Gopinath Kaviraj

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Gopinath Kaviraj
Gopinath Kaviraj.jpg
Born 7 September 1887 (1887-09-07)
Dhamrai, Dhaka district, British India
Died 12 June 1976 (1976-06-13) (aged 88)
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Occupation Principal Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi (1923–1937), Sanskrit scholar, philosopher

Gopinath Kaviraj (महामहोपाध्याय श्री गोपीनाथ कविराज) (7 September 1887 – 12 June 1976) was a Sanskrit-Tantra scholar, Indologist and philosopher. Starting as a librarian in 1914, he later remained Principal of Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi from 1923 to 1937. He also remained the editors of Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala (Sarasvati Bhavana Texts) during this period.

In 1964, he received the Sahitya Akademi Award, given by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, for his research treatise on Tantra, Tantrik Vangmaya Men Shaktadrishti. In the same years he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian honour given by Government of India. Then in 1971, he was conferred the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, the highest literary honour awarded by the Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters.

Early life and education[edit]

Kaviraj was the posthumous son of Vaikunthanath, a Bengali scholar of philosophy. He was born in village Dhamrai, in the present Dhaka District, capital of Bangladesh. After receiving his early education at Dhamrai and Kanthalia villages, he joined the K. L. Jubilee High School, Dhaka in seventh class, and studied here till tenth class.[1] His family name was Bagchi and Kaviraj was an honorific attached to him.

In 1906, he moved to Jaipur, where after four years, he Bachelor of Arts degree from Maharaja College, Jaipur, then associated with from the University of Allahabad.[1] Here he studied with scholars Madhusudan Ojha, Shasdhar Tarkchudamani and others.[citation needed] In 1910, he shifted Devnathpura, Varanasi, and started his postgraduate studies, passing the M.A. from the University of Allahabad in 1914, with first merit position in the first class.[1]

Career[edit]

The final phase of his education started at Varanasi under the guidance of Arthur Venis, who appointed him as a librarian of the Sarasvati Bhavan Library of the Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi, where he worked from 1914 to 1920.[1] This period, allowed him to pursue research in Tantra. It was at Varanasi that Kaviraj was exposed to various facets of ancient Tantric philosophy. In 1918 when he met Paramhansa Swami Vishuddhananda, a yogi in Kashi who demonstrated Yogic powers and was thought to have revealed "Gyanganj" to Kaviraj.[citation needed]

In 1924, he became principal of Govt. Sanskrit College, later Sampurnanand Sanskrit University in Varanasi. He was the Chief Editor of Sarasvati Bhavana Texts, Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala, however being more interested in research and his personal spiritual path, he retired from this position in 1937, after the death of his guru Swami Vishuddhananda. In the following years, the pursued both his sadhana and scholarly research in Tantra. He also started looking after his Guru's ashram in Varanasi. He was fond of Kashi (Varanasi) and never left it except to accept his Padma Vibhushan. In his later years, along with the scholar Sri Anirvan, he devoted himself to the study of Kashmir Shaivism. In his later years he became an ardent devotee of mystic Anandmayi Ma, who he first met in 1928.[1]

In 1934, he was awarded the title of Mahamahopadhyaya in recognition of his service Sanskrit scholarship.[1]

Later in life, he remained Head of newly established Yoga-Tantra Department at the Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya in Varanasi from 1964 to 1969. However, due to failing health, he left it and shifted to Ma Anandamayi Ashram, Bhadaini locality.[2]

Personal life[edit]

He was married in 1900 to Kusum Kumari, belonging to a family of Sanskrit scholars of East Bengal.The couple had two children, son Jitendranath and a daughter Sudha. He died on 12 June 1976 at his home in Sigra locality in Varanasi, survived by his daughter, and grandchildren.[1]

Book Authored[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sri Sri Vishuddhanand Prasanga - An account of the life and mysterious activities of his Spiritual Guru Visuddhananda Paramhansa. It also reveals many Secrets of Tantra and Yoga, and refers to Gyanganj
  • Tantric Sadhana
  • Bharatiya Sadhanar Dhara
  • Sri Krishna Prasanga
  • Mrityubijnan O Karmorahasya
  • Tripurarahasyam
  • Goraksasiddhantasamgrahah
  • Sahityachinta
  • Siddhabhoomi Gyanganj - in Bengali. A translated Version in Hindi was published in India by Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan
  • Kaviraj, Gopi Nath; Calcutta, University of (1981). Life & philosophy of Mahamahopadhyaya Gopinath Kaviraj: papers presented at the seminar. University of Calcutta. 
  • Manishi ki Lokyatra(in Hindi)- Bhagavati Prasad Singh. 3rd ed.1987, published from Vishvavidyalaya Prakashan Varanasi (ISBN 9788171245543).

Awards[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Sri Sri Anandamayi Ma's Devotees". Anandamayi Ma. Retrieved 2014-09-26. 
  2. ^ Acharya Baldev Upadhyaya, Kashi ki Panditya Parampara, Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan, Varanasi, 1983.
  3. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2013)". Ministry of Home Affairs. 
  4. ^ "Sahitya Akademi Fellowship". Official listings, Sahitya Akademi website. p. 2. Retrieved 2014-09-26.