Gondi people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about people of central India. For other uses, see Gond.
kallani
Women in tribal village, Umaria district, India.jpg
Regions with significant populations
India Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Karnataka
Languages
Gondi, Telugu, Marathi, Hindi
Religion
Gondi ( Koya Punem ), Hinduism[1]
Related ethnic groups
Khonds · Dravidian people

The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond people are a Dravidian people of central India, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana and Western Odisha. With over four million people, they are the largest tribe in Central India.[2] They are a designated Scheduled Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana, Odisha and West Bengal.[3]

The Gond are also known as the Raj Gond. The term "Raj Gond" was widely used in 1950s, but has now become almost obsolete, probably because of the political eclipse of the Gond Rajas.[4]

The Gondi language is related to Telugu and other Dravidian languages. About half of Gonds speak Gondi languages while the rest speak Indo-Aryan languages including Hindi.

According to the 1971 census, their population was 51.54 lakhs (5,154,000). By the 1991 census this had increased to 93.19 lakhs (9,319,000)[5] and by 2001 census this was nearly 110 lakhs.

History[edit]

For many years in the British colonial period of India the Gonds were considered[6] to have performed human sacrifices, although this notion was later discredited.[7]

The heroic dead of the Gondwana Queen Rani Durgawati[edit]

Gondwana was conquered in 1564 by Akbar.

This State included the regions of Sagar, Damoh, Mandla, Seoni, Narmada Valley and possibly a portion of Bhopal. The state had 53 forts. Dalpat Shah as its ruler. When he died he left behind his widow Durgawati and their infant son Bir Narayan. Durgawati became the Regent. Abul Fazal says that Durgawati ruled her kingdom with wisdom and ability. She delighted in hunting and bringing down wild animals with her own gun. Asaf Khan,[8] the Governor of Kara or Allahabad, was tempted by the wealth of Gondwana. Occasionally he ravaged the borders of the kingdom. Rani Durgwati started negotiations with Akbar for a peaceful settlement and when those negotiation failed, she retaliated by making forays against Bhilsa. Asaf Khan[8] marched toward Gondwana. Durgawati defended her territory bravely, but she was out numbered and defeated in a battle between garh and Mandal in the modern Jabalpur District. Rani Durgawati was wounded and she plunged a dagger into her chest and ended her life to save herself from disgrace. Her kingdom was devastated and a lot of the wealth fell into the hands of the Mughals. Bir Narayan died fighting in the defence of his country. According to V.A.Smith, Akbar's attack on a princess of a character so noble was mere aggression, wholly unprovoked and devoid of all justifications other than the lust for conquest and plunder."[9]

The Pardhan Gonds from Madhya Pradesh[10][edit]

The Pardhan Gonds are a clan of the large Gond tribe inhabiting Central India. They traditionally served the larger tribal community as musicians, bardic priests and keepers of genealogies and sacred myths. With declining support for their traditional role, the Pardhan Gonds have adapted their oral traditions for the visual medium has already been adapted from auspicious designs on the walls and floors of mud huts for acrylic paintings on canvas, pen and ink drawings, silkscreen prints and large scale murals. Several Gond artists[11] have travelled abroad for exhibitions and Pardhan Gond painting has gained popularity in the mainstream art market. With decline in interest in oral storytelling traditions, storytelling through the animation medium may be a way of reigniting interest in culture amongst the young générations of Pardhan Gonds.

Some of the best known painters of the « Jangarh Kalam » school are : Jangarhs wife, Nankusia Shyam,[12] his children Japani et Mayank,[13] his nephews Bhajju Shyam[14] · [15] · [16] · [17] and Venkat Singh Shyam[18] and his sister and brother in law Durga Bai[19] and Subhash Vyam and Ram Singh Urveti[13] · .[20]

Gonds of Uttar Pradesh: The Scheduled caste exception[edit]

The Gond are also found in major population in Uttar Pradesh (UP). Like in other parts of India, the UP Gond have Scheduled caste as opposed to Scheduled tribe status, in 13 district of U.P. Gonds are Scheduled tribe and remaining district those are treated as Scheduled caste. They no longer speak Gondi, but now speak Hindi. The UP Gond are divided into seven sub-groups, the Dev Gond, Dholi, Kolan, Kailabhut, Mudipal, Padal and Raj Gond. Raj Gond are also called as jesthvans in Bihar state. They are mainly farmer .Some have their own land and they are now part of well established society. Traditionally, the Raj Gond (also found in Maharshtra state[21]) have had a higher status, and were rulers of a number of states in the region. Each of these clans is exogamous. The Gonda of UP are a landowning community, and most of them practise settled cultivation. Historically, the community practiced slash and burn agriculture, these practices have long been discontinued.[22] In U.P. Gond has many sub caste namely Dhuria, Nayak, Ojha, Pathari, Rajgond, Pathar, Kahar, Godia,Dhimar, Sorhia and Raikwar (according to Minutes of 20th Meeting of National commission for SCs and STs dated 19/06/2001) but the population of Dhuria, Gond, Kahar in U.P. is greater than other four sub castes of Gond tribe. Dhuria, Kahar (Sub caste/synonyms or Generic Name of Gond) of Uttar Pradesh,and also known as Dhurwa, Dhurvey, Dhruw in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand etc.

Ghotul[edit]

Traditionally the Gondi people had a social institution (school) known as Ghotul, a kind of mixed dormitory system for the unmarried youth which was the main means of education and introduction to adult life.[23]

Gods - The birth of the Bana and the first Pardhan Gond[edit]

Come over O Bada Dev,

sit in the dense shade of the Saja tree.

Come, create the world, create it once again.

Where the village comes to an end keep vigil O Mahrilin Devi.

Let no illness, no disease head our way,

stop it right there.

At the edge of the forest stand guard O Ghurri Dev.

Keep us safe, keep us safe from the wild beast.

At the village crossroads stay put O Tipthain Dev.

Confer at all given hours on us a boon of plenty.

Sprawl yourself O Dehri Dev over our humble doorway.

Let no female demon step into the house.

Come, make your home O Chulha Dev

in the freshly smeared chulha. Fill with the most delicious taste every speck of food.

When night falls in desolate streets make your round O Ratmai Murkhuri.

So the weary humans can sleep, so they can sleep in peace.[10]

The Gonds were seven brothers. They sowed jute in the field. In a few days, the jute began to grow. One day they saw a handsome young man galloping on his horse right through their field. The hooves were trampling the jute saplings. They pounced on the young man with their paitharis. The youngest brother was so scared that his stomach got upset. He went to the nearby ditch to relieve himself. The other six brothers chased the horseman. The field was quite big. At the edge of it was a Saja tree. Seeing the Gond brothers chasing him, the horseman went under the Saja tree and disappeared into it along with his horse. The Gonds saw him vanish into the tree. They instantly understood… This is our Bada Dev who came riding through our field on his white horse. How unfortunate we are that we could not recognise him… Now he is angry with us. He has disappeared into the Saja tree. How do we placate him. Together they began to reflect on this. They erected a platform under the Saja tree. They offered rar lentils. Sacrificed a white rooster. Sprinkled liquor made from Mahua. Folded their hands in prayer. Went on pleading… But Bada Dev was angry. He did not come out of the Saja tree… At this point the youngest brother turned up from the direction of the nullah. He found out what had happened… He said, ‘I’ll find a way. It might please Bada Dev.’… He went and felled a bough from Khirsani tree. He made a one-stringed instrument from the wood and playing on it, began to sing. The notes began to resound in the woods. In the song he began to sing praises of the glory of Bada Dev. Listening to the song Bada Dev was pleased and he made an appearance in the trunk of the Saja tree. He blessed the youngest brother by placing his hand on his head, ‘Whenever you sing my song playing this instrument, I’ll make an appearance. This instrument of yours will be called Bana.’ Bada Dev accepted everybody’s offerings and once again vanished into the Saja tree.[10]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • « The tribal art of middle India », Verrier Elwin - 1951
  • Savaging the Civilized, Verrier Elwin, His Tribals & India - Ramachandra Guha - The University of Chigago Press - 1999
  • Beine, David m. 1994. A sociolinguistic survey of the Gondi-speaking communities of central India. M.A. thesis. San Diego State University. 516 p.
  • Banerjee, B. G., and Kiran Bhatia. Tribal Demography of Gonds. Delhi: Gian Pub. House, 1988. ISBN 81-212-0237-X
  • Elwin, Verrier. Phulmat of the Hills; A Tale of the Gonds. London: J. Murray, 1937.
  • Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph von, and Elizabeth von Fürer-Haimendorf. The Gonds of Andhra Pradesh: Tradition and Change in an Indian Tribe. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979. ISBN 0-04-301090-3
  • Kaufmann, Walter. Songs and Drummings of the Hill Maria, Jhoria Muria and Bastar Muria Gonds. And, the Musical Instruments of the Marias and Murias. 1950.
  • Mehta, B. H. Gonds of the Central Indian Highlands: A Study of the Dynamics of Gond Society. New Delhi: Concept, 1984.
  • Museum of Mankind, Shelagh Weir, and Hira Lal. The Gonds of Central India; The Material Culture of the Gonds of Chhindwara District, Madhya Pradesh. London: British Museum, 1973. ISBN 0-7141-1537-1
  • Pagdi, Setumadhava Rao. Among the Gonds of Adilabad. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1952.
  • Perry, William James, The Children of the Sun: a study in the early history of civilization, London: Methuen, 1927.
  • Pingle, Urmila, and Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf. Gonds and Their Neighbours: A Study in Genetic Diversity. Lucknow, India: Ethnographic & Folk Culture Society, 1987.
  • Russell, R. V., The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, London, 1916.
  • Sharma, Anima. Tribe in Transition: A Study of Thakur Gonds. India: Mittal Publications, 2005. ISBN 81-7099-989-8
  • Singh, Indrajit. The Gondwana and the Gonds. Lucknow, India: The Universal publishers, 1944.
  • Kangalee,Motiram Chhabiram,Paree Kupar Lingo Gondi Punemi Darshan (In Hindi),Publisher ujjvala society Nagpur,2011
  • Vatti,jalpati,Mava sagaa padeeng, in Gondwana sagaa Patrika published (In Hindi) in October 1986

References[edit]

  1. ^ Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC), 2011
  2. ^ "Gondi people". 
  3. ^ "List of notified Scheduled Tribes". Census India. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Indian Tribes -R.C.Verma ISBN 81-230-0328-5
  5. ^ Indian Tribes ISBN 81-230-0328-5
  6. ^ Human Sacrifice in Colonial Central India
  7. ^ *Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter. The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 
  8. ^ a b http://narsinghpur.nic.in/history.htm
  9. ^ History of Medieval India-V.D.Mahajan ISBN 81-219-0364-5
  10. ^ a b c Jangarh Kalam - Udayan Vajpeyi et Vivek. Publié en 2008 par Tribal Welfare Department, Madhya Pradesh, Inde. ISBN 81-903764-3-8
  11. ^ Gond artists
  12. ^ Bulli & The Tiger - Shalina Reys and Nankusia Shyam - Pratham Books - 2010 - ISBN 9789350220177
  13. ^ a b Freedom : Sixty Years After Indian Independence, illustrations: Mayank Kumar Shyam, Ram Singh Urveti, Bhuri Bai ... - Art and Heritage Foundations - 2007 - ISBN 978-8190485807
  14. ^ La petite sirène - Gita Wolf et Sirish Rao, illustrations: Bhajju Shyam - Syros - 2009 - ISBN 9782748508413
  15. ^ La vie nocturne des arbres - Bhajju Shyam, illustrations: Durge Bai et Ram Singh Urveti - Acte Sud Junior - 2013 - ISBN 978-2-330-02132-0
  16. ^ Mon voyage inoubliable - Bhajju Shyam, illustrations: Bhajju Shyam - Syros - 2014 - ISBN 9782748514902
  17. ^ Alone in the Forest - Gita Wolf & Andrea Anastasio - illustrations: Bhajju Shyam - Tara Books - 2012 - ISBN 978-81-923171-5-1
  18. ^ Finding My Way - A Gondwana Journey - Venkat Raman Singh Shyam with S. Anand - navayana 2012 - A draft sample for Frankfurt Buchmesse 2012
  19. ^ Book of Rhyme - Gita Wolf, illustrations: Durga Bai - taraBOOKS - 2010 - ISBN 978-93-80340-06-7
  20. ^ I saw a Peacock with a fiery Tail - illustrations: Ram Singh Urveti - Tara Books - 2011 - ISBN 978-93-80340-14-2
  21. ^ Indian Tribes -R.C.verma
  22. ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Two edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 546 to 551 Manohar Publications
  23. ^ Essay on the characteristics of Dormito­ries in Indian Tribes

Videography[edit]

External links[edit]

This article includes material from the 1995 public domain Library of Congress Country Study on India.