Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
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|Colleges of the University of Cambridge
Gonville and Caius College
|Founders||Edmund Gonville (1348)
John Caius (1557)
|Established||1348, refounded 1557|
|Previously named||Gonville Hall (1348–1351)
Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1351–1557)
|Master||Sir Alan Fersht|
|Sister college||Brasenose College, Oxford|
|Location||Trinity Street (map)|
|Student Union website|
|Boat Club website|
Gonville and Caius College, often referred to simply as "Caius" // (pronounced "keys"), is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at the University of Cambridge and one of the wealthiest. The college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including thirteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college (after Trinity College, Cambridge).
The college has long historical associations with medical teaching, especially due to its alumni physicians: John Caius (who gave the college the caduceus in its insignia) and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include Francis Crick (joint discoverer, along with James Watson, of the structure of DNA), Sir James Chadwick (discoverer of the neutron) and Sir Howard Florey (developer of penicillin). Stephen Hawking, previously Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, is a current fellow of the college. The college also maintains world-class academic programmes in many other disciplines, including economics, English literature and history.
Gonville and Caius is said to own or have rights to much of the land in Cambridge. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years later, he left a struggling institution with almost no money. The executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to the land close to the college he had just founded, Trinity Hall, and renamed it The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, endowing it with its first buildings.
By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, and in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville and Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573. He provided the college with significant funds and greatly extended the buildings.
During his time as Master, Caius accepted no payment but insisted on several unusual rules. He insisted that the college admit no scholar who “is deformed, dumb, blind, lame, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, that is sick in a serious measure”. Caius also built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, however, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day.
By 1630, the college had expanded greatly, having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since then the college has grown considerably and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university.
The college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 100 fellows, over 700 students and about 200 staff.
The first buildings to be erected on the college’s current site date from 1353 when Bishop Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall (used until recently as a library) and Master’s Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Ramsey, Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge which has been in continuous use as such.
On the refoundation by Dr Caius, the college was expanded and updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, and Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court. He was also responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility (near the Porters' Lodge). In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly. And finally, graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees. The students of Gonville and Caius commonly refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which also gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity.
The buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, and the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913.
St Michael's and St Mary's Courts lie across Trinity Street on land surrounding St Michael's Church. St Michael's Court was completed only in the 1930s, with the building on its south side of a new building overlooking the Market Place.
Students and fellows are accommodated in all of the courts on the college's main site.
Caius also has one of the largest and most architecturally impressive libraries in Oxbridge, housed in the Cockerell Building. Previously the Seeley History Library and the Squire Law Library, Caius acquired the lease on the Cockerell Building in the 1990s. The college library was relocated from Gonville Court in the summer of 1996, following an extensive renovation of the Cockerell Building.
Caius owns a substantial amount of land between West Road and Selwyn Avenue. Set in landscaped gardens, the modern Harvey Court (named after William Harvey and designed by Sir Leslie Martin) was built on the West Road site in 1961.
Adjacent to Harvey Court is the Stephen Hawking Building, which opened its doors to first-year undergraduates in October 2006. Providing en-suite accommodation for 75 students and eight fellows, as well as providing conference facilities in the vacations, the Stephen Hawking Building boasts some of the highest-standard student accommodation in Cambridge.
The college also owns several residential properties around Cambridge, many of which are used to house undergraduate and postgraduate students.
Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts. It is so named because John Caius planted an avenue of trees there. Although none of the original trees survive, the court retains a number of trees and the tree-lined avenue, which is unusual for a Cambridge front court.
Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library (Cockerell Building), is only used for special occasions such as graduation.
Gonville and Caius College is one of the most traditional colleges of Cambridge. It is one of the few which still seeks to insist that its members attend communal dinners, known as "Hall". Consisting of a three-course meal, Hall takes place in two sittings, with the second known as "Formal Hall", which must be attended wearing gowns. At Formal Hall, the students rise as the fellows proceed in, a gong is rung, and a Latin grace or benediction is read.
The grace runs thus: "Benedic, Domine, nobis et donis tuis quae ex largitate tua sumus sumpturi; et concede ut, ab iis salubriter enutriti, tibi debitum obsequium praestare valeamus, per Jesum Christum dominum nostrum; mensae caelestis nos participes facias, Rex aeternae gloriae."
As at most Oxbridge colleges, it is tradition that only the fellows may walk on the grass.
The college also enforces the system of "exeats", or official permission to leave the college. If a student wishes to be absent from college overnight during term time he or she must obtain permission from their tutors to leave the college.
The college awards a number of scholarships, bursaries and prizes. Of these, the Schuldham Plate is the most prestigious and is awarded annually to the best graduating student(s) in a given year.
Nobel Prize laureates
- 1932 Sir Charles Sherrington – neurophysiologist (student and fellow)
- 1935 Sir James Chadwick – physicist, discoverer of the neutron (student, fellow, and master)
- 1945 The Baron Florey – co-developer of penicillin (fellow)
- 1954 Max Born – physicist
- 1962 Francis Crick – discovery of the structure of DNA (PhD student and honorary fellow)
- 1972 Sir John Hicks – economist (fellow)
- 1974 Antony Hewish – astronomer (student and fellow)
- 1976 Milton Friedman – economist (visiting fellow)
- 1977 Sir Nevill Mott – theoretical physicist (fellow and Master)
- 1984 Sir Richard Stone – economist
- 2001 Joseph Stiglitz – economist (fellow)
- 2008 Roger Tsien – chemist (fellow)
- 2013 Michael Levitt - chemist (Research Fellow)
Main listing: Category:Alumni of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
- Harold Abrahams – Olympic athlete men's 100-metre gold medalist, portrayed in the film Chariots of Fire.
- Harold Ackroyd – recipient of the Victoria Cross for his actions in the Battle of Passchendaele.
- Jerome Alexander- High Court judge in Ireland (died 1670), noted for the exceptional severity of his sentences.
- Alistair Appleton – TV presenter.
- Andrew Baddeley – middle distance runner.
- Simon Russell Beale – actor, TV presenter and music historian.
- Homi J. Bhabha – Indian nuclear physicist and father of India's nuclear programme.
- Esmond Birnie – former member of the Northern Ireland Assembly.
- Francis Blomefield – historian of Norfolk.
- Max Born – Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
- Alain de Botton – popular philosophy writer.
- John Brereton – chronicler of the first European voyage to New England, 1602.
- Lord Broers – vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, 1996–2003.
- Christopher N. L. Brooke – Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 1997–94. Now a Life Fellow of the College.
- John Lindow Calderwood – lawyer and politician.
- Alastair Campbell – aide to British Prime Minister Tony Blair.
- Jimmy Carr – comedian and television presenter.
- Robert Carr – former British Member of Parliament and Home Secretary.
- Helen Castor – historian and television presenter.
- Kenneth Clarke – British Member of Parliament, Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice and former Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- John Horton Conway – mathematician.
- The Baron Cooke of Thorndon – New Zealand's only judge to have sat in the House of Lords.
- Ronald Cove-Smith - Captain of England rugby team and the 1924 Lions team
- Chris Davies – Liberal Democrat MEP.
- Mark Damazer – controller of BBC Radio 4.
- Carolyn Fairbairn – media executive.
- Henry Fancourt – naval aviator.
- David J. Farrar – aeronautical engineer.
- Orlando Figes – historian.
- Paola Doimi de Frankopan – Croatian aristocrat and wife of Lord Nicholas Windsor.
- The Baron Fraser of Carmyllie – politician.
- John Hookham Frere – diplomat and author.
- David Frost – broadcaster.
- Richard Geaves – international footballer.
- Sir Harold Gillies – “the father of plastic surgery”.
- The Baron Goldsmith – Attorney General of England and Wales, 2001–2007.
- Andrew Gowers – journalist.
- George Green – mathematician.
- Christopher Green – Regius professor of Physic 1700–1741.
- Sir Thomas Gresham – founder of the Royal Exchange.
- Anthony Habgood - chairman of Reed Elsevier and Whitbread.
- Sir Percy Wyn-Harris – mountaineer, adventurer and one-time Governor of The Gambia.
- William Harvey – medical pioneer.
- Harish-Chandra – mathematician.
- Christopher Helm – publisher.
- Bill Inman – pharmacovigilance pioneer.
- Harold James – historian.
- Chandrashekhar Khare – mathematician.
- John F. Lehman – American Secretary of the Navy and member of the September 11th Commission.
- Thomas Lynch, Jr. – signatory, United States Declaration of Independence.
- John William Scott Macfie - entomologist.
- Iain Macleod – former Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- Inagaki Manjiro – Japan’s first Minister Resident in Siam in 1897.
- Stephen Mangan – actor.
- Gordon Manley – climatologist.
- Stephen Marchant – ornithologist.
- Bevan Morris – president of Maharishi University of Management.
- Sir Douglas Myers – businessman and philanthropist.
- Jon Newman – author and archivist.
- Geoff Nicholson – novelist.
- Michael Joseph Oakeshott – philosopher.
- Titus Oates – Popish plotter, “17th century’s worst Briton”.
- Richard Overy – historian.
- G. H. Pember – theologian.
- Gideon Rachman – journalist.
- Andrew Roberts – historian.
- Sir Basil Schonland – physicist and academic.
- Simon Sebag Montefiore – historian.
- Thomas Shadwell – playwright, Poet Laureate.
- Howard Somervell – surgeon, mountaineer and missionary.
- Quentin Stafford-Fraser – computer scientist, and inventor of the webcam.
- A. C. Spearing, author, professor of English medieval literature.
- Norman Stone – historian.
- Sir Richard Stone – Nobel Prize-winning economist.
- Sir Dorabji Tata – Indian industrialist and philanthropist.
- Jeremy Taylor – author and clergyman.
- Lars Tharp – historian and broadcaster.
- Richard Tomlinson – former British MI6 Officer.
- Adair Turner – businessman.
- Keith Vaz - UK Politician
- John Venn – logician, inventor of the Venn diagram.
- Edward Adrian Wilson – explorer who died with Robert Falcon Scott in the Antarctic.
- Vivian Wineman – President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews.
- William Wilkins – architect.
Notable fellows and masters
- See also List of Masters of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and Category:Fellows of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
- Edward Hall Alderson – mathematician, classicist, lawyer and, as Baron Alderson, judge (student and fellow)
- Lord Bauer – economist (student and fellow)
- Roger Carpenter – neurophysiologist (fellow)
- Sir James Chadwick – Nobel Prize-winning physicist, discoverer of the neutron (student, fellow, and Master).
- John Colton – Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Archbishop of Armagh (Master).
- Francis Crick – co-Nobel Prize winner for the co-discovery of the structure of DNA (PhD student and honorary fellow).
- Rabbi Jonathan Sacks – Chief Rabbi of British Commonwealth (fellow).
- Sir Alan Fersht – chemist and Fellow of the Royal Society (student, fellow, and Master).
- Thomas Fink, physicist and author (fellow).
- Sir Ronald Fisher – statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist (student, fellow, and President).
- Sir Howard Florey – Nobel Prize-winning inventor of penicillin (fellow).
- James Fox - art historian and broadcaster (fellow).
- Milton Friedman – Nobel Prize-winning economist (visiting fellow).
- Francis Glisson – physician, and one of the founders of the Royal Society (fellow).
- John Hartstonge – Bishop of Derry ( fellow).
- Stephen Hawking – theoretical physicist and former Lucasian Professor (fellow).
- Antony Hewish – Nobel Prize-winning astronomer (student and fellow).
- Sir John Hicks – Nobel Prize-winning economist (fellow).
- Edmund Hickeringill – churchman (fellow)
- Robin Holloway – composer (fellow).
- Thijs van Leer – organist.
- William Lubbock – divine
- Sir Nevill Mott – Nobel Prize-winning theoretical physicist (fellow and Master).
- M. M. Pattison Muir – chemist (fellow).
- Joseph Needham – sinologist (student, fellow, and Master).
- Stephen Perse – founder of The Perse School in 1615.
- J. H. Prynne – British poet (student and fellow).
- Tun Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim – Chief Justice of Malaysia (student and fellow).
- Sir John Seeley – Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge (fellow)
- D.R. Shackleton Bailey – classicist (student and fellow).
- Sir Charles Sherrington – Nobel Prize-winning neurophysiologist (student and fellow).
- Quentin Skinner – Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge (student and fellow)
- Joseph Stiglitz – Nobel Prize-winning economist (fellow).
- John Venn – inventor of the Venn diagram and historian of the College (student, fellow, and President).
- Peter Tranchell – composer (fellow)
- Sir William Wade – English academic lawyer (student and Master).
- Charles Wood – composer (fellow).
- Edward Wright – English mathematician and cartographer who first explained the mathematical basis for the Mercator projection (student and fellow).
Notable organ scholars
- Heathcote Dicken Statham (1908–1911)
- "College History - Caius College Cambridge". Gonville & Caius College. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "College Research - Caius College Cambridge". Gonville & Caius College. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Nobel Prize Winners - Research - University of Cambridge". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- see Brooke's History, p. 69–70, where it is suggested that 'Wallicum' is a scribal error for 'Gallicum'
- "Gonville and Caius Library Tour". Retrieved 2009-07-14.[dead link]
- "What is a Cambridge College?". The Collegiate Way: Residential Colleges & the Renewal of University Life. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- "College Regulations and General Information". Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge. 2008–2009. pp. ix.
- "College Regulations and General Information". Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge. 2008–2009. pp. iv.
- "Prizes & awards". Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge.
- Brooke, C. A history of Gonville and Caius College. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell, 1985 (corrected reprint, 1996). ISBN 0-85115-423-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.|
- Gonville and Caius College website (the official college website)
- Gonville and Caius Students Union Website (the undergraduate student social organisation for the college)
- Gonville and Caius MCR Website (the graduate student social organisation for the college)