is famous for writing the poem "Canção do exílio", arguably the most well-known poem of the Brazilian literature, the short epic poem I-Juca-Pirama, and many other nationalist and patriotic poems that would later give him the title of national poet of Brazil. He was also an avid researcher of the Brazilian indigenous languages and folklore.
He is the patron of the 15th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Antônio Gonçalves Dias was born in Caxias on August 10, 1823, to Portuguese João Manuel Gonçalves Dias and cafuza Vicência Ferreira. After completing his studies in Latin, French and Philosophy, he went in 1838 to Portugal to earn a degree in Law at the University of Coimbra. There, he got in contact with the Romantic ideals and the works of Almeida Garrett, Alexandre Herculano and António Feliciano de Castilho, who proved to be major influences upon him, and wrote his critically acclaimed poem "Canção do exílio". He graduated in 1845 and returned to Brazil in the same year. He goes to Rio de Janeiro, living there until 1854. There, he began to write the drama Leonor de Mendonça in 1846 and his first poetry book, Primeiros Cantos, in 1847. It was very well-received, and Alexandre Herculano wrote an article praising it. Dias finished his play Leonor de Mendonça also in 1847, and tried to have it performed at the Conservatório de Música do Rio de Janeiro, but the play was not accepted because the censors thought its language was not appropriate for the institution. (The same thing happened when he tried to have another play of his, Beatriz Cenci, performed.)
In 1848, he wrote two more poetry books: Segundos Cantos and Sextilhas de Frei Antão. In 1849 he became professor of Latin and History at the Colégio Pedro II. In 1851, he published his last poetry book, Últimos Cantos. In the same year, he travelled to Northern Brazil, planning to marry his lifelong love, 14-year-old Ana Amélia Ferreira do Vale, to whom he dedicated many of his most famous and beautiful love poems, such as "Seus olhos", "Leviana", "Palinódia" and "Retratação". However, the girl's mother did not allow the marriage because of Gonçalves' mestizo descent. (This inspired his famous poem "Ainda uma vez — adeus!".) Returning to Rio disappointed and with his heart broken, he married Olímpia Carolina da Costa later on, having with her a stillborn daughter. Dias divorced Olímpia in 1856, because he could not cope with her personality.
From 1854 to 1858, he went to Europe on special missions for the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In 1856, at Leipzig, he published the three Cantos poetry books in one volume, wrote the first four cantos of the epic poem Os Timbiras (that he would leave unfinished) and also published a dictionary of the Tupi language. Returning to Brazil, he founded the magazine Guanabara alongside Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Manuel de Araújo Porto-alegre in 1849, and went on expeditions to Negro and Madeira Rivers, as a member of the Scientific Commission of Exploration. In 1862, he returned to Rio de Janeiro, but soon went to Europe again, searching for a treatment to his diseases. In October 1863, he went to Lisbon, where he translated Friedrich Schiller's The Bride of Messina and some poems by Heinrich Heine.
After a short stay in France, he decided to return to Brazil in 1864, in the ship Ville de Boulogne. However, the ship was wrecked on the Bay of Cumã, near the shores of Guimarães, Maranhão. All the passengers but Dias survived the tragedy; he was sleeping in his cabin at the ship's basement and did not wake up in time to see what was happening, thus he drowned to his death.
- Primeiros Cantos (First Chants — 1847)
- Segundos Cantos (Second Chants — 1848)
- Sextilhas de Frei Antão (Friar Anton's Sextilles — 1848)
- Últimos Cantos (Last Chants — 1851)
- Cantos (Chants — 1856)
Epic poems 
- Meditação (Meditation — unfinished, 1850)
- Dicionário da Língua Tupi (A Dictionary of the Tupi Language — 1856)
- He was the uncle of Teófilo Dias, who was a poet as well.
- The city of Gonçalves Dias, founded in 1958, has this name because its territory formerly belonged to the city of Caxias, Dias' hometown.
- Dias' love interest, Ana Amélia Ferreira do Vale, was the cousin of Alexandre Teófilo de Carvalho Leal, who in his turn was the brother of Antônio Henriques Leal, a famous Brazilian journalist, writer, medician, biographer and historian known as the "Plutarch of Cantanhede". Both Alexandre and Antônio were very close friends with Dias, and Antônio would edit Dias' posthumous works in 1875, in 6 volumes.
- A river in Paraná is named after him, as well as many public squares in Maranhão.
- "Gonçalves Dias morreu em naufrágio no baixo de Atins". 15 March 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2013. (Portuguese)
- GRIZOSTE, Weberson Fernandes, A dimensão anti-épica de Virgílio e o Indianismo de Gonçalves Dias. Coimbra: CECH, 2011.
- MONTELLO, J. Para conhecer melhor Gonçalves Dias. Rio de Janeiro: Block. 1973. 138 p.
- BRAIT, B. Gonçalves Dias. São Paulo: Nova Cultural. 1988 (Literatura Comentada)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gonçalves Dias|
|Portuguese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Gonçalves Dias' biography at the official site of the Brazilian Academy of Letters (Portuguese)
- Poems by Gonçalves Dias
- Complete works of Gonçalves Dias
- Works of Gonçalves Dias on Tupi and the Nheengatu
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 15th chair
Olavo Bilac (founder)