Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild, BWV 79

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Luther's Ninety-Five Theses, beginning the Reformation

Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (God the Lord is sun and shield), BWV 79, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig in 1725 for Reformation Day and first performed it on 31 October 1725.

History and words[edit]

Bach composed the cantata for the Reformation Day. The prescribed readings for the feast day were from the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, "be steadfast against adversaries" (2 Thessalonians 2:3–8), and from the Book of Revelation, fear God and honour him (Revelation 14:6–8).[1] An unknown poet was not concerned about the readings, but did justice to the festive occasion, beginning with a quotation from Psalm 84 (Psalms 84:11), and including the first stanza from Martin Rinckart's hymn "Nun danket alle Gott" and as the closing chorale the final stanza of Ludwig Helmbold's "Nun lasst uns Gott dem Herren".[2][3]

Bach first performed the cantata on 31 October 1725. He performed it again, probably in 1730, when he re-orchestrated it, doubling the oboes by flutes and assigning a flute as the obbligato instrument in the alto aria. He used the music of the opening chorus and the duet again in his Missa in G major, BWV 236, and the music of the alto aria in his Missa in A major, BWV 234.[3]

Scoring and structure[edit]

The cantata is scored for three vocal soloists—soprano, alto and bass—a four-part choir, two horns, timpani, two flauto traverso, two oboes, two violins, viola and basso continuo.[1]

  1. Chorus: Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn und Schild
  2. Aria (alto): Gott ist unser Sonn und Schild
  3. Chorale: Nun danket alle Gott
  4. Recitative (bass): Gottlob! Wir wissen den rechten Weg zur Seligkeit
  5. Duet (soprano, bass): Gott, ach Gott, verlaß die Deinen nimmermehr
  6. Chorale: Erhalt uns in der Wahrheit

Music[edit]

John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted the cantatas for Reformation at the Schloßkirche, Wittenberg where the Reformation began, describes the opening chorus as a ceremonial procession, and hears the "insistent drum beat" going along with the "fanfares of the high horns" as a "the hammering of Luther’s theses to the oak door at the back of the church".[4] The instrumental ritornello introduces two themes: "a festive, march-like theme for the horns and timpani, and a more lively counter-theme that develops from a note that is heard seven times. The following aria expresses similar ideas in a personal way, "tranquil and individual".[5] In movement 3, the first chorale, Bach uses the first theme of the opening again, simultaneously with the chorale tune.[3] Helmuth Rilling notes the unity of topic, praise and thanks to God, for the first three movements.[6] Gardiner assumes that the sermon may have followed the chorale.

The only recitative, sung by the bass, mentions the reason for thanks on this occasion. "Du hast uns durch dein Wort gewiesen" (You have instructed us through your word), addresses "the basic issues of the Reformation", as Rilling points out.[6] Gardiner hears in the "innocent" duet of the second part "a pre-echo ... of Papageno and Papagena, a Mozartian impression, reinforced by the hint of Eine kleine Nachtmusik in the violin ritornelli".[4] The cantata ends with a four-part setting of the second chorale,[7] asking for the gifts of truth and freedom.[5][6]

Selected recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dürr, Alfred (1971). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German) 1. Bärenreiter-Verlag. OCLC 523584. 
  2. ^ "Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c Hofmann, Klaus (2007). "Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (For the Lord God is a Sun and a Shield), BWV 79" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 4. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Gardiner, John Eliot (2005). "Cantatas for the Feast of the Reformation / Schlosskirche, Wittenberg" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 5, 6. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Mincham, Julian (2010). "Chapter 5 BWV 79 Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Rilling, Helmuth. "Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild (God the Lord is sun and shield), BWV 79". WKSU-FM. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  7. ^ "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Nun laßt uns Gott dem Herren". bach-cantatas.com. 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 

External links[edit]