Gotha G.IV

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gotha G.IV
Gothg4.jpg
Role Bomber
Manufacturer Gothaer Waggonfabrik
Siemens-Schuckert Werke
Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
Designer Hans Burkhard
First flight 1916
Introduction March 1917
Primary user Luftstreitkräfte
Produced 1916 to 1917
Number built 230

The Gotha G.IV was a heavy bomber used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during World War I.

Development[edit]

Experience with the earlier G.III showed that the rear gunner could not efficiently operate both the dorsal and ventral positions. Hans Burkhard's ultimate solution was the “Gotha tunnel”, a trough connecting an aperture in the upper decking with a large opening extending across the bottom of the rear fuselage. The Gotha tunnel allowed the top-side gun to fire through the fuselage at targets below and behind the bomber. A separate ventral 7.92 mm (.312 in) machine gun could still be mounted, and there was even a provision for a fourth machine gun on a post between the pilot's and bombardier's cockpits, although this was rarely carried due to the weight penalty.

The G.IV introduced other changes. The fuselage was fully skinned in plywood, eliminating the partial fabric covering of the G.III. Although it was not the reason for this modification, it was noted at the time that the plywood skinning enabled the fuselage to float for some time in the event of a water landing. Furthermore, complaints of poor lateral control, particularly on landing, led to the addition of ailerons on the lower wing.

Production[edit]

In November 1916, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik received a production order for 35 aircraft; this was subsequently increased to 50 in February 1917. A further 80 aircraft were ordered from the Siemens-Schuckert Werke (SSW) and 100 from Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (LVG). Compared to the Gothaer aircraft, these license-built aircraft were slightly heavier and slower because Idflieg specified the use of a strengthened airframe. In order to counteract this, SSW built a number of highly-modified examples, including one driven by tractor instead of pusher engines, one with an extra bay added to its wing cellule, two with a new airfoil section for the wings, and one with a supercharger. None of these modifications had been fully evaluated by the end of the war. Late-production SSW G.IVs also usually incorporated the Stossfahrgestell auxiliary nosewheels and Flettner servo tabs developed for the G.V. Responding to a different performance issue, LVG overcame the tail heaviness of its machines by increasing the sweepback of the wings. Late production by SSW and LVG became obsolete, hence many aircraft were finished as trainers with lower performance engines (Argus As.III or NAG C.III). The SSW-built trainers relocated the fuel tanks from the engine nacelles to within the fuselage, as on the G.V.

Operational history[edit]

In March 1917, the G.IV entered service with Kagohl 1, which was redesignated Kagohl 3 upon receipt of the new machines, and the G.IVs were soon to be put to use in Operation Türkenkreuz - the strategic bombing of London. This was delayed when practice missions revealed faulty engine bearings that had to be replaced, and that the prevailing winds were stronger than expected, requiring the addition of extra fuel tanks. Additionally, it was discovered that the design of the fuel system prevented the main tanks from being completely utilised, and this problem had to be addressed as well.

Around 30 LVG-built G.IVs were fitted with Hiero engines and 8 mm (.315 in) Schwarzlose machine guns for Austro-Hungarian service. Another one was experimentally fitted with a 20 mm Becker cannon for ground attack.

Gothas were used in German strategic bombing during World War I.

Postwar decommission[edit]

All surviving Gotha aircraft were destroyed in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The sole known exception was one Gotha G.IV in Polish possession.[1]

Operators[edit]

Only one G.IV, forced landing on 18.08.1917 at Nieuweschans, Groningen, due to destruction of one of the propellers over the Tutjeshut (sgt Lok received a gold watch for this accomplishment). The aircraft was repaired only to crash on the first test flight two months later in Soesterberg. Written off from register 1919, Dutch number LA-50 (1917 allocation) and G-700 (1918).
The single remaining G.IV was found by Polish forces in Poznań during the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918 and 1919. Once repaired, the aircraft joined the 21. Eskadra Niszczycielska (21st Destroyer Squadron) on April 30, 1920. After brief operational use in the Polish-Soviet War, the aircraft was withdrawn from service in the summer of 1920 due to lack of spare parts.

Specifications (early Gotha-built examples)[edit]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Three
  • Length: 12.2 m (40 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 23.7 m (77 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 89.5 m2 (963 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 2,413 kg (5,320 lb)
  • Gross weight: 3,648 kg (8,042 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Mercedes D.IVa, 193 kW (260 hp) each each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 135 km/h (83 mph)
  • Endurance: 6 hours
  • Service ceiling: 5,000 m (16,400 ft)

Armament

See also[edit]

Gotha Raids

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Groz (1994)

References[edit]

  • Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. p. 426. 
  • World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. pp. File 895 Sheet 08. 
  • Grosz, Peter M. (1966). The Gotha GI - GV. Leatherhead, Surrey: Profile Publications. 
  • Grosz, Peter M. (1994). Gotha!. Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire: Albatros Productions.