Goran Hadžić

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Goran Hadžić
Горан Хаџић
Goran Hadžić.jpg
Hadžić at his initial appearance before the ICTY
2nd President of Republic of Serbian Krajina[1]
In office
1992–1994
Prime Minister Zdravko Zečević
Preceded by Milan Babić
Succeeded by Milan Martić
Prime Minister of Srem-Baranja District[2]
In office
1991 – 26 February 1992
Preceded by Veljko Džakula
Presidents of the Coordinating Committee of Srem-Baranja District[2]
In office
1996 – 15 January 1998
Preceded by Slavko Dokmanović
Personal details
Born (1958-09-07) 7 September 1958 (age 55)
Vinkovci, PR Croatia, Yugoslavia
Nationality Serb
Political party Serb Democratic Party
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Religion Serbian Orthodox

Goran Hadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Горан Хаџић, pronounced [ɡǒran xǎd͡ʒiːt͡ɕ]; born 7 September 1958) is a former president of the Republic of Serbian Krajina who was in office during the Croatian War of Independence. He is accused of crimes against humanity and of violation of the laws and customs of war by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

He was indicted on fourteen counts. The charges include criminal involvement in the "deportation or forcible transfer of tens of thousands of Croat and other non-Serb civilians" from Croatian territory between June 1991 and December 1993, including 20,000 from Vukovar; the forced labour of detainees; the "extermination or murder of hundreds of Croat and other non-Serb civilians" in ten Croatian towns and villages including Vukovar; and the "torture, beatings and killings of detainees", including 264 victims seized from Vukovar Hospital.[3][4]

The Tribunal's last remaining fugitive,[5] Hadžić was captured by Serbian authorities on 20 July 2011.[6]

Early life[edit]

Hadžić was born in the village of Pačetin, at the time in SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia; and in his youth was politically active as a member of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Prior to the Croatian War of Independence, Hadžić worked as a warehouseman. He was president of the local community of Pačetin. In the Spring of 1990, as a representative of the League of Communists Party for Democratic Changes, he was elected to the Municipal Committee of Vukovar.[3]

On 10 June 1990 he joined the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS) and was elected president of the party's branch in Vukovar. In March 1991 he was president of the Municipal Committee of Vukovar, a member of the Main Committee and Executive Committee of the Serb Democratic Party in Knin, and president of the Regional Committee of the Serb Democratic Party for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia. Before 25 June 1991, he was a leader of the Serbian National Council and of the Serbian Democratic Forum, which covered Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.[3]

Croatian War[edit]

Goran Hadžić in 1992

Hadžić was involved in the Plitvice Lakes incident in late March 1991, beginning the Croatian War of Independence.[7] On 25 June 1991, a group of eastern Slavonian Serbs organized a congress (Velika narodna skupština Slavonije Baranje i Zapadnog Srema) where they decided to constitute a "Serb Autonomous Oblast" (SAO) of the region, the SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia, and also to separate the region from the Republic of Croatia, which was still part of Yugoslavia. Hadžić was elected as a candidate to lead the entity's government.[3]

On 26 February 1992 the two Slavonian SAOs formally joined the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK), while the Assembly of the RSK replaced Milan Babić with Hadžić as the new Premier of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Babić was deposed because he argued against the Vance peace plan, unlike Milošević. Hadžić was reported to have boasted that he was "a messenger for Slobodan Milošević". He held the leadership position until December 1994.[citation needed]

In September 1993, when Croatia started Operation Medak Pocket, Hadžić sent an urgent request to Belgrade for reinforcements, arms and equipment. The request was ignored by the Serbian officials, although some 4,000 paramilitaries under the command of Arkan (Serb Volunteer Guard), arrived, to bolster the RSK army. In February 1994, Hadžić's presidency ended when Milan Martić was elected President. In 1995, he threatened to have the eastern Slavonian district secede from Krajina because of plans to unite Krajina with Republika Srpska.[8]

After Operation Storm in August 1995, parts of RSK in eastern Slavonia remained outside the Croatian government's control. Between 1996 and 1997, Hadžić was President of the Srem-Baranja district, after which the region was peacefully reintegrated into Croatia under the provisions of the Erdut Agreement. Hadžić subsequently moved to Serbia in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 2000, he attended the funeral of indicted war criminal Željko Ražnatović-Arkan in Belgrade, calling him a "big hero".[9]

Croatian war crimes charges[edit]

Hadžić was prosecuted and tried in absentia in Croatia on two counts: in 1995 he was convicted for rocket attacks on Šibenik and Vodice, and sentenced to 20 years in prison; in 1999 he was convicted for war crimes in Tenja, near Osijek, and sentenced to an additional 20 years imprisonment.[10] In 2001, Interpol put him on its Most Wanted Fugitives list and issued a Red corner notice.[11]

In 2002, Croatia's state attorney brought another indictment against Hadžić, the so-called Vukovar Three (Veselin Šljivančanin, Mile Mrkšić and Miroslav Radić) and the Yugoslav People's Army's senior commanders, alleging the murder of almost 1,300 Croats in Vukovar, Osijek, Vinkovci, Županja and elsewhere.[10]

ICTY charges[edit]

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia indicted Hadžić for war crimes on 4 June 2004.[12]

Hadžić faced 14 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity for his alleged involvement in the forcible removal and murder of thousands of Croatian civilians from the Republic of Croatia between 1991–93. His indictment specifically cites the 1991 Vukovar massacre of 250 mostly Croats, from the Vukovar hospital; the Dalj, Erdut and Lovas massacres; involvement in Stajićevo, Begejci and Sremska Mitrovica camps; and the alleged wanton destruction of homes and religious and cultural buildings in Dalj, Erdut, Lovas, Tovarnik and Vukovar.[3]

In the weeks before his arrest, Hadžić disappeared from his home in Novi Sad, Serbia. In 2005, Serbian media reported he might be hiding in a Serbian Orthodox monastery in Irig or in Bijela, Montenegro.[13] Nenad Čanak, the leader of the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina, claimed in 2006 that Hadžić was hiding in a monastery somewhere on Fruška mountain.[14] At one point he was also rumoured to be hiding in Belarus.

In October 2007, the Serbian government council for national security had offered €250,000 for information leading to Hadžić's arrest.[15] In 2010, the Rewards for Justice Program was offering an award of up to $5 million USD for information leading to Hadžić's arrest.[16]

In 2010, Serbia raised the reward for Hadžić's arrest to $1.4 million USD.[17] When asked by the press whether Hadžić's trial could be transferred from the ICTY, Croatian Serb politician Milorad Pupovac indicated that Serbia should try Hadžić.[18]

Serbian police raided Hadžić's home on 9 October 2009 and impounded some of his belongings but did not make any statements following the operation.[19]

In 2010, the Council of the European Union blocked Hadžić's family from entering the EU.[20] After the arrest and extradition of the penultimate war-crimes fugitive, Ratko Mladić, the European Union continued to insist on the arrest and extradition of Hadžić[21] to the Hague to face trial. And stated that his fugitive status was holding back Serbia's membership in that body[22]

Arrest[edit]

On 20 July 2011, Serbian President Boris Tadić announced that Hadžić had been arrested by Serbian authorities.[6] He added that the arrest closes a "difficult chapter" in Serb history.[23]

Police located him near the village of Krušedol on the slopes of Fruška Gora at 8:24 pm,[24] where he was presumed to have been since he went into hiding following the ICTY indictment.[25]

A stolen Modigliani painting led investigators to discover his whereabouts. Looking to cash in on the portrait, Hadzic was tracked down by authorities after trying to sell it.[26][27]

At the time of his arrest he was the last remaining fugitive indicted by the ICTY.[21] He was taken into custody in the Fruška Gora, and had his extradition hearing in Belgrade before a Special Court, which found that all of the prerequisites for extradition to the Hague had been met.[28] He did not appeal his extradition.[29]

Reaction

With the arrest, one of the obstacles to Serbia's entry into the EU was removed,[22][30] and the country thus, according to the New York Times, "completed its obligations to the United Nations tribunal".[31] EU leaders[32] congratulated Serbia for his arrest and called it a signal of Serbia's commitment to "a better European future."[25] The Netherlands' Foreign Minister Uri Rosenthal said of the arrest that "it is of course another good step that has been taken. After Mladic was arrested, we said to the Serbs: now it is really down to you making that last step and catching Hadzic [to further EU succession]. And that has now happened. That involves human rights, tackling corruption and fraud, getting the economy in order and not least, co-operation with the Yugoslavia tribunal. That last point is really happening."[33]

Extradition

On 22 July, Justice Minister Snežana Malović announced that he had been extradited to the Hague in a small Cessna plane after being allowed visits by his sick mother,[34] wife, son and sister[35] in a convoy of jeeps and police cars that left the detention unit of the Serbian war crimes court in the morning and headed first to Novi Sad and then to Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport.[34] He arrived at Rotterdam airport after he refused to appeal his extradition orders.[35] The Croatian government then also directed its Chief Public Prosecutor's Office and the Ministry of Justice to "take all the necessary steps" and try and bring Hadžić to a war crimes trial in the country to also face other "serious crimes" they claimed that were committed in Croatia. The government of Croatia was said to have wanted to ensure that Hadžić serve the two prison sentences previously ordered in absentia by Croatian courts.[36]

Trial[edit]

Hadžić's initial arraignment before the ICTY was on 25 July and lasted 15 minutes. He declined to enter a plea to charges arising from the war in Croatia. His duty counsel Vladimir Petrovic said Hadžić would not "enter a plea today. He is going to avail himself of the rights granted to him..."[37]

Hadžić pleaded not guilty at his second appearance before the tribunal on 24 August. The prosecutors announced they would call 141 witnesses, seven of them experts whose reports would be submitted later. Also announced was testimony from eighty-two fact witnesses, twenty of whom would give evidence in court. Transcripts of testimonials from the remaining sixty-two would be submitted into evidence, and the defense would have the opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses later.[38] The prosecutors received a total of 185 hours to examine the witnesses and experts-in-chief.[39] The trial began on 16 October 2012. The prosecution completed its case in November 2013, and in February 2014 the tribunal rejected Hadžić's mid-trial motion for acquittal. Hadžić had argued that the prosecutor had produced insufficient evidence to convict. Hadžić was then required to put on his defense.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Croatia". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Srem-Baranja District (Eastern Slavonia)". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Goran Hadzic – Indictment". The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 24 May 2004. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  4. ^ Uhićen Goran Hadžić! at Dnevnik.hr (Croatian)
  5. ^ McElroy, Damien (26 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrested: Goran Hadzic last remaining major figure at large". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "The Associated Press: Serbia arrests last Balkan war crimes fugitive". Google. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  7. ^ Tim Judah (2001). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. pp. 175–76, 244. 
  8. ^ "A Letter of Secession". Vreme News Digest Agency No 192. 5 June 1995. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  9. ^ Erlanger, Steven (21 January 2000). "Warlord, Now a Serbian Patriot, Is Buried". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "Hadžić ne može biti izručen Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty – Croatian edition. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  11. ^ "Wanted HADZIC, Goran 2001/19862". Interpol.int. 2001. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  12. ^ "War crimes fugitive: Goran Hadzic". Setimes.com. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "Goran Hadzic Still Evades Justice". Setimes.com. 13 July 2004. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  14. ^ "Hadžić Hiding in Monasteries". Belgrade: B92.net. 25 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. 
  15. ^ "Nitko neće dobiti milijun eura nagrade za informaciju o Goranu Hadžiću" (in Croatian). Index.hr. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  16. ^ "Wanted: Goran Hadzic, Up to $5 million Reward". Rewardsforjustice.net. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  17. ^ "Serbia offers $1.4m for Mladic". English.aljazeera.net. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "HHO President: Hadzic Should Be Tried in Croatia". Javno.com. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "Police search Goran Hadzic's home". Setimes.com. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  20. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2010/145/CFSP". Official Journal of the European Union. 8 March 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  21. ^ a b McElroy, Damien (26 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrested: Goran Hadzic last remaining major figure at large". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  22. ^ a b "Serbia's last war crimes fugitive arrested". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. 
  23. ^ Serbia: Hadzic’s arrest closes 'difficult chapter' of Serb history – Adnkronos Politics. Adnkronos.com. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  24. ^ Štefančić, Suzana Lepan and Bradarić, Branimir (21 July 2011). "Hadžić je imao dvije ljubavnice i dvoje izvanbračne djece (Hadzic had two mistresses and two illegitimate children)". Večernji list (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "Serbia holds Croatia war crimes suspect Goran Hadzic". BBC News. 13 July 2004. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  26. ^ Vladimir Vukcevic, the Serbian chief prosecutor for war crimes, is quoted as saying "The strategic breakthrough in detaining Goran Hadzic came after an attempt to sell a Modigliani painting. We came to the conclusion that [Hadzic] had run out of money and we started to follow that contact and to track communications related to that painting." Solash, Richard (22 July 2011). "Goran Hadzic's Modern Art Mystery". Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. 
  27. ^ McElroy, Damien (20 July 2011). "War crimes suspect Goran Hadzic finally captured after investigation into stolen Modigliani painting". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. 
  28. ^ "Hadžić surađivao sa tajnim službama, pa i hrvatskima?" [Hadžić cooperated with secret services, including Croatian ones?] (in Croatian). Nacional (weekly). 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. 
  29. ^ Hadžić's attorney said: "Goran Hadžić signed [a document] that he renounces his right to file an appeal... [The] conditions for his transfer have been met. It is realistic [to assume] that he could be transferred from Friday afternoon." "Hadzic 'won't appeal extradition to Hague'". Al Jazeera. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. 
  30. ^ Judah, Tim (27 May 2011). "Ratko Mladic arrest: What next for Serbia?". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  31. ^ Simons, Marlise (20 July 2011). "Serbia Arrests Its Last Fugitive Accused of War Crimes". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  32. ^ European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy and the EU's foreign policy chief, Catherine Ashton "EU: 'This is a further important step for Serbia in realising its European perspective'". Buenos Aires Herald. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. 
  33. ^ "Hadzic arrest a good step for Serbia, says Dutch Foreign Minister". Reuters. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Press, Associated. (2011-07-18) Last Balkan suspect wanted by UN war crimes court extradited for prosecution. The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 July 2011
  35. ^ a b Serbia extradites war crimes suspect to Hague. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  36. ^ Croatia also bids for war criminal's extradition. EurActiv. Retrieved 23 July 2011
  37. ^ "Serb war crimes suspect appears at UN court". Al Jazeera. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. 
  38. ^ "141 Prosecution Witnesses to Testify at Goran Hadzic’s Trial". Sense Agency. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. 
  39. ^ a b "Hadzic has Case to Answer". Sense Agency. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. 

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