Good Old Cause
Their struggle was against King Charles I and the Royalists during the English Civil War; and they continued to support the English Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660. Oliver Cromwell spoke, in a letter to Sir William Spring in 1643, of the archetypal "plain, russet-coated captain that knows what he fights for, and loves what he knows" as being the ideal of republican soldiery. Many of those who supported the Good Old Cause were also Independents who advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters.
Those who disagreed with expedient political compromises made during the period of the Commonwealth, went back to the Army's own declarations during the wars, to republican pamphlets like those produced by John Lilburne, Marchamont Needham and John Milton. In the disappointment of the moment, they imagined that there had been a moment of revolutionary purity when all these writers had agreed on something intrinsically republican and good — this entity, shifting as the sands depending upon the writer, was often labelled the "Good Old Cause".
After the death of Oliver Cromwell the phrase came into use gradually, passing to and fro in documents and speeches. By April 1659 and for months afterwards it was frequently heard on general discourse and every second or third pamphlet in the booksellers' shops had "The Good Old Cause" on its title-page or running through its text.
The phrase was open to interpretation, but in 1659 to its exponents it meant the pure Republican constitution which had been founded on the Regicide and which lasted until Cromwell's dissolution of the Rump Parliament on the 20th April, 1653. It proclaimed that Cromwell's interim dictatorship and Protectorate had been an interruption of the natural course of things, dexterously leaving it an open question whether that interruption had been necessary or justifiable, but calling on all men, now that Cromwell was dead and his effectiveness gone with him, to regard his rule as exceptional and extraordinary, and to revert to the old Commonwealth.
In April 1660 General John Lambert tried to raise an army against the restoration of The Crown in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was arrested before arriving at the old battlefield and gathering enough forces to threaten General George Monck, the power behind the restoration movement. In October the same year Daniel Axtell, the officer who had commanded the guard during the Trial of Charles I, went to his execution unrepentant declaring that "If I had a thousand lives, I could lay them all down for the [Good Old] Cause".[a] Similarly, Algernon Sidney, before his execution for allegedly being involved in the Rye House Plot in 1683, thanked God for allowing him to die "for that [Good] Old Cause in which I was from my youth engaged".
The "Good Old Cause" became, in the hands of radicals in the 18th and 19th centuries, one of the main supports to agitation within England by linking their cause to the cause of the English Civil War radicals. This memory was sustained by the publication of various tracts about the civil war across the 18th Century — Edmund Ludlow's Memoirs in 1701 by John Toland for instance that sought to radicalise the memory of the English Civil War.
Work on the republican imagination includes Jonathan Scott on Algernon Sydney and seventeenth-century republicanism, Nigel Smith on the radical John Streater, and Blair Worden on the memory of the Civil Wars.
- When asked what he meant by the Cause, Axtell replied "I mean that Cause which we were encouraged to, and engaged in under the parliament, which was for common right and freedom, and against the Surplice and Common-Prayer Book: and I tell you, that Surplice and Common-Prayer Book shall not stand long in England, for it is - not of God" (Howell & Cobbett 1816, p. 1259)
- Masson 1871, p. 444–445.
- Masson 1871, p. 445.
- Jones 2011, pp. 360–361.
- Thomson 2008 citing State trials, 5.1289
- Sidney 2006, Speech.
- Barbour 2004, § "K. Edmund Ludlow (c. 1617–1692)", cites A. B. Worden's A Voyce from the Watch Tower: Part Five: 1660–1662 (1978): "Worden elaborates on 'two claims made in 1978': 'that the reviser of the manuscript is likely to have been the deist and republican John Toland; and that the Memoirs were prepared, and need to be read, with an eye to the political circumstances of the later sixteen-nineties.'"
- Barbour 2004, § "H. Algernon Sidney (1622–1683)", cites Jonathan Scott’ Algernon Sidney and the English Republic, 1623–1677 (1988): "Scott shows that 'Sidney not only produced a powerful and influential revolution ideology, but did so with insights which mark a crucial development between the sixteenth-century skepticism of Machiavelli, and the eighteenth-century idea of progress.'"
- Barbour 2004, § "T. John Streater (fl. 1642–1687)", cites Nigel Smith, Literature and Revolution in England, 1640–1660 (1994): "Smith… defines Streater's pamphleteering critique of Cromwellian autocracy as 'an example of an indigenous classical republicanism.'"
- Barbour 2004, § "B. Critical Studies", mentions several works which Blair Worden contributed to. In other he notes that Wotton has written about Algernon Sidney (in The Commonwealth Kidney of Algernon Sidney, JBS 24 (1985), 1–40) and about Edmund Ludlow (in Whig History and Puritan Politics: The Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow Revisited, Historical Research 75 (2002), 209–37).
- Barbour, Reid (November 2004), "Recent Studies in Seventeenth-Century Literary Republicanism]", English Literary Renaissance 34 (3): 387–417
- Jones, Nigel (2011), Tower, Random House, pp. 360–361, ISBN 9781409038399
- Howell, Thomas Jones; Cobbett, William (1816), A complete collection of state trials and proceedings for high treason and other crimes and misdemeanors from the earliest period to the year 1783 5, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green, p. 1259
- Sidney, Algernon (25 October 2006) , Colonel Sidney's Speech Delivered to the sheriff on the scaffold December 7th 1683, Department of History, University of Wisconsin
- Thomson, Alan (January 2008) . "Axtell, Daniel (bap. 1622, d. 1660)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/928. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Masson, David (1871), The Life of John Milton (1654–1660) 5, p. 445
- To the Parliament, the Army, and all the Well-affected in the Nation, who have been faithful to the Good Old Cause (1659)
- Woolrych, A. H. (1957), "The Good Old Cause and the Fall of the Protectorate", Cambridge Historical Journal 13 (2): 133–61
- Ballad: The Downfall Of The Good Old Cause — an anti-commonwealth song written between 1678 and 1694
- Robinson, Ronald H. (1996), Historical dictionary of Stuart England, 1603-1689, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 121, ISBN 978-0-313-28391-8 definition of Commonwealthmen who espoused the Good Old Cause (described on pp. 211–212).