|• Governor of Gorgan||Jaafar Gorzin|
|• Total||1,700 km2 (656 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,350 m (4,430 ft)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+03:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IDST (UTC+04:30)|
|Gorgan at GEOnet Names Server|
Gorgan pronunciation (help·info) (Persian: Gorgān, also Romanized as Gorgān and Gūrgān; Caspian: Wergen; formerly, Esterabad or Astarabad (Persian: Astarābad, also Romanized as Asterābād), is the capital of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census, its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.
The city was named Hyrcania, Hyrcani or Hyrcana in ancient Greek records, which comes from Pahlavi Varkâna -- "Land of the Wolves". Although modern Gorgan is only a city and county (sharing the same name), ancient Hyrcania was the name of a greater region on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (encompassing all of the present day Golestan province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran province, and some southern parts of the present day Republic of Turkmenistan). In modern times and until 1937 the city used to be known as 'Esterabad. Historians believe that Khashayar Shah created the ancient city of Esterabad in memory of his Jewish wife that was called her Esther which means star.
Geography and climate
The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 1,700 square kilometres (660 sq mi).
In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 18.2 °C (64.8 °F) and the annual rainfall is 600 millimetres (24 in).
|Climate data for Gorgan|
|Record high °C (°F)||29
|Average high °C (°F)||12.4
|Average low °C (°F)||3.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−10
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||55.0
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||7.4||8.0||10.5||8.0||6.1||4.2||3.7||4.2||5.2||5.7||6.7||6.8||76.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73||73||74||72||67||64||65||68||69||70||73||74||70.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||135.3||128.1||132.3||164.6||207.6||220.4||221.9||220.5||196.3||196.4||151.1||132.8||2,107.3|
|Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics|
The name Hyrcania is the ancient Greek equivalent of the local name in Old Persian, Varkâna. The Sanskrit word for "wolf", Vŗka (वृक) may be a cognate. The capital of Hyrcania was Zadracarta, the largest city and site of the "royal palace" of Hyrcania.
According to Arrian, this was the largest city of Hyrcania. The term signifies, " the yellow city "; and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. At the time of the Sassanids,Gorgan appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.
Hyrcania became part of the Persian empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) - the first emperor of the first Persian imperial dynasty, the Achaemenids - or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC). It maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by Arabs in 8th century and by Mongols in the 13th century.
Gorgan (as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, made by Turkmen. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in Uzbekistan. Jajim carpets are also crafted in this province.
- Nahar khoran Forest
- Alangdare Forest
- Ziarat Village
- Hezarpych Hill
- Emadyh School
- Sorkhankalateh Hill
- Ismail Shirine Sorkhankalateh
- Qajar era underground bathroom Srkhnklath
- Mohammad Reza Lotfi, musician.
- Nader Ebrahimi, author, poet, director, and researcher.
- Maryam Zandi, photographer.
- Abdonnasser Mohaimeni (b. 1957), investegative journalist, instructor & translator of English language.
- Elaheh Yadegar, Chief of Special and Project Studies, California Department of Transportation, District 7.
- Abdol Ghayoom Ebrahimi (b. 1932), retired professor of Agricultural & Natural Resources University.
- Keyan Rafiee, Founder of Human Right Activist in Iran HRA-Iran.org
- Dr. Hameed Gholam Nezhad, Professor and international energy management consultant
- Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Poet.
- Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician
- Abu Sahl al-Masihi al-Jurjani (al-Masihi), 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna
- Sardar Rafie Yanehsari Governor of Astarabad
- Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist
- Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician
- Fażlu l-Lāh Astar-Ābādī, 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism
- Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician
- Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher
- Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah
- Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran
Colleges and universities
- Islamic Azad University of Gorgan
- Golestan University of Medical Sciences
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
- Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education
- Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education
- Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education
- Gorgan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3064853" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (EXCEL) on 2011-11-11.
- Arrian (1884). "Chapter XXV: March to Bactra.—Bessus Aided by Satibaezanes.". The Anabasis of Alexander 3. Translated by E.J. Chinnock. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 191-193.
- Encyclopaedia Iranica, GORGĀN
- Bivar, A.D.H. "Gorgan" Encyclopædia Iranica [www.iranicaonline.org online]
- "Golestan University of Medical Sciences- دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان - Golestan University of Medical Sciences - دانشگاه علوم پزشكي گلستان". GOUMS. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
- KZ-Today September 11, 2006
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gorgan.|
- Gorgan Homepage by Tirdad Gorgani