Gornji Milanovac

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Gornji Milanovac
Горњи Милановац
Municipality and Town
Gornji Milanovac at night
Gornji Milanovac at night
Coat of arms of Gornji Milanovac
Coat of arms
Location of the municipality of Gornji Milanovac within Serbia
Location of the municipality of Gornji Milanovac within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°01′27″N 20°27′36″E / 44.02417°N 20.46000°E / 44.02417; 20.46000Coordinates: 44°01′27″N 20°27′36″E / 44.02417°N 20.46000°E / 44.02417; 20.46000
Country  Serbia
District Moravica
Settlements 63
Government
 • Mayor Milisav Mirković SPS
Area[1]
 • Municipality 836 km2 (323 sq mi)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • Town 24,216
 • Municipality 44,406
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 32300
32301
Area code +381 32
Car plates GM
Website www.gornjimilanovac.rs

Gornji Milanovac (Serbian Cyrillic: Гoрњи Милановац, pronounced [ɡôːrɲiː mǐlanoʋats] ( )) is a town and municipality located in central Serbia. Its name means "Upper Milanovac" (there is a Lower Milanovac, as well) while Milanovac stems from name "Milan" in the Serbian language. The population of the town is 24,216, while the population of the municipality is 44,406.

The city was founded in 1853. Before 1859 the original name of the city was Despotovac, after the Despotovica river passing by the city. In 1859 the name was changed to Gornji Milanovac at the request of the Prince of Serbia Miloš Obrenović.

History[edit]

Primarily Gornji Milanovac (before 1853) was situated in the area of today's village Brusnica. Because inexpediency of the field were should be found new municipality. Despotovica (later Gornji Milanovac) will be located in place called Divlje Polje by the decision of Mladen Zujovic, Trivun Novakovic, Stevan Knicanin and Gaja Riznic. Despotovica was moved on the 22nd of April 1852 on new location Divlje Polje. Even in Middle Ages and Roman Empire period, area around Gornji Milanovac was significant in economical, agronomy, infrastructure and military sense. There are sites from the Neolithic period (in village Gojna Gora ) and pre/post Roman governance period (on mountain Rudnik, in villages Brusnica, mountain Treska and Gornji Milanovac parts of mountain Vujan ).

Important years and dates:

  • 1852- Gornji Milanovac (in that time Despotovica) becomes first town in Serbia with complited map of the city and with the steets under the engle of 90° (thanks to engineer Sulc from Pancevo and the other engineers from Austria);
  • 1853- establishment municipality of Despotovica;
  • 1857- establishment of the first mens and girls primary school and the first library;
  • 1859- changing the name of municipality in Gornji Milanovac;
  • 1879- establishment of the First High School;
  • 1890- first printing company start to work;
  • 1892- establishment of county hospital;
  • 1912- commencement of construction of narrow-gauge railway;
  • 1914- during the First World War in this town was settled headquarters of Živojin Mišić;
  • 1921- finished electrification and construction of low voltage network;
  • 1922- started with work of the narrow gauge railway and establishment of the first conditory company "Rudnik";
  • 1923- first coal power plant;
  • 1927- first X-ray machine;
  • 1928- started with work of the first cinema in municipality;
  • 1933- HRH King Alexander I of Yugoslavia opens first mixed primary school;
  • 1937- establishment of the second factory of conditory products "Sumadija";
  • 1941- Yugoslav Partisans and Yugoslav army in homeland (known as Chetniks) in joint action release Gornji Milanovac from the Nazi- German occupation. Gornji Milanovac was merged with the other released towns in occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed short-lived Republic of Uzice (first released area in Europe). At the head of that joint action was Zvonimir Vučković. During that battle two German tanks were trapped and now one of those is monument on the exit from the town in village Nevade, while the other is a monument in Uzice;
  • 1945- Gornji Milanovac was released from Nazi-German occupation and began industrialization;
  • 1965- two manucipalites Pranjani and Rudnik merged to Gornji Milanovac.

Culture and Tourism[edit]

Culture monuments[edit]

Culture monuments of great importance in Gornji Milanovac are:

  • Church of the Holy Trinity,
  • Church of St. Nicholas in village Brusnica and family thumb of dynasty Obrenović,
  • Building of district administration,
  • Monuments in the center of manucipality,
  • Memorial Park "Brdo Mira (Hill of Peace)",
  • Family house of national heroe Dragan Jeftic Škepo,
  • Family house of Serbian queen Draginja (also known as Draga) Mašin-Obrenović,
  • Family house of Djordjevic built in old Serbian architectal style,
  • Family house and inheritance of Archibald Reiss's son- "Dobro polje II"
  • Monument on city cemetery of fallen soldiers of Astro-Hungary and Serbian Army in World War I
  • Monument for the participants in Operation Halyard and the others monuments in the rest of municipality.

Culture Institutions[edit]

First library in Gornji Milanovac is established in 1857 and its name is "Braća Nastasijević"[3] (english.Brothers Nastasijevic). Headquarters is in the building of Old District Administration. It has separate classes in Rudnik (the oldest), Pranjani, Brdjani and Vraćešnica. Librarian fond has over 100,000 books. Also "Braća Nastasijević" library is engaged in the publishing business.

Museum of Rudnik and Takovo area is subsidiriary of the Culture center of Gornji Milanovac. It has established the Gallerie of Arts in 2008. and Modern Gallery in the building of old District Administration.

Music and Folklor[edit]

In this municipality there is two folklore groups: "Tipoplastika"-Folklore ensemble and Culture-Arts Community "Šumadija". There is also and rock bends that were also established in this town, like: "Bjesovi", "An Fas", "GM Underground", "Skarlet" and "Čudna Šuma". As for panc-rocks bands in '90s and 80's there are: "Trula koalicija", In '00s there were established new rock and reggae music bands and groups: "Plišani mališan",[4] "Morbid Cow", "Parnasus", "Strah od Džeki Čena[5]", etc.

Tourism and Events[edit]

In SFR Yugoslavia Gornji Milanovac was also known as economic miracle and "Beli Labud (engl. White Swan)" as ecological cleanest city. There is great potential for further rural tourism progress in future times. Today's Gornji Milanovac on its territory has the lot of small, categorized rural hotels and motels. Every year tourist from all the sides of the world visit this municipality, as they say, because clean air, small and quiet places, inner and family vacations. In Gornji Milanovac every year is the host International Biennial of Miniature Art. In village Takovo is the host of World Music Festival, every July. Known trip places are: Takovo, Ždreban, Savinac and Rudnik. These places are popular during celebration of the May 1st or world known International Workers' Day. Other significant cultural and tourism events on its territory are: World Testicle Cooking Championship, "Milanovac bowl tournament" (Fish soup cooking) and Goulash tournament ("Gulašijada"). It has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife which is also developed and safer then in the rest of Serbia.

Geography[edit]

Gornji Milanovac lies between mountains[6] Rudnik to the north and Vujan to the south. Relief of these area is hilly and mountainous. Gornji Milanovac whit all his territory is located beetwen these mountines: Rudnik (1,132m or 3,714 ft), Maljen (970m or 3,182 ft), Jesevac (902m or 2,959 ft),Suvobor (866m or 2,841 ft), Rajac (848m or 2,782 ft) and Bujna (845m or 2,772 ft).

The city is situated along western side of European route E763, between the cities Ljig to the north and Čačak to the south and the villages Majdan to the north and Preljina to the south.

Main city crossroad branches:

Rivers that flow through Gornji Milanovac are: Despotovica, Gruza, Dicina, Cemernica and Kamenica. There is variety of groundwater sources and thermo-mineral water sources like in village areas, like in: Svrackovci, Brdjani, Mlakovac, Trepca and Savinac.

In regardind of air traffic lines, Gornji Milanovac is instructed to use civil and military airport in nearby Morava Airport-Lajdevci, Kraljevo. In sence of water channales transportation, Gornji Milanovac does not have conditions for development of water traffic transportation. In 1969 narrow and regional railway Čačak- Gornji Milanovac-Topola is abolished, because it was unprofitable. In 2014, Government of Serbia will consider the spatial plan of new electrified railways line Belgrade-Sarajevo, where Gornji Milanovac would be one of regional centers.[7]

Climate[edit]

Gornji Milanovac has Humid continental climate.[8] Mildest parts (Sub-Humid) of Gornji Milanovac are Brdjani, Trudelj and Dragolj. The coldest parts (humid) are peaks of Rudnik, Rajac, parts of villages Majdan, Svrackovci, Gojna Gora, Gornji Branetici,Brajic, Polom and in north-west part of village Bogdanica. Moderately humid parts of municipality are in parts of Majdan and the rest parts of mountain Rudnik, Rajac and peaks of Suvobor.

The average annual temperature of air are in range of 8 °C (46.4 °F)in the parts of Rudnik and Suvobor and 11 °C (51.8 °F) at 250m (820.21 feet). Average daily (in %) humidity 78.5% during the year, in winter 85%, in summer periods 75% (excludining Rudnik mountain where it is 65%, which is good for relaxation and vacation). The hottest month of the year is July, and the coldest is January. Autumn is warmer than the spring for 1 °C (33.8 °F).

The average annual precipitation height are in the range of 788 mm (31.02 in) and 985 mm (38.78 in).Minimum mean wind speed is 1.7 - 2.6 m/s(3.11-5.05 knots) and maximum 13.8 - 20.7 m/s(26.83-40.24 knots). These maximum speed occurs he southeastern, southwestern and southern winds. On the territory of Gornji Milanovac prevails southeastern, northern and eastern winds.

Vegetation period lasts 220–260 days. During these period precipitation rate is 55% which is which is favorable for plants.

Annual average daily global sun radiation energy on a horizontal surface on territory of municipality Gornji Milanovac is between 3.8-4.0 kWh/m2

Climate data for Gornji Milanovac (measuring station-Rudnik)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C 20.7 23.9 28.8 32.2 34.9 37.4 43.6 40.0 37.5 30.7 28.4 22.6 43.6
Average high °C 4.6 7.0 12.4 18.0 23.5 26.2 28.6 28.7 23.9 18.4 11.2 5.8 17.4
Daily mean °C −1.7 −6.2 6.3 10.3 13.0 20.1 22.3 22.1 17.9 12.2 8.0 0.6 10.4
Average low °C −4.4 −9.4 2.1 6.1 9.4 15.5 17.8 17.4 13.2 8.0 4.9 −3.2 6.5
Record low °C −29.4 −15.4 −12.8 −4.9 3.5 5.5 8.4 6.7 4.7 −4.5 −7.8 −13.4 −5.7
Precipitation mm 137.0 136.3 16.3 82.9 152.9 54.9 19.0 0.3 21.0 52.0 29.2 101.0 802.8
Record high °F 69.3 75 83.8 90 94.8 99.3 110.5 104 99.5 87.3 83.1 72.7 110.5
Average high °F 40.3 44.6 54.3 64.4 74.3 79.2 83.5 83.7 75 65.1 52.2 42.4 63.3
Daily mean °F 28.9 20.8 43.3 50.5 55.4 68.2 72.1 71.8 64.2 54 46.4 33.1 50.7
Average low °F 24.1 15.1 35.8 43 48.9 59.9 64 63.3 55.8 46.4 40.8 26.2 43.7
Record low °F −20.9 4.3 9 23.2 38.3 41.9 47.1 44.1 40.5 23.9 18 7.9 21.7
Precipitation inches 5.394 5.366 0.642 3.264 6.02 2.161 0.748 0.012 0.827 2.047 1.15 3.976 31.606
Avg. precipitation days (≥ mm) 20 16 30 8 13 10 9 10 12 14 14 12 171
 % humidity 90 86 77 79 82 69 70 65 75 80 85 88 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.2 101.7 153.2 188.1 242.2 260.9 290.8 274.0 204.3 163.1 97.0 64.5 2,111.9
Source: [9]

Soil and Vegetation[edit]

On the territory of Gornji Milanovac there is represented the following type of soil:[10]

  • Brown acid soil-which is whidespread in areas like Rudnik, from the west of Gruza river to Boljkovci;
  • Brown soil on serpentine-at Vujan, Suvobor and Maljen mountines;
  • Cambisol-in region of Lipovac, Prnjavor, Donja Crnuca, Belo Polje;
  • Brown soil on limestone- in area of Ravna Gora;
  • Brown soil on diabase-in region of Belo Polje, Gornja Vrbava, Donja Vrbava, Grabovica, Jablanica, in some village area like Brezovica, Rudnik, Zagradje, Gornji Branetici, Donji Branetici and Ozrem.

Land that is not cultivated makes 14.6%, arable land 47%, barren land makes 4.4%. Erossion process was active in the past, which is why today in some parts of the territory have barren land. These processes have caused degradation of the land. According to Republic Seismological Institution of Serbia, Gornji Milanovac is on the scale 8°-8.9° magnitude of earthquake and probability that this can happened once in 50–1000 years is 63%. In major territory there is good protection from erosion process and solid protection from floods. Population doesn't have good protection from wind storms and radiation, but new standards in house and building construction stipulates even that.[7] Most of the population has a good thermal insulation in there homes and companies.

Forest vegetation is various: willow, poplar, oak, ash, etc. Forest plantations make 10% of his territory and 90% are nature wood. Meadow grass vegetation occupies 26,656 hectares (11,960 ft²) which is 32%, meadows 15% and grasslands 17%.

Demographics[edit]

According to the last official census done in 2011, the Municipality of Gornji Milanovac has 44,406 inhabitants. Population density on the territory of the municipality is 53.1 inhabitants per square kilometer.

Ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population
Serbs 43,453
Roma 178
Montenegrins 81
Macedonians 49
Croats 34
Yugoslavs 31
Others 580
Total 44,406

Economy and Industry[edit]

1890 was significant as journalism began in this area. After World War I, Gornji Milanovac was connected with the other and important areas and cites in Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes thanks to narrow gauge railway. Before World War II the population was involved in mining, agronomy and with a few industrial workers (conditory and graphic-printing industry). After World War II Gornji Milanovac was destroyed, but in the 50's Gornji Milanovac begin with rapid progress, the rest of SFR Yugoslavia called this area an economic miracle.

In that time there were established two industrial zones (in the South and South-West part). Companies and coorporations thath were established in these zones were: Zvezda (now known as Zvezda-Helios), Metalac, PIK Takovo (now known as Swisslion-Takovo), MK Rudnik (Fashion Stationery), FAD (Automotive Parts for all European cars), Tipoplastika (Plastics, Paper products), Metal Seko (now known as Mersteel), GRO Graditelj (Construction Company), Minos (railway equipment), Rudnik Flotation (mining production), Dečije Novine (popular youth newspaper and publisher in SFR Yugoslavia), Proleter (department store), Kablar (cooperative agronomy company), Sigma (cardboard producer), Šipad Sarajevo-Gornji Milanovac (construction carpentry), Imlek (milk products; subsidiary), Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (food industry; subsidiary), JTv Gornji Milanovac (Local Broadcasting Company), etc.

Gornji Milanovac in the 80's and 90's was real "nursery" of mixed economy. Despite 90's break up of SFR Yugoslavia and UN sanctions, Gornji Milanovac was the only city in thath time in newly formed FR Yugoslavia whose companies were operated with a profit. New date companies are: "9. Septembar" , "Tetra Pak", "Papir Print", "Spektar", "Flint Group Balkan", "Planeta računari", "FOKA", "S-group", "Semix Techno" and "Alfa Support". After 2001 and 2002 most workers organisations (thath was the name for companies who were state and/or workers owned) from period of 1950-1990 (mentioned above) were privatized. Only few bankrupted: GRO Graditelj, Mlinsko-Pekarska Industrija Beograd (subsidiary), Imlek (subsidiary), Minos and JTv Gornji Milanovac. During the period of 2000-2013 unemployment rate in Gornji Milanovac was 23.91%.

Educations, Health and Territory organizations[edit]

Gornji Milanovac has four primary schools: OŠ "Sveti Sava", OŠ Desanka Maksimović, OŠ "Kralj Aleksandar I" (before "Takovski-partizanski bataljon") and OŠ "Momčilo Nastasijević". Also it has one hign school: Gimnazija "Takovski ustanak. Two Four or three-year professional schools: ETŠ "Knjaz Milos" and TŠ "Jovan Žujović".

Healt prottection in Gornji Milanovac is widespread on all territory. Citizens can rached basic health prottection even in rural parts of municipality. Health care is organized like: General Hospital, Neurology Hospital, Gynaecology department, Intensive care unit, Labour health protection unit (there are departmans and units in two industrial zones), Dentistry, Dermatology, Psychiatric ward, Rehabilitation services, Village Healt Protection Units and Physical therapy. Common support units include a dispensary, pathology, and radiology, and on the non-medical side, there are medical records departments, release of information departments, Patient lawyers, Clinical Engineering, Facilities Management, Dining Services and Security Departments. As for Healt protection of animals, Gornji Milanovac has several private owned veterinary stations. There are one police station, Ministry of Internal Affairs (Serbia) administration unit, Customs substation and Fire-Rescuers department. Gornji Milanovac was pioneer in the application of sorting the waste and his recyclining in Serbia.

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the town of Gornji Milanovac, the municipality of Gornji Milanovac includes the following 63 settlements:

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Gornji Milanovac is twinned with:

Sport[edit]

Metalac Stadium, opened in 2012.

The most popular sport in the city, besides Basketball, Handball and Volleyball, is definitely Football.

Sport Hall "Breza"

Besides New Metalac Stadium, Gornji Milanovac have: Sport Hall "Breza" (multi-purpose), Indoors Sport Swimming pool, Outdoors Olympic pool,[12] two sport halls in Pranjani and at Rudnik, Sport Hall in Primmary schools at Gornji Milanovac, two bowling hall (one at Metalac Stadium and one in area of professional school "Jovan Žujović"), one beach soccer (football) and volleyball ground and one outdoors gym (nearby Sport Hall "Breza").

Gallery[edit]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]