|Place from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium|
|Other names||Stoningland, South-kingdom|
|Description||Southern Númenórean realm in exile|
|Location||West of Middle-earth|
|Lifespan||Founded S.A. 3320 |
|Founder||Isildur and Anárion|
|Lord||Kings of Gondor; Stewards of Gondor|
|Books||The Return of the King,
Of the Rings of Power, Unfinished Tales
Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, described as the greatest realm of Men in the west of Middle-earth by the end of the Third Age. The third volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, is concerned with the events in Gondor during the War of the Ring and with the following restoration of the realm. Further history of the kingdom can be glimpsed from the appendices to the book, which also cast light on its origins.
According to the narrative, Gondor was founded by brothers Isildur and Anárion, exiles from the downfallen island kingdom of Númenor, and along with Arnor in the north served as a last stronghold of the Men of the West. After an early period of growth, Gondor gradually declined as the Third Age progressed, being continually weakened by the allies of the Dark Lord Sauron, and was only restored in dominance after his final defeat and the crowning of Aragorn.
Based upon long-foreseen conceptions, the history and geography of Gondor were developed in stages, as a part of the major extension of his legendarium that Tolkien undertook during the writing of The Lord of the Rings. The role of the kingdom emerged gradually, from a side "adventure" in the plot becoming the focal figure of later writings. Textual history was traced by Christopher Tolkien in the volumes of The History of Middle-earth, and the overall subject has gained attention among later researchers and fans.
The history of Gondor is described in several of Tolkien's works, with different levels of detail. Within the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the kingdom is first introduced at the Council of Elrond, with a brief summary of the Second and Third Ages. The events of the latter are elaborated in the appendices to the book, and those of the former—in the last parts of The Silmarillion. Retellings at an ample scale of some particular episodes are included in Unfinished Tales.
Foundation and the Last Alliance 
The territory that would become Gondor had been widely colonised by the Númenóreans from around the middle of the Second Age, especially by the Elf-friends loyal to the house of Elendil. When his sons Isildur and Anárion landed in Middle-earth after the drowning of Númenor, they were welcomed by the colonists and their claim of lordship was accepted, while Elendil was held to be the High King of all lands of the Dúnedain. Within the South-kingdom, the hometowns of Isildur and Anárion were Minas Ithil and Minas Anor respectively, and the capital city Osgiliath was situated between them.
Sauron, however, had survived the destruction of Númenor and secretly returned to his realm of Mordor just to the east of Gondor. Soon he launched a war against the Númenórean kingdoms, hoping to destroy them before their power was established. He captured Minas Ithil, but Isildur escaped and fled by ship to Arnor; meanwhile, Anárion was able to defend Osgiliath. Elendil and the Elven-king Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, and together with Isildur and Anárion, they besieged and defeated Mordor. Sauron was overthrown, but the One Ring that Isildur took from him was not destroyed, and thus Sauron was able to regain power in the next age.
Both Elendil and Anárion had been slain in the war, so Isildur conferred rule of Gondor upon Anárion's son Meneldil and went north to ascend to the kingship of Arnor, retaining suzerainty over Gondor as High King of the Dúnedain. However, Isildur and his three elder sons were ambushed and killed by Orcs in the Gladden Fields.
Isildur's remaining son Valandil did not attempt to reclaim his father's place in Gondor monarchy, and therefore the kingdom was ruled solely by Meneldil and his descendants until their line died out with Eärnur.
Golden Age 
During the first millennium of the Third Age, Gondor was victorious in war and its wealth and power grew. After Sauron's defeat, Gondor watched over Mordor. In T.A. 490, Gondor's centuries-old peace was ended by the first of many Easterling invasions. That war lasted into the following century, and from it Gondor conquered much territory in Rhûn north of Mordor.
Under the rule of the four "Ship-Kings", Gondor established a powerful navy and extended along the coast from the Mouths of Anduin. In 933, Gondor captured the southern port city Umbar, formerly held by the hostile Black Númenóreans. Later, the Haradrim defeated Gondor on land and besieged Umbar; but King Hyarmendacil I strengthened his army and navy, and forced the kings of Harad to submit after a great victory in T.A. 1050.
Gondor reached its peak during the reign of Hyarmendacil, controlling a vast territory and holding suzerainty over neighbouring nations such as the Haradrim and the northern Men of the Vales of Anduin. Mordor was desolate and guarded by fortresses. Under Hyarmendacil I's successor, Atanatar the Glorious, The kingdom enjoyed such wealth and splendour that, according to The Lord of the Rings, "men said precious stones are pebbles in Gondor for children to play with".
Gondor began to decline during the reigns of Atanatar and his two sons, who lived in ease and luxury, doing little to maintain Gondor's strength. The first casualty of this period was the watch on Mordor, which was largely neglected. King Rómendacil II, who in his youth had been appointed as his uncle's regent, defeated a new invasion of the Easterlings in 1248 and strengthened friendly relations with the Northmen. His son Valacar was sent to their lands as an ambassador; while there, he married the daughter of one of their lords and returned to Gondor only after some years.
This marriage proved disastrous to Gondor: when it was affirmed that the heir to the throne would be Valacar's son Eldacar, who was of mixed blood, southern provinces of the realm began to rebel. After Valacar died, several members of the House of Anárion claimed the crown and a full-scale civil war, called the Kin-strife, broke out in 1432. The rebel with the largest following was Castamir, who besieged and captured Osgiliath. Eldacar managed to escape to his homeland in Rhovanion, but his elder son was captured and executed. Castamir proved a very poor ruler and earned the hatred of the inner provinces; consequently, Eldacar acquired a great following when he returned after several years with the Northmen allies, slew Castamir and defeated his army. Castamir's sons, however, retreated to Umbar and declared independence.
A century later the kings of Harad, freed by the Kin-strife and the subsequent loss of Umbar, invaded southern Gondor but were defeated by Hyarmendacil II after a decade of warfare. In 1631 descendants of Castamir organised a devastating raid on the haven of Pelargir, even killing King Minardil. The losses from the Kin-strife and southern wars had been somewhat replenished by the intermingling with the Northmen, but the population of Gondor seriously decreased again with the coming of the Great Plague in T.A. 1636. Many noble lines of Númenórean descent has already been destroyed in the Kin Strife, and the plague decimated the populations of Osgiliath and Minas Ithil. The capital was moved from Osgiliath to the less affected Minas Anor, and the watch on Mordor was abandoned, enabling evil creatures to begin to return. Fortunately the plague left Gondor's enemies in no better condition than the realm itself, and Gondor was therefore allowed over a century of respite from attack.
In 1810 King Telumehtar strengthened Gondor's navy which defeated the Corsairs of Umbar and retook the haven, but it was lost to the Haradrim following the next invasion of Gondor. A new threat appeared four decades later, when one of the Easterling peoples, called the Wainriders, defeated the Northmen and began to raid eastern Gondor. Although the first battles were lost to the invaders and Narmacil II was slain, the enemy was stemmed after half a century. The war broke out anew when the Wainriders joined together with the Haradrim in 1944, attacking respectively from the east and from the south. The Northern Army of Gondor, led by King Ondoher and joined by cavalry of the Éothéod, descendants of the Northmen, was defeated. Its survivors linked up with the victorious Southern Army commanded by a talented general Eärnil, and they destroyed the Wainriders in the Battle of the Camp once and for all.
Because of the deaths of Ondoher and both his sons in war, Gondor faced a constitutional crisis. Arvedui, heir of the King of Arthedain in the north, claimed the throne of Gondor as a descendant of Isildur and as the husband of Ondoher's daughter, but was denied by the Council of Gondor. For a year the realm was ruled by Pelendur, Steward to King Ondoher, and then the crown was given to the victorious general Eärnil, who came from the House of Anárion and had gained popularity during the war. His son Eärnur, however, became the last King. During his father's reign, he had led the forces of Gondor to the aid of Arthedain in the north and was offended there by the Witch-king of Angmar. Shortly afterwards, after a two-year siege the Ringwraiths captured Minas Ithil and took it as their abode; the city was renamed to Minas Morgul, the Tower of Sorcery and Minas Anor became Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard against the evil in the east. After Eärnur became King, the Witch-king twice sent messengers tempting him to single combat. At the second challenge in 2050, Eärnur was overcome by wrath and rode with a small company of knights to Minas Morgul, from which he never returned.
At the loss of childless Eärnur, the rule of Gondor was left to the Stewards, due to fears of a new civil war and the absence of a more or less legitimate Heir of Anárion with enough authority and support. By this time Arnor had been destroyed and the Line of Isildur had gone into hiding, so no more claims were expected. The early Stewards enjoyed four centuries of uneasy quiet, known as the Watchful Peace, during which Gondor slowly declined and Sauron's strength grew. In 2475 the Peace was broken with a large attack of Uruk-hai on the eastern borders, which, though beaten off, led to the inhabitants' migration from Ithilien and final desolation of Osgiliath. According to The Lord of the Rings, from this time onwards "there was never full peace again" in Gondor, and "its borders were under constant threat".
In T.A. 2510 the Kingdom faced a new serious peril: an Easterling tribe, named the Balchoth, invaded northern parts of the realm in force. Gondor's army marched to fight them, but was cut off from Minas Tirith and pushed back in the direction of the Limlight river. Messengers had already been sent to get help from the allied Éothéod in the north, and in the nick of time their cavalry arrived, turning the tide of the Battle of the Field of Celebrant. In gratitude for their aid, Steward Cirion ceded to them the depopulated province of Calenardhon, where the Éothéod established the realm of Rohan with Eorl the Young as their first king. A permanent alliance between Gondor and Rohan was established by the oaths of Eorl and Cirion.
The later Stewards had to contend with Orcs in Ithilien and with Corsairs of Umbar raiding the coasts. In 2758 Gondor faced another great invasion when five great fleets from Umbar and Harad ravaged the southern shores, and no help was expected from Rohan as the latter was assailed by the Dunlendings and Easterlings, further weakened by the Long Winter. The invasions were beaten off only in the following year, and help was then sent to Rohan.
Gondor recovered quickly from this war, although its fortunes continued to decline. In 2885 Ithilien was invaded from the south by a large force of Haradrim, which was only repelled with help from Rohan. Several decades later the region was evacuated due to increased Orc attacks and hidden refuges were built for the Rangers of Ithilien to continue to strike at the enemy. In 2954 Sauron officially declared himself in Mordor and Mount Doom burst into flame again. Before the end of the millennium the forces of Gondor, led by Aragorn under alias, attacked Umbar and destroyed the Corsair fleet, allowing Denethor II to devote all of his attention to the threat posed by Mordor.
War of the Ring and restoration 
By the arrival of the third millenium, Sauron had prepared for the final conquest, and in T.A. 3018 his forces attacked Osgiliath. The attack was stopped with the destruction of the last remaining bridge across the Anduin. The following year Minas Tirith faced the main assault from Mordor, combined with an invasion from the Corsairs of Umbar. Aragorn summoned the Dead Men of Dunharrow to destroy the forces from Umbar, freeing men from the south of Gondor to come to the aid of Minas Tirith. Gondor then defeated the army of Mordor with the aid of the Rohirrim in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, though with heavy losses. The combined army of the West then carried the battle to Sauron at the Battle of the Morannon, a feint to distract Sauron's attention from Frodo Baggins's quest to destroy the One Ring in Mount Doom, thus causing Sauron's fall and the allies' ultimate victory.
After the second and final defeat of Sauron, the Kingship was restored, with Aragorn crowned as King Elessar of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor. Faramir, heir of the Ruling Stewards, retained his office as Steward to the King and was named Prince of Ithilien. The oaths between Gondor and Rohan were renewed, and several joint campaigns were fought in the east and south; all former territories of the South-kingdom were won back during the following centuries, and its power and wealth were restored. It was foretold that Eldarion son of Elessar would rule a great realm, and that his line would endure for a hundred generations and rule many realms long after.
Tolkien's perception of further history of the kingdom is illustrated by The New Shadow, an experimental story that he abandoned, set during the reign of Eldarion. The author imagined that because of the "quick satiety with good" of Men, "the people of Gondor in times of peace, justice and prosperity, would become discontented and restless ... even so early there was an outcrop of revolutionary plots, about a centre of secret Satanistic religion; while Gondorian boys were playing at being Orcs and going round doing damage".
Names and etymology 
Tolkien intended the name Gondor to represent a sample of Sindarin, an Elven language devised by him, and within the books used by the Dúnedain for nomenclature. The word means "land of stone", and is echoed in the text of The Lord of the Rings by the name for Gondor among the Rohirrim, Stoningland. The implications of these names were not explained by the author, although his early writings suggest that this was a reference to the highly developed masonry of Gondorians in contrast to their rustic neighbours'. This view is supported by the Drúedain terms for Gondorians and Minas Tirith—Stonehouse-folk and Stone-city.
A reader once asked Tolkien whether the name Gondor had been inspired by the ancient Ethiopian citadel of Gondar. Tolkien replied that he was unaware of having heard the word before, and that the root Ond went back to an account he had read as a child mentioning ond ("stone") as one of only two words known of the pre-Celtic languages of Britain.
Gondor is often referred to in the books as the South-kingdom or Southern Realm, and together with Arnor as the Númenórean Realms in Exile. Researchers Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull have also proposed a Quenya translation of Gondor, Ondonórë.
The physical nature of Gondor is most prominently illustrated by the maps for The Lord of the Rings and Unfinished Tales made by Christopher Tolkien on the basis of his father's sketches, and can be supplemented by several geographical accounts such as The Rivers and Beacon-Hills of Gondor and Cirion and Eorl. In addition, the narrative and appendices of The Lord of the Rings describe the history and nature of particular regions and settlements in the kingdom.
Gondor was located in the west of the continent of Middle-earth, and the main part of its territory lay on the northern shores of the Bay of Belfalas and around the White Mountains. Tolkien noted that the capital Minas Tirith was situated on a latitude comparable to that of Venice, and the total area of Gondor as represented on Tolkien's maps was estimated by Karen Wynn Fonstad at 716,426 square miles (1,855,530 km2). To the north-west of the kingdom originally lay the realm of Arnor; to the north, Gondor was neighboured by the Wilderland and, after its settlement, by Rohan; to the north-east, by the land of Rhûn; to the east, by Sauron's realm of Mordor; to the south, by the deserts of Harad.
The original borders of Gondor were: rivers Gwathló and Glanduin up to the Misty Mountains; eaves of the Fangorn forest and river Entwash; marshes of Nindalf and the Mountains of Shadow; and river Poros. At the time of its noontide, the realm extended to river Limlight and south-eaves of Mirkwood; to the western shores of the inland Sea of Rhûn, north of Ered Lithui; and to river Harnen, also including the coastland around Umbar. By the beginning of the War of the Ring, the confines of land fully controlled by Gondor had retreated to the line of the White Mountains and the Mering Stream in the west; and the line of the river Anduin in the east.
- The easternmost province of Gondor, lying between the river Anduin and the Mountains of Shadow, subdivided by the stream of Morgulduin into North and South Ithilien. It was a fair and prosperous land during the first part of the Third Age, filled with many woods and gardens, but after the fall of Minas Ithil the population gradually migrated across the Anduin to escape the looming threat of the Ringwraiths' city. Ithilien was reoccupied by hardy folk during the Watchful Peace, but most of them fled with the beginning of attacks by Orcs and Haradrim several centuries later, and after the return of Sauron to Mordor the land was finally abandoned. From that time, Ithilien was kept free from Sauron's servants only by the Rangers, who maintained secret refuges such as Henneth Annûn.
- In the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, Frodo and Sam passed through North Ithilien on their way to Cirith Ungol. The land is described in the text as "a fair country of climbing woods and swift-falling streams", with gentle slopes, "shielded from the east by the Ephel Dúath and yet not under the mountain-shadow, protected from the north by the Emyn Muil, open to the southern airs and the moist winds from the Sea". It is also stated that "a wealth of sweet-smelling herbs and shrubs" and a vast array of tree species grew in Ithilien, some of them having been planted by men in days of peace, and that despite desolation the land "kept still a dishevelled dryad loveliness".
- During the Fourth Age, the region was ruled by the Princes of Ithilien, a line that started with Faramir and Éowyn. A colony was settled in Ithilien by the Elves of Mirkwood, welcomed there by Legolas, and "it became once again the fairest country in all the westlands", until after some time all Elves had departed over the Sea.
- A narrow strip of land consisting of the northern valleys of the White Mountains, bordered by the Mering Stream in the west, the Mouths of the Entwash in the north and Anduin in the east. Anórien is stated to have been well-populated, although no settlements appear in Tolkien's writings, except for the garrisons of the warning beacons, built along the line of the Great West Road. The name for the region among the Rohirrim is recorded as Sunlending, which echoes the derivation of the Sindarin original from Anor "Sun", in parallel to Ithil "Moon" in Ithilien.
- A vast region of plains and rolling hills north of the White Mountains and west of Anórien; the name translates from Sindarin as "green province". It never had a large population during the early Third Age due to its remote location, and the Great Plague left the province virtually deserted, with many people migrating eastward during the following centuries. Forts that were built along the line of Anduin from Emyn Muil to the inflow of Limlight to guard the passage of the river were originally manned by the people of Calenardhon, but were mostly abandoned during the Watchful Peace. In 2510 the Balchoth destroyed the forts and overran Calenardhon up to the White Mountains, and the army of Gondor was only saved by the coming of the Éothéod cavalry out of the north. In gratitude, Steward Cirion granted all Calenardhon to the Éothéod, and the region became the kingdom of Rohan.
- The wide land between rivers Isen and Greyflood, stated in different Tolkien's writings either to have been held by Gondor and Arnor jointly, to have been a part of the South-kingdom, or to have belonged to neither of them. Gondor maintained garrisons in the region to maintain the road and great bridge at Tharbad, but these were withdrawn in the aftermath of the great plague. No Númenórean population was present in Enedhwaith except for the town of Tharbad at the crossings of river Gwathló.
- The shoreline of Gondor between the rivers Lefnui and Morthond, south of the hills of Pinnath Gelin. The name means "long beach" in Sindarin, and is also translated in the texts as Langstrand. It was not densely populated, being distant from the capital and occasionally harassed by the Corsairs of Umbar; the regiments sent to Minas Tirith during the War of the Ring consisted of "men of many sorts, hunters and herdsmen and men of little villages, scantly equipped save for the household of Golasgil their lord".
- A fairly settled shoreland between the city of Dol Amroth and the island of Tolfalas, after which the great southern Bay of Belfalas was named. It was formed by a peninsula with highlands in the centre and the large town of Dol Amroth on the western shores. The element falas in the name of the region is a Sindarin word for "shore" or "beach", while bel was stated by Tolkien to derive from a pre-Númenórean name of Elvish origin.
- Literally, the "Land of the Prince", located in the south of Gondor; its boundaries are not stated, but Christopher Tolkien assumed that it spanned both sides of the highlands in Belfalas. The land was ruled by the Prince of Dol Amroth, subject to the King of Gondor, and was stated by Tolkien to have been populated by Númenóreans since the Second Age.
- Morthond Vale
- The uplands of the river Morthond or Blackroot, rendered to Sindarin as Imlad Morthond in some of Tolkien's texts and described in The Lord of the Rings as a prosperous and densely populated region, except in the vicinity of the Hill of Erech. The regiments sent from the Vale to Minas Tirith consisted of bowmen.
- A region formed by a series of valleys on the southern slopes of the White Mountains, separated from Belfalas by highlands; river Ciril sprang from this land. The only reinforcements from this region to Minas Tirith before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields were "a few grim hillmen without a captain", while the greater part of population under their lord Angbor defended the city of Linhir against the Corsairs. After they had been relieved by Aragorn, Angbor led some four thousand men to Pelargir and Minas Tirith. The name Lamedon was listed by Tolkien as Sindarin, but no etymology was provided.
- Ringló Vale
- The land around the northern course of the river Ringló, separated by outliers of the White Mountains from Lamedon in the west and Lebennin in the east. During the War of the Ring, three hundred men were led from this region to Minas Tirith by Dervorin, son of their lord. The name also appears in Sindarin form as Imlad Ringló.
- The central and one of the most populated regions of Gondor, bordered by river Anduin in the east and south and by the White Mountains in the north. Lebennin translates from Sindarin as "five waters", which is a reference to the Five Streams that flowed through it: Erui, Sirith, Celos, Serni and Gilrain. The rivers are stated to have fallen swiftly from the mountains, but in Legolas's song Lebennin appears as a region of "green fields" and grasslands with an abundance of flowers. In parts of Lebennin around the Mouths of Anduin lived a fairly numerous fisher-folk.
- A densely populated region of "flowering vales" just to the south of Minas Tirith, locked between the White Mountains and Anduin. The fief was expected to have sent around two thousand warriors to Minas Tirith before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, but because of the threat of the Corsairs of Umbar a far smaller number arrived; these are described in the text as "well-armed and bearing great battle-axes". The element arnach is stated to have been pre-Númenórean and thus of an unknown meaning, while loss was apparently intended to derive from an Elvish stem for "snow", since in early Tolkien's drafts the name appears as Glossarnach.
Natural features 
- A peninsula in the south-west of Gondor; the name translates from Sindarin as "long cape" and is also given an alternative in some of Tolkien's works, Ras Morthil with the meaning either "cape of dark sheen" or "cape of dark horn". Nominally part of Gondor, Andrast was not populated by the Númenóreans, but colonies of the Drúedain were believed to have survived in the mountains of the cape since the First Age, and the northern parts of the peninsula were known as Drúwaith Iaur.
- A hill near the sources of river Morthond, upon which Isildur set the Black Stone brought by him to Middle-earth from Númenor. Local tribes, descendants of the from the same ancient stock as the Haladin and the Dunlendings (so are distant kin of the Dúnedain), swore allegiance to Isildur on the Stone, but proved treacherous and were cursed by him, remaining as wraiths after their deaths and becoming known as the Dead Men of Dunharrow. The Hill of Erech was their trysting-place, and consequently the land around it remained unsettled, until after the Dead had been summoned to the Stone by Aragorn, fulfilled their oath and had been permitted by him to pass in peace. Erech is stated to be untranslatable as deriving from a language of pre-Númenórean inhabitants.
- A deep cleft on the southern side of the White Mountains, from which sprang the Morthond. Christopher Tolkien stated that the name, which means "black valley", was given to it "not only because of the two high mountains between which it lay, but because through it passed the road from the Gate of the Dead Men, and living men did not go there".
- Tarlang's Neck
- A narrow pass in the branch of the White Mountains that separated the Morthond Vale in the west from Lamedon in the east. The word tarlang means "stiff neck" in Sindarin, and was stated by Tolkien to have originally been the name of the mountain ridge, later interpreted by folk as a personal name.
- The "vales of Tumladen and Lossarnach" appear in The Lord of the Rings as the target of the southward road from Minas Tirith, before it reaches Lebennin. Nothing more is revealed of the former place, the name of which means "level vale" and is also used of the Vale of Gondolin from The Silmarillion.
- Drúadan Forest
- Pine-woods that covered outskirts of the White Mountains in east Anórien, south of the Great West Road. Its name, which is a partial translation of Sindarin Tawar-in-Drúedain, derives from the fact that the forest was populated by the Drúedain or the Wild Men, who survived here since the First Age and shunned the Númenóreans. The Forest was made by Aragorn after his crowning into an independent state under Gondor's protection.
- Stonewain Valley
- A long narrow cleft in the northern outskirts of the White Mountains, running east-west behind a ridge that connected the hills of Amon Dîn, Eilenach and Nardol and was covered by the Drúadan Forest. The floor of the valley was levelled by the Gondorians in their early days, and a wain-road was made to transport stone from quarries to Minas Tirith, but by the end of the Third Age it became neglected and overgrown. In the narrative of The Lord of the Rings, the westward target of the road appears as Min-Rimmon, but elsewhere it is stated that the valley ended at Nardol, where the quarries were located, and Christopher Tolkien showed that the former statement may be erroneous. The name of the valley is also given in Sindarin as Imrath Gondraich.
- An island in the Great Sea close to the Mouths of Anduin, locked between two capes in Belfalas and South Gondor. Its name is derived from Sindarin toll "island" and falas "shore". According to one of Tolkien's outlines, Tolfalas was originally a far greater island, but in the floods following the Downfall of Númenor it "was almost destroyed, and was left at last like a barren and lonely mountain in the water".
- Emyn Arnen
- A mass of hills at the centre of Ithilien, standing opposite to Minas Tirith across Anduin and around which the river made a bend. From this place originated the line of later Stewards of Gondor, and after the War of the Ring the Lordship of the hills was granted to Faramir, Prince of Ithilien and Steward to the King Elessar. The element arnen in the name was stated by Tolkien to have been of pre-Númenórean origin, while emyn is a Sindarin word for "hills".
- Cair Andros
- An island in the middle of the river Anduin, around 40 miles (64 km) north of Osgiliath. Its name means "ship of long-foam", given because "the isle was shaped like a great ship, with a high prow pointing north, against which the white foam of Anduin broke on sharp rocks". Cair Andros was one of the two major crossing sites of the great river Anduin, the other being the fords in Osgiliath further south. South of Osgiliath the river became too wide to cross, and north of Cair Andros the river turned into impassable marshlands where it was joined by the tributary river Entwash. Thus, Cair Andros was of vital strategic importance during the centuries of conflict with Mordor to the east. Cair Andros was used as a stronghold already at the time of the Kin-strife, and it was "fortified again" to defend Anórien after Ithilien fell to orcs of Mordor.
- The garrison at Cair Andros was maintained until the War of the Ring, but it was defeated and the isle overrun shortly before the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. Later Aragorn, on his march to the Black Gate, sent a small group of soldiers to retake the island. After the fall of Sauron, Cair Andros served as a transit point during the preparations for the feast at the Field of Cormallen.
- Henneth Annûn
- A hidden outpost in Northern Ithilien, founded by the command of Steward Túrin II shortly after T.A. 2901 and maintained the longest of such refuges. Hobbits Frodo and Sam were temporarily brought here by Faramir during the events of The Lord of the Rings. The name of the refuge, which means "window of the sunset" in Sindarin, is derived from the fact that it was formed by a cave behind a west-facing waterfall, the "Window-curtain", stated to have been the "fairest of the falls of Ithilien". The cave had been excavated by the stream that fed the cascade, which had since been diverted by the men of Gondor to fall from doubled height; the tunnel had been sealed, except for a concealed entrance along the brink of a deep pool beneath the waterfall.
- Emyn Muil
- Hills on the course of Anduin, equally distant from Mirkwood and the White Mountains. They were fortified by Gondorians to serve as their north-eastern defence, with the watchtowers built on the hills of Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw on opposite banks of the river, and the Gates of Argonath constructed at the northern entrance into the straits of Anduin as a warning to trespassers.
- The first capital of the kingdom, situated on the river Anduin. The city was heavily depopulated with the coming of the Great Plague and was finally abandoned after an attack of Uruks in T.A. 2475, remaining as an eastern outpost of Minas Tirith.
- Minas Anor (Minas Tirith)
- Originally a fortress built by Anárion at the eastern end of the White Mountains as a precaution from the hostile natives, later having become the summer residence of the Kings and finally the capital in 1640.
- Minas Ithil (Minas Morgul)
- A fortress founded by Isildur in a valley of the Mountains of Shadow to watch the pass into Mordor. It was captured by the Nazgûl in 2002 and remained the chief threat to Minas Tirith, until it was destroyed shortly after the final defeat of Sauron.
- Isengard (Angrenost)
- A fortress at the southern end of the Misty Mountains, built by the Gondorians in the Second Age and maintained throughout the Third by a separate garrison, until it was overrun by Dunlendings in 2710 and after half a century officially granted to Saruman.
- Aglarond (Hornburg)
- A stronghold built in the Second Age near the Glittering Caves in the west of the White Mountains, which was later ceded to the Rohirrim together with Calenardhon in 2510, its garrison merging with that of Isengard.
- Originally a haven on the southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas, ruled the Black Númenóreans. It was captured by Gondor in T.A. 933. The city was ruled by the Kings until 1448 when it fell under rebel control following the Kinstrife. In 1810 King Telumehtar Umbardacil recovered the city, but it was lost again sometime in the ensuing decline of Gondor. In the Fourth Age the city was recaptured by Gondor during the reign of King Elessar.
- An ancient haven of the Woodland Elves, located at the confluence of Morthond and Ringló. It persisted into the Third Age and was considered a part of Gondor, but by T.A. 1981 all Elves had departed over the Sea.
- Dol Amroth
- A castle and city on the western shores of Belfalas, named after Amroth of Lothlórien. The citizens of Dol Amroth were of high Númenórean blood and their Princes were rumoured to have an Elvish strain. Tolkien's writings are not consistent concerning the descent of the Princes or the founding of their line.
- The greatest port of Gondor, situated just above the delta of Anduin in Lebennin; its name means "garth of royal ships" in Sindarin. The city was founded in S.A. 2350, before the Downfall of Númenor, and became the main stronghold in Middle-earth of the Elf-friends. According to an outline, during the floods following the drowning of Númenor "the Bay of Belfalas was much filled at the east and south, so that Pelargir which had been only a few miles from the sea was left far inland".
- The ancient haven was "repaired" by King Eärnil I, and it became the main naval base during the Ship-kings' conquests. During the Kin-strife, Castamir the Usurper planned to make Pelargir the capital, and after his defeat his sons and followers retreated to this town and withstood a siege for a year, before fleeting to Umbar. Two centuries later their descendants made a raid up Anduin, ravaging Pelargir and killing King Minardil; from that time, the city was under constant threat from Umbar and Harad. It was refortified by Steward Ecthelion II, but during the War of the Ring Pelargir was overrun by the Corsairs of Umbar, who fled at the coming of the Dead Men of Dunharrow led by Aragorn.
- Quays on Anduin adjacent to Minas Tirith, built on the small space between the river and the southern parts of the Pelennor Wall; the name translates as "south harbour". At this place Aragorn and the men of Lebennin disembarked from the Corsair ships during the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
- A town and port in Lebennin, situated at the ford near the confluence of the rivers Gilrain and Serni, not far from their estuary into the Sea. During the War of the Ring, Linhir was defended by men of both Lebennin and Lamedon against the Haradrim and the Corsairs of Umbar, who retreated at the approaching of the Dead Men of Dunharrow.
The earliest inhabitants of the future Gondor territory were the Drúedain, who lived in the vales of the White Mountains and lands adjacent. Later they were harried and mostly ousted by new people coming from the east; these were allied to Sauron and unrelated to the Edain. The coastlands remained unsettled until the beginning of colonisation by the Númenóreans, who either mixed blood with the natives or dispersed them if hostile. The original language of the settlers, Adûnaic, was heavily influenced by local speech and ultimately resulted in Westron, becoming used, at least for intercourse, by the majority of peoples in the west of Middle-earth.
The exiles of Númenor that arrived in Middle-earth were far fewer in number than the local folk of mixed descent, and this remained the case throughout the history of Gondor. The greatest cities were populated by men of more or less "high blood", by the end of the Third Age remaining in the townlands of Minas Tirith and Dol Amroth, while the inhabitants of southern provinces are stated to have been shorter and swarthier. The nobles at first spoke solely the Grey-elven Sindarin, following a custom of the Faithful of Númenor, but with the passing of years they gradually switched to the rustic Westron, so that "at the time of the War of the Ring the Elven-tongue was known to only a small part of the peoples of Gondor, and spoken daily by fewer".
Except in the matter of language, Tolkien described few characteristic features of Gondorian culture. His writings only present highly developed masonry, sea- and smith-craft, and mention the customs of looking "west in a moment of silence" before meals and of saluting "with bowed head and hands upon the breast". An essay that was prepared as one of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings but became compressed contains a reference to currency of the South-kingdom: "In Gondor [Westron word] tharni was used for a silver coin, the fourth part of the castar (in [Sindarin] the canath or fourth part of the mirian)."
The Appendices to The Lord of the Rings describe that the head of the state of Gondor was the King. The post passed solely by the male line from the time of Meneldil, to the eldest surviving son of the late king if there was any, and the heir usually "took part in the councils of the realm and the command of the armies". A King was accustomed to command the forces of Gondor in major battles, in which case one of his legitimate heirs would remain behind for preservation of the line and act as a regent.
The office of the Stewards, in Quenya Arandur "king's servant", was established by Rómendacil I as a precaution against loss of royal traditions and knowledge. A Steward was chosen by the King "as a man of high trust and wisdom, usually advanced in years since he was not permitted to go to war or to leave the realm". Over time the post rose in importance, "providing as it were a permanent 'under-study' to the King, and an immediate viceroy at need", and since the days of Tarondor the choice was always made from the family of his Steward Húrin. Another highly authoritative position appeared when King Narmacil I granted to his nephew Minalcar "the new office and title of Carma-cundo "Helm-guardian", that is in terms of Gondor Crown-lieutenant or Regent. Thereafter he was virtually king, though he acted in the names of Narmacil and Calmacil, save in the matters of war and defence over which he had complete authority".
After the loss of King Eärnur, his steward Mardil continued to rule Gondor in his name, since Eärnur's death was not affirmed, and Mardil's descendants held to this practice. The Ruling Stewards wielded the authority of the Kings, but never presumed to take the title for themselves: each succeeding Steward swore an oath to yield the rule of the realm back to the King, if he should ever return, although with the passing of centuries the oath became more a formality. The office had become hereditary already with Mardil's grandfather, and thereafter passed to the eldest son if there was any; otherwise, the heir was selected among the near kin by the Council of Gondor. The latter body consisted, at least at the time of the War of the Ring, of the captains of armed forces, was headed by the Steward, and is recorded to have debated whether to risk retaking Osgiliath or not. The Council's duties and powers are not elaborated further, but it is also credited with rejecting Arvedui's claim after the death of Ondoher and should possibly be equated with "the elders" that sent Boromir to Rivendell.
Local government in Gondor is depicted as being similar to feudalism. Minas Tirith and its immediate hinterland were governed directly by the Steward, who was also styled Lord of the City. Many of Gondor's regions had their own lords, who owed allegiance to the Steward, including Lossarnach, Lamedon, the Anfalas, Pinnath Gelin, and the Ringló and Morthond valleys. A special position within the South-kingdom belonged to the Prince of Dol Amroth, who ruled over a land in Belfalas but was subject to the king; according to one of Tolkien's statements, the title was granted to the first Prince by Elendil because of their kinship. Later, the Prince would become an acting Steward, if the Steward was absent or incapacitated. An equal authority was later given by Aragorn to Faramir, who became the Prince of Ithilien. Of other Gondor posts, in Tolkien's writings appear "ministers of the Crown concerned with 'intelligence'" who surveyed the palantíri (see below); Captain of the Hosts, borne by future King Falastur during the reign of his father; and Captain of Gondor and Captain-General of Gondor applied to Faramir and Boromir respectively, with the former title also given to Eärnur when he commanded the Gondor army in Arthedain prior to his crowning.
Heraldry and heirlooms 
The royal standard of Gondor was an image of a white tree in blossom upon sable field, surrounded by seven five-rayed stars and surmounted by a winged crown. This combined references to several symbols of the realm: the White Tree was a unique plant brought by Isildur from Númenor, first planted in Minas Ithil and later three times replanted from seed at Minas Anor; the Crown of Gondor was in the beginning Isildur's war-helmet and later the main symbol of monarchy in the South-kingdom, with wings of a sea-bird being an emblem of the exiled Númenóreans; and the stars "originally represented the single stars on the banners of each of seven ships [out of nine in which Elendil and his sons sailed to Middle-earth] that bore a palantír". The palantíri were "seeing-stones" of Elendil, four of which were placed in strongholds of Gondor: Osgiliath, Minas Anor, Minas Ithil and Isengard—and were used by Kings or their servants for surveillance of the lands and communication both within the realm and with Arnor.
The Ruling Stewards revered the royal ceremonials and withheld from using most of them, retaining the Kings' throne empty and using "a white rod with a golden knob" as the only token of their lordship. An heirloom of their line was the Horn of Gondor, made by Vorondil the Hunter and borne by the elder son of an acting Steward. During the epoch of the Ruling Stewards, the banner at the top of Minas Tirith was replaced by a plain white flag, although the armour of the Tower Guard of Gondor still bore devices of tree, crown and stars. The Stewards however did maintain the tradition of taking their heirs to the hallowed tomb of Elendil at Halifirien, and just like Kings they were embalmed after death and laid in the Houses of the Dead at the Silent Street behind Minas Tirith.
The seal of the stewards consisted of the three letters: R.ND.R (standing for arandur, king's servant), surmounted by three stars.
Warning Beacons of Gondor 
The warning beacons of Gondor were an alarm system for the realm of Gondor. Situated on top of several hills on both sides of the White Mountains, the beacons were great fireplaces permanently manned by men of Gondor. Built by the Stewards of Gondor, the beacons linked their capital Minas Tirith with the westernmost provinces of Gondor (and Rohan), thus enabling either to quickly alert the other.
In The Lord of the Rings, only the northern beacons are mentioned as they are lit. There were seven Beacon-hills between Minas Tirith and the border of Rohan, spanning a distance of about 150 miles. The seven, from east to west, were Amon Din, Eilenach, Nardol, Erelas, Min-Rimmon, Calenhad, and Halifirien.
The system of seven Beacon-hills was established after Rohan was founded in 2510 as a means of communication between the allied realms of Rohan and Gondor. Signals could be sent either direction: Gondor could signal Rohan, and Rohan could signal Gondor. Wood and fuel were maintained upon each hill by the Beacon-wardens. On the night of March 7–8, 3019, during the War of the Ring, the Steward Denethor decided to signal Rohan through the northern beacons, probably upon learning of the fleet of Corsairs preparing to attack Minas Tirith from the south.
Concept and creation 
Tolkien's original thoughts about the later ages of Middle-earth are outlined in his first sketches for the legend of Númenor made in mid-1930s, and already contain conceptions resembling that of Gondor. It is described that the fugitives from the island "became lords and kings of Men" in the west of Middle-earth and soon under the leadership of one Elendil "of Númenórean race" finally overthrew Sauron; a special attention is paid to the exiles' "great tombs" for the dead and to the diminishing of their lifespan.
Development of early history 
The ideas were concretized at an early stage during the writing of The Lord of the Rings, beginning with a clearer image of the defeat of Sauron and of the acquisition of the One Ring by "Isildor" son of Elendil, and followed by the slow development of the Númenórean heritage. First to be introduced were their northern descendants—the "Rangers", and the southern people appeared when Tolkien pondered in 1939 over the course of the narrative following the Council of Elrond. As he later recalled, Tolkien thought about "adventures" that the Company would meet on their way to Mordor and considered employing "Stone-Men" as one of them; other preserved notes mention a "city of stone and civilized men", its siege and a "Land of Ond". The name was based upon an already existing stem of Elvish languages, (g)ond with the meaning 'stone'.
A new character was immediately introduced: Boromir, a messenger at the Council of Elrond and son of the "King of Ond", whose realm is "besieged by wild men out of the East". Contemporary outlines propose that the main characters would participate in the final battle for the kingdom, already seen as a major climax of story. Another connection between the narrative and the background was achieved with the final solution of the identity of "Trotter": he became Aragorn, "a real ranger" and a descendant of Elendil.
By the time Tolkien began rewriting "The Council of Elrond" a year later, he had developed a story that Aragorn's ancestors were in past Kings in Boromir's hometown. The citizens were already then conceived as inferior to the Númenóreans, and although at war with Sauron, they were stated to have driven out the heirs of Elendil in a rebellion raised by the Witch-king; these settled in the north and nearly dwindled. At the same time a conception emerged that Elendil had several sons—Ilmandur, Isildur and Anárion—and that the descendants of only one of them survived the war with Sauron.
Ilmandur was discarded at once, but the fate of others remained fluid for some time; Christopher Tolkien assumed that at first it was the son of Isildur that should have inherited the kingship, but was refused the entry into his city due to Sauron's machinations and went to the north. This was replaced by the story that the Land of Ond was ruled by the descendants of Anárion until their failing, while Isildur's son remained at Rivendell and after the death of his father established another realm in the north. Later Tolkien decided that the northern kingdom was founded at the same time with "Ondor", as the southern realm was now renamed, and proposed Elendil and his brother Valandil as respective founders, before settling on the final conception of the co-reigning of Isildur and Anárion.
Development of geography 
The three greatest cities of the Land of Ond were introduced together with the sons of Elendil during the rewriting of "The Council of Elrond" chapter, and originally corresponded to each of them: Osgiliath to Ilmandur, Minas Anor to Anárion, Minas Ithil to Isildur; after the rejection of Ilmandur, Osgiliath temporarily became Elendil's hometown, until the emergence of the final story. The ultimate fate of the cities—loss of Minas Ithil and abandonment of Osgiliath—was present from the start, as well as the later names Minas Tirith and Minas Morgol [sic]. Around the same time Tolkien's ideas about the location of the Land of Ond first received written form. The role of anchors was played by the Great River of the Wilderland from The Hobbit, which now was stated to pass through Osgiliath, by Mordor just to the east of Minas Ithil, by the "land of the Horse-lords" conceived of some time before and now neighbouring Ond, and by the "Black Mountains", precursors of the White.
Next element to be introduced was the "Land of Seven Streams"; Tolkien was hesitant for some time about its relation to other places, writing at different times that it was located north or south of Black Mountains, within the Land of Ond or separate from it. First to be conceived of were the rivers Greyflood or the "seventh river", Isen, and Silverlode, the last one soon changed to Blackroot—but without any reference to the sources of such a name. The three of them appear roughly at their final places on the original Tolkien's working map of the southern lands, as well as all locations mentioned above, the approximate line of coast, including Tolfalas, and the forerunner of Dol Amroth, apparently brought about with the development of the legend of Nimrodel while writing the "Lothlórien" chapter.
The need for a clearer image of the southern lands arose when Tolkien came to plan the narrative after the halt at Lothlórien. Further development of geography was compared by Christopher Tolkien to his father's notes on the creation process: "I wisely started with a map, and made the story fit". A new redrawing of the map of "Ondor" advances on the layout of the mountains and rivers and introduces new locations: Ithilien; Anarion [sic], which combines later Anórien and Lossarnach; "Belfalas (Langstrand)", in place of later Anfalas; rivers Ringló and Harnen; and controversial "Lebennin (Land of Seven Streams)", extending in the west to the later Morthond and covering either seven or five rivers, depending on its eastern border. Umbar and "Harondor (S. Gondor)" also first appeared on this map, while the land to the north of the Black Mountains was developed in the context of Rohan and of Emyn Muil.
A change in the perception of the eastern confines of Gondor was brought about with the development in 1944 of Frodo's journey to Mordor. At first Tolkien decided to move Minas Morgul northward, in order to combine its functions with the two towers that guarded the only passage into the Land of Shadow, but almost immediately he restored the older conception and introduced a secret pass above Minas Morgul. A new turn in the narrative—extension of Frodo's journey southwards—led to elaboration of Ithilien, which was "proving a lovely land" to Tolkien's surprise. At the same time he decided to rename the Black Mountains into White, possibly to contrast them from the Mountains of Shadow, and introduced the refuge of Henneth Annûn, at first trying out several experimental names such as Henneth, Henlo or Henuil for "window" combined with Nargalad "fiery light", Carandûn "red west" or Malthen "golden".
Later that year Tolkien began the chapters dealing with central Gondor, and in his sketches first appear the beacons of Anórien, "immense concentric walls" of Minas Tirith, the idea that Aragorn would come to Minas Tirith passing south of the White Mountains, and the towns of Erech and Pelargir. This led in 1946 to meticulous development of the geography of southern Gondor. While working upon the "Homeric catalogue", as he called it, of the reinforcements coming to Minas Tirith, Tolkien devised the names Lossarnach, Anfalas, Lamedon and Pinnath Gelin, all of which appear on a new version of the map in final locations with the exception of Lamedon, first placed in northern Lebennin and later moved westward. The rivers acquired final courses and names, except Gilrain, then called Lamedui; Celos, which flowed into Lamedui instead of Sirith; and Calenhir, a tributary of Morthond discarded later. The gulf into which flowed Ringló and Morthond was designated as "Cobas Haven", a name afterwards lost.
Final changes in the geography were caused by the intensification of the scene of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields: the distance between Osgiliath and Minas Tirith was reduced by four times; the northern regions became guarded by "Tol Varad (the Defended Isle)", later renamed Men Falros "place of foam-spray" and then Cair Andros; the inhabitants of the newly introduced Drúadan Forest enabled the Rohirrim to pass freely to Minas Tirith; and the hills of Emyn Arnen (originally Haramon "southern hill") justified creating a bend in Anduin so that the revelation of Aragorn and his reinforcements occurred closer to the battlefield, at the quays of Harlond (at first Lonnath-ernin "Arnen-havens").
Geography of southern Gondor was developed concurrently, in outlines for the story of Aragorn's march to Pelargir, and the distances between the cities and their exact locations were calculated with high precision to accord with the narrative chronology. Erech became temporarily viewed as the landing-place of Isildur and was consequently moved from the sources of Morthond, first in between the mouths of Anduin and Lamedui, then to north-west of the Cobas Haven, and finally returned to its original site with the abandonment of this idea. Other places were introduced one by one: Linhir (first placed at the confluence of Ringló and Morthond), Tarnost, Tarlang's Neck, and Calembel (originally Caerost).
Extension of the Third Age 
Christopher Tolkien gathered that originally his father imagined only two or three centuries between the first fall of Sauron and the War of the Ring, foreseeing no complicated events to have happened during this time. With the progress of the narrative during 1941–2 to the breaking of the Fellowship and the war in Rohan, particular aspects in the history and culture of the South-kingdom were introduced one by one: alliance with the Rohirrim and ceding a province to them, in gratitude for their help in the first war with Sauron; the White Tree and the winged crown, at first just as vague images in Aragorn's song; the spelling Gondor; and the Palantíri, with Hornburg and Isengard made into former Gondor fortresses and sites of two out of five Stones in the South-kingdom. At a later point, the fifth palantír was imagined to have been at Erech, before being discarded overall.
When the narrative passed into Ithilien, Tolkien introduced the Rangers of that land, with Faramir, brother of Boromir, as their captain. In speeches of this new character many of the author's conceptions about the history of Gondor either emerged for the first time or were only now set to paper: Boromir's horn was perceived to have been unique, "reasons of decline of Gondor" and its ethnic diversity textually elaborated, the Stewards first referred to, and the surrender of the "fields of Elenarda" to the Rohirrim was postponed to the epoch of the Stewardship and temporarily became regarded not as a gift from Gondor but as an enforcement by the Horse-lords. Most elements of the South-kingdom culture were introduced during the writing of Book V, such as ceremonials of retaining Kings' throne empty by the Stewards and burying the rulers behind Minas Tirith, as well as the royal banner of the Kings, originally described as "crown and stars of Sun and Moon".
The notion that the Third Age lasted "about 3000 years" was first written down when Tolkien began to sketch out the history of Númenor and Westlands. Further on, he departed from the date of the foundation of the Realms in Exile, calculated at 3320 of the Second Age on the basis of average reigns of the Kings in Númenor; from the duration of the time of peace before the war of the Last Alliance, approximated at 100 years; and from the date of the failing of the Kings in Gondor, proposed as T.A. "c.2000". Original drafts for the account of the rulers of South-kingdom are not preserved, and in the earliest extant manuscript, ascribed by Christopher Tolkien to 1949–50, many events of the final history are already present. The rest entered in early revisions, namely the constant conflicts with Umbar; the attacks of the Wainriders, which replaced original wars with the Ringwraiths; the Battle of the Field of Celebrant and the gift of Cirion; and the Long Winter. The depopulation of Osgiliath was first placed some 200 years later, the fall of Minas Ithil was moved back and forth in time, and the last king Eärnur was originally stated to have never returned from a war against Mordor, with the Witch-king challenging him "to fight for the palantír of Ithil" when this element first entered.
The appendices to The Lord of the Rings were brought to a finished state in 1953–54, but a decade later, during preparations for the release of the Second Edition, Tolkien elaborated the events that had led to the Kin-strife and introduced the regency of Rómendacil II. The final development of the history and geographical nature of Gondor took place around 1970, in the last years of Tolkien's life, when he invented justifications for the place-names and wrote full narratives for the stories of Isildur's death and of the battles with the Wainriders and the Balchoth (published in Unfinished Tales).
It has been noted that Tolkien drew heavily on the general history of the Goths, Langobards and the Byzantine Empire and their mutual struggle. Even historical names from these peoples have been used in drafts or the final concept of the internal history of Gondor, such as Vidumavi, wife of king Valacar (Gothic language).
The Byzantine Empire and Gondor were both only echoes of older states (the Roman Empire and the unified kingdom of Elendil), yet each proved to be stronger than their sister-kingdoms (the Western Roman Empire and Arnor, respectively). Both realms were threatened by powerful eastern and southern enemies: the Byzantines by the Persians and the Muslim armies of the Arabs and the Turks, Langobards and Goths; Gondor by the Easterlings, the Haradrim, and the hordes of Sauron. Both realms were in decline at the time of a final, all-out siege from the East; however, Minas Tirith survived the siege whereas Constantinople did not. In a 1951 letter, Tolkien himself wrote about "the Byzantine City of Minas Tirith."
Gondor as it appeared during in Peter Jackson's film adaptation of The Lord of the Rings has also been compared to the Byzantine Empire, for numerous reasons. The production team noted this in DVD commentary, explaining their decision to include some Byzantine domes into Minas Tirith architecture and to have civilians wear Byzantine-styled clothing. The soldiers garrisoned in Minas Tirith are based heavily on the Byzantine infantry used up until the end of the First Crusade.
One main difference from the books can be seen in the heraldry of Gondor. In the books, the flag of Gondor under the Stewards was a plain white banner without device. In the movies, the flag of Gondor is the royal standard with the colors reversed (black tree, seven black stars, and a black crown on a white field). The banners carried by Gondorian cavalry and infantry are black pennants, with the White Tree and three white stars.
The geography of Jackson's Gondor differs significantly from the books. In the movie, Aragorn could see Pelargir from the exit to the Paths of the Dead, and Minas Tirith is much closer to Osgiliath. The land seems largely brown and uncultivated, while the books describe Gondor as fertile farming land with many houses and towns across the Pelennor and the area south of the White Mountains.
The warning beacons are not lit until Gandalf and Pippin arrive in Minas Tirith; they take matters into their own hands and light the first beacon themselves. The director's commentary questions the credibility of the remote beacons being continuously manned.
See also 
- Return of the King, Appendix B, pp. 362–376
- Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", pp. 290–304
- Return of the King, Appendix A, I (iv), pp. 323–336
- Unfinished Tales, "Disaster of the Gladden Fields"
- Peoples, "The Heirs of Elendil", pp. 197–206, 211–220
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (i)
- Return of the King, Appendix A, II, pp. 343–4, 347, 350
- Peoples, "The Tale of Years of the Third Age", p. 245; 225–6
- Carpenter 1981, nos. 256, 338
- Return of the King, Appendix F, "Of Men", p. 405
- Etymologies, entries GOND-, NDOR-
- Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields", p. 124–5
- Return of the Shadow, "New Uncertainties and New Projections", pp. 379–381
- Return of the King, "The Ride of the Rohirrim", p. 104–8
- Carpenter 1981, no. 324
- Hammond & Scull 2005, "The Great River", p. 347
- Fonstad, Karen Wynn (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 191, ISBN 0-618-12699-6
- Peoples, "Of Dwarves and Men", p. 312–6 and notes 66, 76.
- Unfinished Tales, "History of Galadriel and Celeborn", Appendices C and D
- Return of the King, "Minas Tirith", pp. 22, 24–7, 36, 38, 41, 43
- Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", p. 258; 265–6
- Return of the King, Appendix A, III, p. 360
- Return of the King, "The Field of Cormallen", p. 232–5
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (iii)
- Return of the King, Index, entries Sunlending, Pinnath Gelin, Star
- Unfinished Tales, Index, entries Calenardhon, Andrast, Morthond, Stonewain Valley
- Unfinished Tales, "The Palantíri"
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (ii)
- Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen", Appendix (ii)
- Etymologies, entries ÁNAD-, PHÁLAS-, TOL2-
- cf. the map of The Lord of the Rings
- Unfinished Tales, "History of Galadriel and Celeborn": "Amroth and Nimrodel"
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", notes 14, 39, 49, 51, 53
- War of the Ring, "Minas Tirith", pp. 276, 287–294
- Return of the King, "The Passing of the Grey Company", pp. 55, 62–3
- Return of the King, "The Last Debate", pp. 150–3, 157
- Return of the King, map of Gondor
- Etymologies, entries LEP-, NEN-
- Etymologies, entry GOLÓS-
- Unfinished Tales, map of the West of Middle-earth
- Treason, "The First Map", pp. 295–323
- Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis", note 6; Etymologies, entries MOR-, THIL-, TIL-
- Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
- Etymologies, entries MOR-, NAD-
- Etymologies, entries TÁRAG-, LANK-
- Lobdell, Jared, ed. (1985), A Tolkien Compass, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings", p. 193
- Etymologies, entries TUB-, LAT-
- Return of the King, "The Houses of Healing", pp. 130–2, "The Steward and the King", p. 244; 247
- Fauskanger, Helge Kåre. "Sindarin - the Noble Tongue". Ardalambion. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- Return of the King, "Many Partings", p. 254
- War of the Ring, "The Ride of the Rohirrim", pp. 343–352
- Peoples, "The Tale of Years of the Second Age", pp. 183; 166–7; 177
- Etymologies, entries AM2-, KHYAR-, LOD-
- Two Towers, "The Window on the West", pp. 288–9; 291; 280
- Silmarillion, Appendix, entry mal-
- Tolkien does not date this loss of Umbar, writing: "But in the new evils which soon befell Gondor Umbar was again lost" (Appendix A, p401).
- Silmarillion, Index, entry Pelargir
- Etymologies, entries KAL-, PEL(ES)-
- War of the Ring, "The Second Map", pp. 433–9
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1992), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Sauron Defeated, Boston, New York, & London: Houghton Mifflin, "The Story of Frodo and Sam in Mordor", pp. 15–7, ISBN 0-395-60649-7
- Peoples, "The Appendix on Languages", p. 45
- Peoples, "The Making of Appendix A", pp. 258–261. Letter c in names is used for original k.
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl", (iv)
- Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor", pp. 89–90, 100
- Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl, p. 313, note 25.
- Lost Road, "The Fall of Númenor", pp. 8–12, 16–18, 28–29
- Return of the Shadow, "Ancient History", pp. 260–1, 270–1
- Return of the Shadow, "The Third Phase (2)", pp. 331–2
- Return of the Shadow, "In the House of Elrond", pp. 398, 410–1; "The Mines of Moria", p. 462
- Treason, "Gandalf's Delay", pp. 8–10
- Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 116, 119–122
- Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 121, 126–9
- Lost Road, "The Fall of Númenor", pp. 33–34; Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 122–4. These texts were written later than the "fourth version" of "The Council of Elrond", where the form "Ond" is still used, and before the relevant passage in the "fifth", where river Lhûn is present from the start.
- Treason, "The Council of Elrond (2)", pp. 144–7
- Return of the Shadow, "The Ring Goes South", p. 434–440
- Treason, "The Lord of Moria", pp. 177, 187
- Treason, "The Council of Elrond (1)", p. 132; "Farewell to Lórien", pp. 272, 282
- Treason, "Lothlórien", p. 223 ff.
- Carpenter 1981, no. 144
- War of the Ring, "Book Five Begun and Abandoned", pp. 231, 243, 262, 265, 268–270
- War of the Ring, "The Passage of the Marshes", pp. 106, 113
- Carpenter 1981, no. 64
- War of the Ring, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", pp. 135–7
- War of the Ring, "Faramir", pp. 146–164
- Etymologies, entries NAR1-, KAL-, KARÁN-, NDŪ-, SMAL-
- War of the Ring, "The Siege of Gondor", p. 326
- Etymologies, entries MEN-, PHAL-, ROS1-
- War of the Ring, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields", pp. 370–2
- War of the Ring, "The Last Debate", pp. 397–9, 411, 419
- Treason, "The Great River", p. 361–2; "The King of the Golden Hall", pp. 442–4, 450
- Treason, "The Story Foreseen from Lórien", p. 330, "The Story Foreseen from Fangorn", p. 437; War of the Ring, "Helm's Deep", p. 21
- Treason, "The Riders of Rohan", pp. 395–6
- Treason, "Notes on Various Topics", p. 423
- War of the Ring, "The Palantír", pp. 64–77
- War of the Ring, "The Story Foreseen from Forannest", pp. 359, 363
- Peoples, "Late Writings", p. 293
- Librán-Moreno, Miryam (2011). "'Byzantium, New Rome!' Goths, Langobards and Byzantium in The Lord of the Rings". In Fisher, Jason. Tolkien and the Study of his Sources. MacFarland & Co. pp. 84–116. ISBN 978-0-7864-6482-1.
- Hammond & Scull 2005, p. 570
- Puig, Claudia (24 February 2004). "With third film, 'Rings' saga becomes a classic". USA Today. Retrieved 29 December 2011. "In the third installment, for example, Minas Tirith, a seven-tiered city of kings, looks European, Byzantine and fantastical at the same time."
- The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (special extended DVD ed.). December 2004.
- Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
- Hammond, Wayne G.; Scull, Christina (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-720907-X
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1987), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Lost Road and Other Writings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Etymologies, pp. 341–400, ISBN 0-395-45519-7
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1988), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Return of the Shadow, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-49863-5
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1989), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Treason of Isengard, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-51562-9
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1990), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-56008-X
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
Further reading 
- Ford, Judy Ann. "The White City: The Lord of the Rings as an Early Medieval Myth of the Restoration of the Roman Empire". Tolkien Studies 2 (2005): 53–73.
- Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif (2006). "Gondor". In Drout, Michael D. C.. J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge. pp. 248–249. ISBN 0-415-96942-5.
- Straubhaar, Sandra Ballif. "Myth, Late Roman History and Multiculturalism in Tolkien's Middle-earth". In Tolkien and the Invention of Myth: A Reader (2004): 101–18.
- at the
- Gondor at Thain's Book
- A History and Complete Chronology of Númenor—A detailed chronology of Númenor, its successor states and their rulers.