Gordian II

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Gordian II
29th Emperor of the Roman Empire
GordianusIIsest.jpg
Denarius featuring Gordian II
Reign 22 March – 12 April 238 (with Gordian, and in revolt against Maximinus Thrax)
Full name Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus (from birth to accession);[1]
Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (as emperor)
Born c. 192
Died 12 April 238 (aged 46)
Place of death Carthage, Africa Proconsularis
Predecessor Maximinus Thrax
Successor Pupienus and Balbinus
Consort to None
Dynasty Gordianan
Father Gordian I
Mother Unknown, possibly Fabia Orestilla[2]

Gordian II (Latin: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus;[3] c. 192 – April 12, 238), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Seeking to overthrow the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he died in battle outside of Carthage.

Early life[edit]

Born c. 192, Gordian II was the only known son of Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus the Elder. His family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest and very wealthy.[4] Gordian was said to be related to prominent senators.[5] His praenomen and nomen Marcus Antonius suggest that his paternal ancestors received Roman citizenship under the Triumvir Mark Antony, or one of his daughters, during the late Roman Republic.[5] Gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ suggests that his family origins were from Anatolia, especially Galatia and Cappadocia.[6]

According to the notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta, his mother was a Roman woman called Fabia Orestilla,[2] born circa 165, who the Augustan History claims was a descendant of Roman Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius through her father Fulvus Antoninus.[2] Modern historians have dismissed this name and her information as false.[7] There is some evidence to suggest that Gordian's mother may have been the granddaughter of Greek Sophist, consul and tutor Herodes Atticus.[8] His younger sister was Antonia Gordiana, who was the mother of Emperor Gordian III.

Although the memory of the Gordians would have been cherished by the Senate and thus appear sympathetic in any Senatorial documentation of the period, the only account of Gordian's early career that has survived is contained within the Historia Augusta, and it cannot be taken as an accurate or reliable description of his life story prior to his elevation to the purple in 238.[9] According to this source, Gordian served as quaestor in Elagabalus' reign[10] and as praetor and consul suffect with Emperor Alexander Severus.[11][12] In 237, Gordian went to the Africa Proconsularis as a legatus under his father's command as a proconsular governor.[4]

Gordian II on a coin, celebrating his military prowess

Revolt against Maximinus Thrax[edit]

Early in 235, Emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea were assassinated by mutinous troops at Moguntiacum in Germania Inferior.[13] The leader of the rebellion, Maximinus Thrax, became Emperor, despite his low-born background and the disapproval of the Roman Senate.[14] Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator,[1] Gordian's father was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.[8] Due to Gordian I's advanced age, the younger Gordian was attached to the imperial throne and acclaimed Augustus too.[1] Like his father, he too was awarded the cognomen Africanus.[8]

Father and son saw their claim to the throne ratified both by the Senate[15] and most of the other provinces, due to Maximinus' unpopularity.[16]

Opposition would come from the neighbouring province of Numidia.[16] Capelianus, governor of Numidia, a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian,[16] renewed his allegiance to the reigning emperor[17] and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationing in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units.[18] Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed.[8] According to the Historia Augusta, his body was never recovered.[19] Hearing the news, his father took his own life.[8] This first rebellion against Maximinus Thrax was unsuccessful but, by the end of 238, Gordian II's nephew would be recognised emperor by the whole Roman world as Gordian III .[20]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
  • Syme, Ronald, Emperors and Biography, Oxford University Press, 1971
  • Potter, David Stone, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, Routledge, 2004
  • Birley, Anthony (2005), The Roman Government in Britain, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925237-4 
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Meckler, Michael L., Gordian II (238 A.D.), De Imperatoribus Romanis (2001)
  • Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 66
  2. ^ a b c Historia Augusta, The Three Gordians, 17:4
  3. ^ In Classical Latin, Gordian's name would be inscribed as MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS.
  4. ^ a b Canduci, pg. 63
  5. ^ a b Birley, pg. 340
  6. ^ Peuch, Bernadette, "Orateurs et sophistes grecs dans les inscriptions d'époque impériale", (2002), pg. 128
  7. ^ Syme, pp.100-101
  8. ^ a b c d e Meckler, Gordian II
  9. ^ Syme, pp. 1-16
  10. ^ Historia Augusta, The Three Gordians, 18:4
  11. ^ Historia Augusta, The Three Gordians, 18:5
  12. ^ Birley, pg. 341. An inscription confirming this fact has been found at Caesarea in Palestine.
  13. ^ Potter, pg. 167
  14. ^ Southern, pg. 64
  15. ^ Herodian, 7:7:2
  16. ^ a b c Potter, pg. 170
  17. ^ Southern, pg. 67
  18. ^ Herodian, 7:9:3
  19. ^ Historia Augusta, The Three Gordians, 16:1
  20. ^ Southern, pg. 68

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maximinus Thrax
Roman Emperor
238
Served alongside: Gordian I
Succeeded by
Pupienus and Balbinus