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Gossypium hirsutum, also known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production there; it is native to Central America  and possibly Mexico. Worldwide, the figure is about 90% of all cotton production is of cultivars derived from this species.
Archeological evidence from the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico shows the cultivation of this species as long ago as 3,500 BC, although it was probably not native or domesticated there. This is the earliest evidence of cotton cultivation in the Americas found thus far.
Gossypium hirsutum includes a number of varieties or cross-bred cultivars with varying fiber lengths and tolerances to a number of growing conditions. The longer length varieties are called "long staple upland" and the shorter length varieties are referred to as "short staple upland". The long staple varieties are the most widely cultivated in commercial production.
- University of Oklahoma Department of Botany & Microbiology
- Cotton, Incorporated
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- Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1915 Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p. 77)
- Stevenson, p.92
- Cotton Botany at Cotton Inc.
- The Story of Cotton
- Upland cotton at Plant of the Week
- Upland cotton in herbal use
- Gossypium hirsutum in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
- Gossypium hirsutum genetics 1952 to present
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