Gottfried von Cramm
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Gottfried von Cramm (left) and George Lyttleton-Rogers of Ireland in 1932
|Full name||Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm|
|Country|| German Empire
7 July 1909|
|Died||8 November 1976
|Height||6 ft 0 in (1.83 m)|
|Turned pro||1931 (amateur tour)|
|Plays||Right-handed (1-handed backhand)|
|Int. Tennis HOF||1977 (member page)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1937, World's First 10)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||SF (1938)|
|French Open||W (1934, 1936)|
|Wimbledon||F (1935, 1936, 1937)|
|US Open||F (1937)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||F (1938)|
|French Open||W (1937)|
|US Open||W (1937)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm (English: Baron[A] Gottfried von Cramm; 7 July 1909, Nettlingen – 8 November 1976), was a German amateur tennis champion who won the French Open twice. He was ranked number 2 in the world in both 1934 and 1936, and number 1 in the world in 1937. He was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1977, an organisation which considers that he is "most remembered for a gallant effort in defeat against Don Budge in the 1937 Interzone Final at Wimbledon".
Von Cramm represented Germany during the rise of the Nazi party to power in the 1930s. The Nazi regime attempted to exploit von Cramm's appearance and skill as a symbol of Aryan supremacy, but he refused to identify with Nazism. He was persecuted as a homosexual by the German government and jailed briefly in 1938.
Von Cramm figured briefly in the gossip-columns as the sixth husband of Barbara Hutton, the Woolworth heiress.
- 1 Birth
- 2 Athletic career
- 3 Imprisonment on morals charges
- 4 Relationship with Hitler and Nazi Party
- 5 Wartime service and postwar career
- 6 Marriages
- 7 Death
- 8 Grand Slam record
- 9 Grand Slam finals
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The third of the seven sons of Burchard Baron (Freiherr) von Cramm, and his wife Jutta née von Steinberg, Cramm was born at the family estate near Nettlingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. The family title, which was bestowed upon his paternal grandfather in 1891, was inherited in 1936 by Cramm's eldest brother, Aschwin. His brother, Wilhelm-Ernst Freiherr von Cramm (1917–1996), was a highly decorated German officer during World War II and later head of the German Party, a conservative German political party.
In 1932, von Cramm earned a berth as a Davis Cup competitor for his country and immediately won the first of four straight German national championships. During this time he also teamed up with Hilde Krahwinkel to win the 1933 Mixed Doubles title at Wimbledon. Noted for his gentlemanly conduct and fair play, he gained the admiration and respect of his fellow tennis players. He earned his first individual Grand Slam title in 1934, winning the French Open. His victory made him a national hero in his native Germany; however, it was by chance that he did so just after Adolf Hitler had come to power. The handsome, blond Gottfried von Cramm fitted perfectly the Aryan race image of a Nazi ideology that put pressure on all German athletes to be superior. However, von Cramm steadfastly refused to be a tool for Nazi propaganda. Germany effectively lost its 1935 Davis Cup Interzone Final against the US, when von Cramm refused to take match point in the deciding game, by notifying the umpire that the ball had tipped his racket, and thus calling a point against himself, though no one had witnessed the error.
For three straight years he was the men's singles runner-up at the Wimbledon Championships, losing memorable matches in the finals to England's Fred Perry in 1935 and again in 1936. The following year he lost in the finals to American Don Budge both at Wimbledon and at the U.S. Open. In 1935, he was beaten in the French Open finals by Perry but turned the tables the following year and defeated Perry for his second French championship. In an attempt to get von Cramm on side, the Nazi regime punished his insubordination by not allowing him to compete in the 1937 French championship even though he was the defending champion.
Despite his Grand Slam play, Gottfried von Cramm is most remembered for his deciding match against Don Budge during the 1937 Davis Cup. He was ahead 4–1 in the final set, when Budge launched a comeback, eventually winning 8–6 in a match considered by many as the greatest battle in the annals of Davis Cup play and one of the pre-eminent matches in all of tennis history. In a later interview, Budge said that von Cramm had received a phone call from Hitler minutes before the match started and came out pale and serious and had played each point as though his life depended on winning.
Imprisonment on morals charges
Despite his enormous popularity with the public, on 5 March 1938, von Cramm was arrested by the German government and tried for homosexuality. After being hospitalized for a nervous collapse after his arrest, he was sentenced to 1 year imprisonment on 14 March for his relationship with Manasse Herbst, a young Galician Jewish actor and singer, who had appeared in the 1926 silent film Der Sohn des Hannibal. Von Cramm admitted that the relationship, which lasted from 1931 until 1934, and began shortly before he married his first wife. He was additionally charged with sending money to Herbst, who moved to Palestine in 1936. According to a 15 May 1938 report about the trial in the New York Times, the judge stated that "Baron von Cramm had alleged that his wife, during their honeymoon, had become intimate with a French athlete. The court held that this experience had unsettled the young tennis star and had resulted in his seeking a perverse compensation for an unhappy married life.". Although Cramm had confessed to an affair with Herbst once he was arrested, he later changed his confession to one of "mutual masturbation" and his lawyer was able to convince the judge that he had been forced into passing money to Herbst because Herbst was a "sneaky Jew."
His international tennis friends were outraged, and Don Budge collected the signatures of high-profile athletes and sent a protest letter to Hitler. Cramm was released after 6 months on parole, and in May 1939 returned to competitive tennis. The extremely tense political climate caused problems when he went to play in England. Nevertheless, Cramm was allowed to compete at the Queen's Club tournament in London where he won the event by beating American Bobby Riggs 6–0, 6–1. Officials at Wimbledon reportedly refused to let him play in the championships, using the excuse that he was a convicted criminal and therefore unfit; The New York Times, however, quoted Wimbledon sources as saying that Cramm would have been welcome to participate, had he submitted an entry. The U.S. rejected his temporary-visa application that same year, citing his morals-charge conviction preventing him from playing at the U.S. Open in September.
A further humiliation was Germany's 1940 decision to recall Cramm from an international tennis tournament in Rome before he had a chance to play. The New York Times reported that his abrupt departure "was attributed to the German authorities' desire to prevent the former champion from meeting Henner Henkel, Rolf Goepffert, and other German players ... Berlin decided it would be embarrassing if Cramm beat his compatriots..."
Relationship with Hitler and Nazi Party
Despite his "defects," von Cramm was able to stay alive and out of prison during Nazi Germany for a long span of time. Homosexuals were the second most persecuted group, after the Jews, and non-gays were often arrested and killed on immorality charges. However, Cramm was able to survive because of his Aryan appearance and tennis abilities. His appearance and athletic superiority made him a role model for the Nazi Party, yet he constantly refused to join the party.
Cramm has come to represent the hypocrisy and flexibility within the Nazi Party. His survival during these times is vital to understanding the true workings of Nazism and Hitler. By letting Cramm survive, Hitler showed that international fame was more important than sending one more homosexual to his doom. Hitler's emphasis on sports is also revealed with the Hitler Youth and Max Schmeling. By letting Cramm survive, Hitler and the Nazis demonstrated that they were willing to put their "Aryan ideologies" at risk in order to achieve fame and victory.
Wartime service and postwar career
After the outbreak of World War II, Cramm was drafted into military service in May 1940 as a member of the Hermann Goering Division. He saw action on the Eastern Front and was awarded the Iron Cross. Despite his noble background, Cramm was enlisted as a private until he was given a company to command. His company faced the harsh conditions of the Eastern front and Cramm was flown out because of frostbite with much of his company dead. Because of his previous conviction he was dismissed from military service in 1942.
While war robbed Cramm of some of his best years for tennis, he won the German national championship in 1948 and was 40 years old when he won it for the last time in 1949. He played Davis Cup tennis until retiring after the 1953 season and still holds the record for most wins by any German team member.
Following his retirement from active competition, Cramm served as an administrator for the German tennis federation and became successful in business as a cotton importer. In addition, he managed the farm property he had inherited from his father at Wispenstein in Lower Saxony.
Gottfried von Cramm married:
- Baroness Elisabeth "Lisa" von Dobeneck (1912–1975), a daughter of Robert, Baron von Dobeneck and his wife, the former Maria Hagen, and a granddaughter of the Jewish banker Louis Hagen; they married on 1 September 1930 and divorced in 1937. Lisa von Cramm later married the German ice-hockey star Gustav Jaenecke.
- Barbara Hutton, an American socialite and an heiress to the Woolworth five-and-dime fortune. The couple married in 1955 and divorced in 1959. He had married her in order to "help her through substance abuse and depression but was unable to help her in the end."
While on a business trip, Von Cramm and his driver were killed in an automobile accident near Cairo, Egypt in 1976 when the baron's car collided with a truck. In his honor, the Gottfried-von-Cramm-Weg in Berlin-Wilmersdorf, site of the Rot-Weiss Tennis Club, was given his name.
In his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and great player himself, included Gottfried von Cramm in his list of the 21 greatest players of all time. Von Cramm was the subject of radio play, entitled Playing for His Life, first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in June 2011. The play focussed on the 1937 Interzone Davis Cup final and Cramm's personal life.
Grand Slam record
- Doubles finalist: 1938
- Singles champion: 1934, 1936
- Singles finalist 1935
- Doubles champion: 1937
- Singles finalist 1935–37
- Mixed Doubles champion: 1933
- Singles finalist 1937
- Doubles champion: 1937
Grand Slam finals
|Year||Championship||Opponent in Final||Score|
|1934||French Championships||Jack Crawford||6–4, 7–9, 3–6, 7–5, 6–3|
|1936||French Championship (2)||Fred Perry||6–0, 2–6, 6–2, 2–6, 6–0|
|Year||Championship||Opponent in Final||Score|
|1935||French Championships||Fred Perry||6–3, 3–6, 6–1, 6–3|
|1935||Wimbledon||Fred Perry||6–2, 6–4, 6–4|
|1936||Wimbledon||Fred Perry||6–1, 6–1, 6–0|
|1937||Wimbledon||Don Budge||6–3, 6–4, 6–2|
|1937||U.S. Championships||Don Budge||6–1, 7–9, 6–1, 3–6, 6–1|
|Year||Championship||Partner||Opponents in the final||Score|
|1937||French Championships||Henner Henkel|| Vernon Kirby
|6–4, 7–5, 3–6, 6–1|
|1937||U.S. Championships||Henner Henkel|| Don Budge
|6–4, 7–5, 6–4|
|Year||Championship||Partner||Opponents in the final||Score|
|1938||Australian Open||Henner Henkel|| John Bromwich
|5–7, 4–6, 0–6|
A Regarding personal names: Freiherr was a title, translated as Baron, not a first or middle name. Before 1919 preceding the first name, former titles are with people alive after 1919 dependent parts of the surname, thus preceding the main surname and not to be translated. The female forms are Freifrau and Freiin. Regarding personal names: Von was a title, translated as , not a first or middle name. Before 1919 preceding the first name, former titles are with people alive after 1919 dependent parts of the surname, thus preceding the main surname and not to be translated.
- "Budge Seeded First in All-England", Daytona Beach Morning Journal, 17 June 1937.
- Fimrite, Ron. "Baron of The Court," Sports Illustrated, July 5, 1993.
- J. Brooks Fenno, Jr. (20 October 1934). "Ten at the Top in Tennis". The Literary Digest (New York City, United States: Funk & Wagnalls): 36. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "Wallis Myers' Rankings", The Age, 24 September 1936.
- Gottfried Von Cramm, International Tennis Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
- Paul Fein, Tennis Confidential: Today's Greatest Players, Matches, and Controversies, Brassey's, 2003 p.144.
- "Don Budge Describes his 1937 Davis Cup Semi-final Match Against Baron Gottfried von Cramm"
- Fisher, Marshall Jon (2009). A Terrible Splendor. New York: Crown.
- Writing in 1979, Kramer considered the best ever to have been either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, Bobby Riggs and Pancho Gonzales. After these six came the "second echelon" of Rod Laver, Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Gottfried von Cramm, Ted Schroeder, Jack Crawford, Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Björn Borg and Jimmy Connors. He felt unable to rank Henri Cochet and René Lacoste accurately but felt they were among the very best.
- Playing for his life, Afternoon drama, BBC Radio 4, 2011-06-24. Retrieved 2014-02-04.
- Fisher, Marshall Jon (2009). A Terrible Splendor: Three Extraordinary Men, a World Poised for War and the Greatest Tennis Match Ever Played. ISBN 978-0-307-39394-4
|German Sportsman of the Year