|Denomination||Church of Sweden|
|Architect(s)||Carl Wilhelm Carlberg|
|Diocese||Diocese of Gothenburg|
|Bishop(s)||Carl Axel Aurelius|
The Gothenburg Cathedral (Swedish: Gustavi domkyrka / Göteborgs domkyrka) is a cathedral in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. It is the seat of the bishop for the diocese of Gothenburg of the Church of Sweden.
The original church
Before the first cathedral was inaugurated in 1633, a temporary church, known as the Gothenburg stave church (Swedish: Brädekyrkan), stood on the site for approximately 12 years. This was one of the first buildings in the city and the first church in the current city of Gothenburg – the third city founded at the mouth of the Göta River and the second to have been named Gothenburg.
The first cathedral
When construction of a new church was announced on the site, King Gustavus Adolphus created a tax in 1627, the proceeds of which were to be used to construct the church. The initial demand was for a barrel (just over 125 litres) of wheat, oats, barley or rye from each church-owned property (kyrkohemman) in Västergötland for a three-year period. In a letter to Gothenburg's town council (13 December 1629) the impost was extended for three more years.
Church construction was led by the master mason Lars Nilsson. The foundation stone for the new church was laid by Gothenburg's justitiepresident (judge) Nils Börjesson Drakenberg, on 19 June 1626, and in 1633 the new main building was complete. During the construction period and for some time subsequently, the church was called stora kyrkan (the "great church"). This was also the name used in the accounting records.
On August 10 and 11 of the same year, superintendent Andreas Prytz consecrated the church with two sermons Om kyrkors rätta bruk ("The right use of churches") and Om kyrkors invigning ("The consecration of churches"). The inauguration has been commemorated at the cathedral with an annual sermon on 10 August.
The old tower remained standing for nine more years before a new tower replaced it the following year, in January 1643. With its demolition, the "stave church" period finally came to an end.
- "In the tower were hung three large and beautiful bells, whose strong and harmonious sound could be heard for 3/4 of a mile (over 8 km); on the north wall of the tower a large, well-founded bell of 6 skeppspund (1,020 kg.) weight was erected to chime the hour."
The church was built of granite faced with Dutch bricks and adorned with 18 iron-trimmed Palladian windows placed between buttressing supports, and an ornate arched entry door with iron fittings. The building was 48.1 meters long, 20.2 meters wide and 26.5 meters high at the pediment roof, and built without a transept. The tower wall was 27.6 feet high, not counting the tower spire. The church roof was clad with oaken shingles and topped with copper plates; at the eastern end of the roof hip there was a weather vane in the form of a large copper-gilded sun, which, in 1700, had been so weakened that it was replaced with a wooden cap.
The cathedral spire was demolished in 1700 when it was replaced by a new one.
The cathedral interior
The church's original pulpit was of the German-Dutch type, and its intarsia and other carving work suggests that it had been crafted either in Lübeck or by some North Germans residing in Gothenburg. Perhaps it had already been completed by the time of the church inauguration. It was replaced in the late 1670s and transferred to the then newly built Kungälvs Church in 1682. The sculptor Marcus Jaeger the Elder carved the new pulpit with historical images in alabaster and ebony in 1674. He also made the baptismal font and executed numerous carvings on the lecterns and pews.
The cathedral also included a throne (a royal pew) that was placed over grave No. 19 to the south of the nave, between the first two pillars from the chancel. It was completed in the 1680s by Marcus Jaeger, who was paid 960 silver riksdaler for the work. In 1869 the tailor Torsten Gunnarsson upholstered the throne in red velvet, likely in honour of Charles XI's visit to Gothenburg on 10 September of that year. Four years later, John Hammer agreed, for 400 silver riksdaler, to paint the king's throne in white alabaster and gold.
Around the year 1700, additional work was completed on the church organ. Marcus Jaeger was hired in 1697 to produce four Corinthian pillars beneath the organ to raise it to a greater height, probably in the west part of the nave, near the tower wall. The organ was repaired several times – in 1696 by Christian Rüdiger, in 1699 by John George Ambthor and in 1707 by Elias Wittig. Both Rüdiger and Ambthor were German organ masters, while Wittig was a journeyman.
Designation as cathedral
The church was part of the established Church of Sweden and was first named "Gustavi church" after Gustavus Adolphus. It was also known as Svenska kyrkan (the "Swedish church"), to distinguish it from Gothenburg's German- and Dutch-language Christinenkirche, known familiarly as Tyska kyrkan (the "German church"). With the change from the superintendentcy title to a bishopric and the establishment of a cathedral chapter in 1665, it was elevated to the status of cathedral.
The city's oldest cemetery was located at the foot of Kvarnberget, west of Kronhuset — once an armoury and now a historical museum and concert site — on the corner of the present Torggatan, then called Kyrkogårdsgränden and Sillgatan (now Postgatan). By 1645 the marshy area around the cathedral had been filled in with sand and could be used as a burial ground. The square – known by 1846 as Domkyrkoplatsen ("Cathedral Plaza") and by 1883 as Domkyrkoplanen ("Cathedral Close") 1883 – had since 1644 been demarcated by a wall with arched gates to the north and south.
The second cathedral
On the night of 15 April 1721 the cathedral, high school and 211 nearby residential buildings in the area of the cathedral burned down. As the walls of the church still remained, it was possible to restore the building relatively quickly. Barely a month after the fire, as mandated by City Manager (politieborgmästare) Hans von Gerdes (1637–1723), the architect Paul Ludvig Leyonsparre presented three options for rebuilding the church, the third of which was recommended by County Governor (landshövding") Nils Posse.
The cathedral reopened on 25 May 1722, only 13 months after the fire, and had the same dimensions as the old cathedral, but with a tower capital instead of the former spire.
The roof proved to be so leaky that County Governor Axel Gyllenkrok complained in October 1724 of rain and snow infiltration. In December 1725, therefore, the city engineer was instructed to draw up proposals for a new copper roof covering, and work began in June 1726.
The tower, however, took another ten years to complete and city engineer Johan Eberhard Carlberg — an uncle of Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, the architect of the current cathedral – designed a temporary belfry for the churchyard. It could not be put into service until 1726 because the bell had to be cast in a foundry, but it was in use for six years, until 1732, when the new tower was finally brought into service.
The new tower was designed by the builder of the German Christinenkirche tower, the naval master builder Nicolaus Müller. The new tower of the Swedish church closely resembled that of the German church and, judging by the pictures of the city at that time, even had a similar cap. The tower was octagonal and its top was 26.7 metres above the tower wall. The largest of the three church bells weighed 1,700 kg, while the other two each weighed 1,020 kg. They had been cast in 1726 by Erik Näsman, who had moved from Jönköping to Stockholm and who cast a bell for Skara Cathedral the following year.
The ceiling came into place during the years 1734 through 1739. The south-side lectern was finished in 1739. The church floor was finally completed in April 1740 with 1,400 tiles of Öland limestone, 2 Swedish ells (59.4 cm) square and 2.25 Swedish inches (5.57 cm) thick.
In October 1731, Carlberg received approval for his architectural drawing of a (provisional) pulpit. An organ was built in 1733–1734 by the organ builder Johan Niclas Cahman. A contract signed 11 January 1733 specified that the organ was to be completed "in a good and perfect state, equal to the organ works now to be found in Uppsala." The organ cost 8,500 silver riksdaler, and was equipped with 32 stops and 5 bellows.
In January 1750, superintendent Carl Hårleman proposed a sculpted altarpiece to portray Christ, a cross and two kneeling angels. The cost of the artwork was donated by pharmacist Franz Martin Luth (1679–1763). The contract was let on 1 March 1751, the altar was completed on 1 February 1754, and the inauguration took place 1 December 1754. This altar is still used as the altar of the cathedral.
In 1769 a charnel house (benhus) was built on the northwestern part of the cathedral block, on the corner of Kyrkogatan and Västra Hamngatan, with space for forty coffins. To avoid a bad smell in the church, the mayor and council (magistrat ) of Gothenburg decided that all corpses buried during the six warmer months from 1 April to 1 October would first be stored in the benhus.
In the same year as the charnel house was added, the churchyard wall was also finished. It was a 469-ells (approximately 279 metres) wall around Domkyrkoplanen, with a granite footing; the wall itself was of brick and covered by large blocks of chiselled Öland limestone. Set into the walls were five spacious gates, built of hard-fired clinker brick and covered with sheet lead. The materials from three of these gates were moved after the 1802 fire in 1802 to the new cemetery at the poorhouse meadow in the Stampen ward (primärområde) of Gothenburg.
The third (current) cathedral
The second cathedral burned down on 20 December 1802 along with 179 houses. John Hall the Elder's funeral had been held in the cathedral shortly before, and his remains were in the church, waiting for the completion of a large tomb at the Örgryte Cemetery, so both the corpse and the costly coffin fell prey to the flames. The graves in the cemetery surrounding the cathedral were destroyed too, so badly that the churchyard had to be abandoned as a burial ground. Burials were moved to the "New Cemetery" at Stampen, which opened on 11 May 1804 and which was originally intended only for the congregations of the cathedral and of the Christinenkirche. Materials from the demolished cathedral walls and three iron gates were sold at an auction and the proceeds were used for a new cemetery enclosure at Stampen.
In this fire, the church building was so severely damaged that the walls could not be reused. A new church was then built, starting in 1804. The grounds of the old church were reused to the extent that they coincided with the new building (the transverse did not exist previously, for example).  Stones from the old church were used for private buildings, including the "Ingelmanska house" at the East Harbor Road. The church was consecrated by Bishop Johan Wingård on Holy Trinity day on 21 May 1815.
The new cathedral was designed by architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, and until 1808, when the walls of the church reached full height, slutgodkändes and enshrined drawings of the Royal. Maj: t. Carlberg died on 14 April 1814 and construction was completed by his disciple, Major Justus Frederick Weinberg. It is said that Weinberg did not attend the inauguration for fear that the church's thin, flat arches would collapse (in the early 20th century the structure was accordingly reinforced). The church was not yet complete at the time of opening since a tower was still lacking. It was inaugurated ten years later, in 1825, and two years after that the copper cladding of the tower was in place.  A second inauguration was held on 9 September 1827.
In 1807, Dean Hall was built at the corner of Cross Street 22 and Vallgatan 28 after wall-builder Gottlieb Lindner's drawings.
After the 1802 fire, the old cemetery was converted into an open square, Kyrkotorget, and in 1822 the whole area around the church, and west to Western Hamnkanalen (which joined in the middle of the current Western Port Road, and was filled in 1903–1905) was paved with cobblestones. The name was changed in 1846 toDomkyrkoplatsen. In 1851 the grounds around the church site were planted, and surrounded with iron fencing around 1860. The name was changed to Domkyrkoplanen in 1883. After completion, the church exterior was basically the one seen today, the major change being that the terminal walls of the tower's lateral extensions were demolished in 1832 and replaced by an iron railing. The cathedral's assessed value in 1889 was 500,000 Swedish kronor.
It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people have been buried in the church area, while 3,000 people were buried inside the church during the years 1635–1802. On the chancel's east side, there is a plaque which recalls this use with the following text:
- "Domkyrkoplanen has for centuries been a cemetery.
Here rests the dust of twenty thousand dead."
The cathedral was the first church in Sweden to be fitted with central heating. The installation took place in 1852 under the leadership of the English civil engineer Hadon's management. The following year, 1853, gas lighting was installed for illumination.
The church was insured in 1857 for fire with the Skandia Insurance Company for the sum of 500,000 Riksdaler.
The church tower began to lean precariously to the southwest in the early 20th century, and the church and Domkyrkoplanen were shut down for an extended period of time for basic reinforcement work. High Masses were held in the German Church and evensong and weekly church services in Landala chapel.
In 1904 a comprehensive restoration was carried out. The church received new flooring, new windows and doors, new benches and a new thermal management system. Episcopal bench and pews were removed, along with organ lighter wings, that were directed up the stands for a complete repainting, along with the gilding of pulpit and altar group, resulting in a light and uplifting atmosphere in the colors of white and gold. Three chandeliers in bridge and Renaissance, created by the same architect who carried out the restoration, Axel Lindegren, hung from the ceiling. Finally, rebuilt organ s of the Director Eskil Lunden.
The cathedral was restored again 1954–1957, which included driving 313 concrete piles into the bedrock to stabilize the building. The church was erected on 'the vast marshy most of the city". In the years 1983–1985 there was another Renovation.
Using an elevator followed by a staircase of 151 steps, it was until the late 1990s possible to visit the cathedral tower and one of its eight small balconies. The fee in 1997 was $20 for an adult and $10 for a child.
During installation of a new elevator in November 2013, the walls of the first cathedral were found 30 cm (11.81 in) underneath the floor.
The current cathedral from 1815 was designed in classical style and had greater dimensions than the two earlier cathedral buildings. The cathedral is now 59.4 meters long and 38 meters wide – including the new transept, which did not previously exist, while the cattle and nave have the width of 22.86 meters. The nave interior height is now 14.25 metres and 52.85 meters including the tower.
A clear example of the classical style is the large main Portal in the west. It is framed by four Doric columns on a pediment. The columns were carved in Gothenburg by Scottish sand by Aberdeen. Also pilasters of the cathedral walls are of the Doric type  and the tower cap is adorned with classical Doric frontonpartier and portals.
The outer walls are entirely created in yellow, so-called Dutch clay, which means that the bricks are smaller than usual. In addition, the walls of an outer clothing in the form of ornaments, such as classical blank rings, lists and friezes made of Flensburg ssten.
These ornaments are another example of the classical style, such as the highlighted cornice (frieze) towers over the hood, as well as the toothed bar under roof and friezes around the building.
Trim and interior
Classicism can be seen in the Ionic pilasters on the cattle wall. The pilasters are built of red marble with gold leaves on top. The stands in the Church CROSS-ARMED transept and the organ loft in the west are also examples of classicism, as all lighter in transverse and in the west lie the sixteen independent Tuscan wood columns.
Emipire style is represented in the combination of white and gold leaves in many of the interior fittings, the glazed episcopal bench that is used today to chat to visitors and the clergy, the wall clock and the stands. Another example is the pulpit (see image at right), designed by the architect and Professor Axel Magnus Fahlcrantz.
Angelic figures on the altar represent, on the other hand, a more Baroque-emphasized style because they belong to the ancient altar set from the 18th century. The figures were sculpted in 1752 by Jacques Adrien Masreliez, led by the famous Carl Hårleman and could be salvaged from the fire.
Cathedral interior provides a bright and easily impressed by the white paint and gold leaf. The church does not completely weapons pictures on the walls because of the devastating fire 1802nd Weapon Pictures characterize otherwise churches foundation for Golden Age and before that.
The old white part gold-plated grandfather clock in the Cathedral is from the 18th century and thus was saved from the 1802 fire. During the restoration in 1954–1957, it was moved to the south-east transverse wall at the entrance to the episcopal bench. Earlier, it was located at the southern long wall on King Street. The clock is decorated by a painted cover with gilded moldings that go in style with other furnishings in the church. It was produced in 1751 by watchmaker Olof Rising in Gothenburg, who also made clockwork. In 1957, the Gothenburg clock specialist Arthur Johnson refurbished the clock thoroughly, even restoring the beautiful silver-sounding percussion. Nature Agency is usually not because it might interfere with worship life and other activities in the church. 
The current church organ in the organ loft in the west dates to 1962 but has maintained its original organ façade of white and gold. The previous organ was built by the Stockholm organ builder Olof Schwan (1744–1812), who was contracted on 3 August 1805, but died in 1812. The work was taken over by John Eberhard, and on 1 December 1816, the new organ was inaugurated. Here is a description of the installation from the "Götheborgs Foundation History and Herdaminne", 1835:
- "Organ works, completed by John Eberhard, a structure of 17¾ Swedish ells (10.54 metres) long with a height of 15⅜ ells (9.13 m), but at the sides only 12½ ells (7.42 m), and a djuplek of 5 2/4 ells (3.27 m)...."
- Hus för hus i Göteborgs stadskärna, ed. Gudrun Lönnroth, Göteborgs Stadsmuseum, Göteborg, 2003. ISBN 91-89088-12-3 p. 212 >
- Eric Cederbourg, Ernst Kallmeyer, En kort Beskrifning öfwer den wid Wästra Hafwet belägna, wäl bekanta och mycket berömliga Siö- Handel- och Stapul Staden Götheborg ("A brief description of ... Gothenburg"), Gothenburg, 1739 (facsimile ed., Spamersche Buchdruckerie, Leipzig 1920) pp. 40–41, 152.
- Eric Larsson, Gustavi domkyrkas klockor. En historisk återblick ("The bells of Gustav's cathedral, a historical review"), Simonssons Tryckeri, Gothenburg, 1975, pp. 8–9, 10, 15.
- Karl IX:s Göteborg – på Hisingen ("Charles IX's Gothenburg on Hisingen", 1975), Ralf Scander, ed.
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- Octavia Carlén, Göteborg – Ny handbok för resande ("Gothenburg, new guide for travellers"), 1869, pp. 56–59.
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- Carl Gustaf Prytz, Kronologiska Anteckningar rörande Göteborg ("Chronological record touching on Gothenburg"), 2nd ed., Wald. Zachrissons Boktryckeri, Gothenburg, 1898, p.13
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- Otto Thulin, Paul Harnesk, Svenska stadsmonografier – Göteborg ("Swedish city monographs – Gothenburg"), Förlags AB Religion & Kultur, Gothenburg 1948 p. 47
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- Lilla Uppslagsboken Vol. 4, 1974. p. 513.
- Chronological Notes on Gothenburg, (Second Extended Edition) CG Prytz, Wald. Zachrissons Boktryckeri, Gothenburg 1898 p.17
- Nils Wimarson, Göteborg – en översikt vid 300-årsjubileet ("Gothenburg, a tercentenary overview"),1923, p. 799.
- Greta Baum, Göteborgs Gatunamn 1621–2000 ("Gothenburg's street names"), 2001, p. 289. ISBN 91-7029-460-7
- Carl Lagerberg and Otto Thulin, Göteborg under 300 år ("Gothenburg during 300 years"), 1923, pp. 67, 70.
- Arvid Beckström, Studier i Göteborgs byggnadshistoria ("Studies in Gothenburg architectural history"), 1923, pp. 37–38, 73–74.
- Abraham Hülphers, Historisk Afhandling om Musik och Instrument, särdeles om Orgwerks Inrättningen i Allmänhet, jemte Kort Beskrifning öfwer Orgwerken i Swerige ("Historical treatise on music and instruments, especially organ mechanisms in general, as well as a brief description of organ works in Sweden"), 1773, p. 214.
- Hugo Fröding, "Berättelser ur Göteborgs Historia under Gustavianska tiden" ("Narratives of Gothenburg's oldest history during the Gustavian period") in Göteborgske Spionen No. 48, 1769, Wald. Zachrissons Boktryckeri, Gothenburg, 1922, p. 174
- Göteborgs Aftonblad, No. 52, 1818
- Britt-Marie Aulin-Tonning, "Pierre Hubert Larchevesque", Konstnärlexikonett Amanda, 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- If and surrounding neighborhood Brunnbäck on Stampen; Ingemar Hazel Green & Abel Magnusson, Oscar Isacson Printing, Gothenburg 1968 p.25
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